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and deputies of Naples were elected, and ten out of the twelve nominated by the Socialists. Of the candidates of the Camorra not one was chosen. European papers, and English newspapers especially, in commenting on the event, compared the overthrow of the Camorra in Naples with the defeat of Tammany Hall in New York, and drew distinctions which on the whole were favorable to the American machine.
France and Italy.-In foreign relations the year 1901 was important as marking a change in the relations between France and Italy on the one hand, and in the attitude of Italy toward the Triple Alliance on the other. On the occasion of a visit of President Loubet to Nice on April 8, an Italian squadron, under the command of the Duke of Genoa, the uncle of the present king of Italy, visited the harbor of Toulon; the duke was officially received two days later by the President, when there were great demonstrations of affection on both sides and a plentitude of compliments. As a result of this friendly visit, a general belief arose that the strained relations which for a long time have prevailed between Italy and France would be replaced by a closer rapprochement between the two nations, if not by an actual alliance. It was pointed out by those who favored such a consummation that any reasons that may have existed at some time or other for hostility between France and Italy had now disappeared. The dread of French predominance in the Mediterranean Sea vanished as Italy strengthened her own navy, and the other cause for ill-feeling between the two-the fear that France in the course of time would take possession of the coast of Tripoli, as it has done of Algeria and Tuniswas unfounded. Italian ambition has been largely directed toward the acquisition of Tripoli, based on no more solid sentiment, perhaps, than the memory of the time when Rome ruled over the African coast. On December 14, 1901, Signor Prinetti, speaking in the chamber, declared that he had received assurances from the French government that it would never intrench upon the Tripolitan territory nor stand in the way of Italian aspirations in that direction. It seemed on the whole, however, that there was no possibility of such a radical change as from concealed hostility to open alliance between the two powers; nevertheless the relations between the two had undeniably grown more friendly by the end of the year.
Italy and the Triple Alliance.-More important still was the discussion aroused by the approaching dissolution of the Triple Alliance (q.v.), which occurs in 1903. There were those who argued that in the same manner as all excuse for maintaining a hostile attitude toward France had disappeared, all cause for continuing the existence of the Triple Alliance had likewise gone. Those who opposed the renewal of the alliance dwelt upon the burden which it imposed upon the country in the way of maintaining an army far exceeding its actual need. The chief reason for Italy's entering into the alliance was the necessity of obtaining support against possible aggressions on the part of Austria, which in the early eighties was naturally hostile to Italian unity. Now that all danger from Austria was gone, there was no motive for prolonging so arduous a contract. Finally, it was argued that it was unreasonable to persist in an alliance which was obviously aimed against France, a country with which there was every reason to be on good terms. Those who favored the renewal of the alliance pointed out that the character of the alliance is essentially defensive, and that for twenty years it has acted as an influence for peace in Europe. The existence of the alliance was not incompatible with the maintenance of friendly relations with France, and at the same time Italy could not afford to abandon its old friends before it was perfectly assured of new ones who could aid it as Germany and Austria had done. In an interview with a representative of the New York Herald, on March 25, Premier Zanardelli declared that Italy would continue to perform its obligations under the existing alliance, and might consent to its renewal, but if it did so, it would be only for the purpose of preserving the peace of Europe. Its continuance, however, he hinted, would depend upon the willingness of Germany to abandon its hostile attitude in the matter of tariff legislation against Italian commodities.
IVORY COAST is a French colony in Africa with a southern sea-front on the Gulf of Guinea. Inland it extends north to the French Military Territories of the Soudan. The estimated area of the colony, including the native kingdom of Kong, which is under French protection, is estimated at about 125,000 square miles and the population 2,500,000. The colony is under the direction of a governor, whose seat was transferred in November, 1900, from Grand Bassam to Ajame. The transfer was made mainly because the old capital is not healthful. The name of the new capital was changed to Bingerville. The Ivory Coast is a flourishing colony; it needs no support from France, and the local budget balanced in 1900 at 1,403,000 francs. The main articles of export are coffee, cocoanuts, and rubber. Gold is found near Grand Bassam. The country is but little developed, and the government is taking active measures to promote industries. A commission that examined the forests of the interior has reported that in the section which it had traversed
there were precious woods to the value of $241 an acre, not including rubber and palms. The commission added that if 10,600,000 cubic feet of precious woods—the load of 20 vessels-should be taken annually from the Ivory Coast, not a thousandth part of the forest wealth would be removed. Grand Bassam, the principal city, is situated on a good harbor. Other cities are Grand Lahou, Assinie, and Elimi. There has been considerable emigration of natives from the Ivory Coast to the Gold Coast, where their labor is needed in the mines; and alarmed at this, the French government passed a decree, in October, 1901, forbidding any person or company to transport natives from the Ivory Coast without the authorization of the governor. Companies organized to procure workmen for labor outside the colony had to pay transport duty for each workman of 100 francs. The fine for infraction of this law was placed at six months' to a year's imprisonment and a fine of 50 to 5,000 francs. There has been a reorganization of the system of justice in the colonies of the Ivory Coast, Dahomey, and French Guinea. In addition to the justices of the peace, who had previously dealt with civil cases and police cases only, there have been established courts of record of original jurisdiction at Conakry, Bingerville, and Porto Novo, and a superior court, consisting of a president and three judges, at Bingerville. These courts deal with criminal cases.
IWASKI, Baron Yataro, one of the commercial leaders of Japan and president of the Nippon Ginko, or Bank of Japan, was born on the island of Shikoku in 1856, the son of one of the trusted retainers of the Prince Posa. Taking up the schemes of his father, who had projected the extension of the shipping business of Osaka, he introduced steamships into the inter-island trade where only the primitive coasting junks had been in use. This company, the Mitsu Bishi, or “The Three Diamonds," developed rapidly, and a line from Japan to China, touching at Shanghai, was established. Later some of the ships of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company were purchased and the trade limits extended until at the present time practically every country in the world is reached. In 1881 he obtained control of the coal fields on the island of Takashama, where he has established a model community of mine workers. As head of the Bank of Japan he was officially intrusted with the task of changing the monetary system from a currency to a gold basis (1897).
JAMAICA, the largest of the British West Indian islands, lying ninety miles south of Cuba, constitutes, together with the Turks, Caicos, Cayman, and some other small islands, a British crown colony. The island of Jamaica has an area of 4,200 square miles and a population estimated in 1900 at 745,104. In 1891 the inhabitants numbered 639,491. The dependencies have a total area of 224 square miles and a population of 9,000. Three-fourths of the inhabitants are negroes and one-fifth mulattoes. Kingston, the capital and largest town, has a population of 48,500.
Government and Finance.-The colony is administered by a governor (Sir Augustus Hemming since 1898), assisted by a privy council and a legislative council of 29 members, of whom 5 are ex-officio, io appointed, and 14 elected. There are boards elected in each of the fourteen parishes for the administration of local affairs. The revenue of the colony increased from £677,064 in 1897 to £773,610 in 1900, and the expenditure in the same period decreased from £766,539 to £719,959. The public debt was £1,875,116 in 1899, in which year the imperial government loaned the colony the sum of £453,000. In March, 1901, it was estimated that the revenue for the year would be £745,836 and the expenditure £770,475.
For several years prior to 1899 the expenditure was considerably in excess of the revenue. In that year an imperial loan was made, and at the direction of the British colonial secretary increased stamp duties and an income tax were imposed. In order to assure the government of a safe majority in carrying out these measures, the governor was ordered to appoint, contrary to the established custom, the full quota of appointive members of the legislative council. This has caused continued opposition on the part of the elective members. At the opening of the legislative council in March, 1901, the elected members declared their willingness to support the government's fiscal policy, but asked for the withdrawal of the appointive members or the neutralization of their votes. The request was not granted.
Industries and Commerce.-The staple product is no longer sugar, but fruit, which it was estimated composed 45 per cent. of the exports in 1900. Oranges, pineapples, and bananas were the principal fruits exported, most of them going to the United States, which took in 1900 63.8 per cent. of the total exports of all kinds. Other leading exports (1899) were: Sugar, £150,311; rum, £104,295; and coffee, £162,219. The total imports increased from £1,660,667 in 1897 to £1,844,322 in 1899 and the exports from £1,448,443 to £1,868,080. The registered shipping of the island consisted in 1899 of 148 vessels of 8,843 tons. In 1900 there were 185 miles of railway, the receipts from which amounted to £116,348. Of the imperial loan £190,000 were allotted for railway purposes. Of the dependencies of Jamaica, Turks and Caicos islands, geographically belonging to the Bahamas, are the most important,
having an area of 165 square miles and a population of about 5,000. The chief industry is salt-raking, 2,000,000 bushels being annually exported, mostly to the United States.
JAPAN, an empire lying off the eastern coast of Asia, consists of the archipelago of Nippon, which includes the four large islands of Honshiu, Kiushiu, Shikoku, and Hokkaido (Yezo), together with Formosa (q.v.) and the Pescadores, ceded by China in 1895, and nearly 4,000 smaller islands. The capital is Tokio
Area and Population.-The total area of the empire, according to official estimates, is 161,198 square miles and the population (January 1, 1899) 46,558,700, including Formosa, with 2,798,000 inhabitants, mostly Chinese. During the last few years the average annual increase in population has been about 500,000. Tokio had a population of 1,507,557 in 1900. Other large cities are: Osaka, population 1,311,763; Kioto, 931,568; Nagoya (1898), 244,145; Kobé (1898), 215,780; and Yokohama (1898), 193,762.
The constitution of Japan guarantees to the inhabitants absolute freedom of religion, and no particular sect receives state support. The predominating religions are Shintoism and Buddhism, but Roman and Greek Catholicism and the various Protestant churches have large followings. Elementary education is compulsory and is supported by the government. On January 1, 1899, there were over 28,000 schools with an enrollment of 4,250,000 pupils. Two universities at Tokio and Kioto are supported and controlled by the imperial government. The expenditure for education in 1900-01 was 4,478,278 yen.
Government.—The government of Japan, which prior to February, 1889, was that of an absolute monarchy, has, since the adoption of a constitution in that month, been a limited monarchy. The ruling sovereign, the Emperor or Mikado Mutsu Hito, who ascended the throne in 1868, retains extensive executive and legislative powers, but his authority is more theoretical than actual. He has the advice of a cabinet, the members of which are appointed by and are responsible to him. There is a privy council, the members of which deliberate on matters of state laid before them by the emperor. The emperor can declare war, conclude peace, and make treaties, and, with the consent of the imperial diet, exercise the legislative power. Every law, however, requires the consent of the diet, which consists of two housesthe house of peers and the house of representatives. The membership of the upper house is about 300, and comprises two classes_life members and representative members elected for seven years. The former consist of princes of the royal house, members of the higher grades of nobility, and those specially appointed by the emperor. The elected class consists of representatives of the nobility of lesser rank and members elected by the largest taxpayers in each prefecture. The house of representatives consists of 369 members, elected for four years by male inhabitants over 25 years old paying direct taxes of not less than 10 yen per annum. For local administration the country (except Hokkaido, which has a governor and a special administration, and Formosa, which is ruled by a governor-general) is divided into 46 prefectures, each having its governor and elected assembly.
Army and Navy.- The Japanese army is organized on modern lines, commanded by officers trained in the most approved western methods, and furnished with the most improved equipment. It is recruited on the basis of universal conscription of all males between the ages of 17 and 40, and the term of service is three years. In 1901 the army had a total peace strength of 143,649 officers and men, and a war strength, not including all the reserves, of 392,220. The militia numbered over 600,000, and there was a territorial army of 97,000. The government supports military academies and training schools for artillery, cavalry, and engineering corps, and manufactures its own firearms, ordnance, and ammunition at the arsenals at Tokio and Osaka. The military budget for 1901-02 amounted to 50,110,000 yen ($24,954,780).
The navy is recruited on the same plan as the army, the term of service being four years. The personnel in 1899 included 24,012 officers and men. The feet in 1901 consisted of 6 first-class, 3 second-class, and 4 third-class battleships, 14 coastdefense ships, 6 first-class cruisers, and 16 cruisers of other classes, and numerous gunboats, torpedo boats, and torpedo-boat destroyers.
Finance. The monetary standard is gold and the unit of value is the yen, worth 49.8 cents. The revenue is derived chiefly from the land tax, tax on liquors, customs duties, posts and telegraphs, and stamp duties. The principal items of expenditure are those for army, navy, railways, and the interest on the public debt. Revenue and expenditure balanced in the budget of 1900-01 at 254,549,818 yen, and the estimated revenue and expenditure for 1901-02 were 254,519,515 yen and 252,933.420 yen respectively. The principal sources of revenue in 1900-01, according to the budget, were land tax, 47,338,520 yen; tax on saké (liquor), 55,465.767 yen; Chinese indemnity, 23,752,739 yen; posts and telegraph, 22,153,304 yen, and customs, 15,870,335 yen. The largest items of expenditure were interest on public debt and
fees, 28,190,210 yen; army, 37,309,975 yen; navy, 17,513,334 yen; and communications 17,507,512 yen. The public debt on March 31, 1900, was 502,967,249 yen. The principal circulating medium is the paper yen issued by the Bank of Japan. The note issue at the beginning of 1901 was 215,000,000 yen, protected by a gold reserve of 66,000,000 yen. The total coinage of the imperial mint from 1870 to December 31, 1900, amounted to 431,246,052 yen. On December 31, 1900, there were 2,364 banks of all sorts in Japan, representing a total paid-up capital of 508,534,000 yen ($253,249,936). Of this amount the paid-up capital of the Bank of Japan was 30,000,000 yen, the Yokohama Specie Bank 24,000,000 yen, the Hypothec Bank of Japan, 10,000,000 yen, and the Taiwan Ginko 5,000,000 yen. The paid-up capital of 463 savings. banks, all but one of which were native, amounted to 57,334,300 yen.
Industries.—The industrial conditions in Japan during the years 1900 and 1901 were not encouraging, and notwithstanding the efforts of Japanese statesmen and financiers to avert a crisis, a financial panic prevailed in April of the latter year in the central and southern provinces. According to Japanese authorities the real, though probably indirect, cause of the situation lay in the Chinese indemnity growing out of the war of 1894-95 and the issue of several large loans by the government. Many new enterprises were undertaken under the guaranty of these loans and in reliance upon the indemnity. The latter, however, proved insufficient, with the result that many millions of yen were diverted from the customary channels of trade to prevent their absolute failure. The undertakings, however, by increasing the amount of money in the hands of the laboring classes, raised the standard of living, and a consequent increase in the amount of imports followed. This increase, however, was unfortunately accompanied by a decrease in the volume of exports, which resulted in drawing 50,000,000 yen out of the country to settle Japan's balance of trade. Stocks, bonds, and other securities depreciated, and importers found themselves confronted with a glutted market, so that in 1900 trade came practically to a standstill, foreign investments practically ceased, the government encountered difficulty in floating a foreign loan, and both foreign and native banks refused to lend on personal credit. The total investments of the banks in 1900 amounted to more than their total paid-up capital, a fact to which the minister of finance, Watanabe, early in 1901 attributed the business depression.
Japan is a very mountainous country and not more than one-sixth is available for cultivation. Methods of agriculture are improving, and the government supports an agricultural college as a branch of the University of Tokio. Rice is the principal agricultural product, the crop of 1899 being 39,590,322 koku (i koku = 4.96 bushels). Other products were: Barley, 8,407,263 koku; wheat, 4,057,670 koku; and rye, 6,606,277 koku. The manufacture of silk, cotton, and other textiles is one of the principal industries, and the product increased in value from 71,365,218 yen in 1894 to 143,739,198 yen in 1898. Cotton yarn in 1898 was manufactured to the amount of 33,546,489 kwan (i kwan= 8.28 pounds). The camphor industry of the island of Formosa is a government monopoly, over five-sixths of the camphor of the world being produced there. Other important products growing annually in value are petroleum and fish. The forests produce valuable timber. Coal, iron, gold, silver, and copper abound, although the mining industry has never been properly developed.
Capital invested in business companies of various sorts increased from 1895 to 1899 by about $215,361,000, or adding the value of debenture bonds of various jointstock concerns, $223,058,000. The increases were as follows: Agricultural companies, $761,000 to $1,143,000 ; commercial and financial companies, $49,893,000 to $167,751,000; manufacturing companies, $29,364,000 to $73,891,000; transportation companies (sea and land), $44.980,000 to $99,073,000.
Commerce.-Although the year 1900 was considerad unfavorable to the commercial and manufacturing interests of Japan, there was no evidence of it in the trade statistics, which show a considerable increase in the volume of foreign trade over both 1898 and 1899. The imports and exports for the three years are shown in the following table, the values being given in yen:
1900. Imports ....... .............277,502,000
287,580,283 Exports ....... ..........165,753,752 214,929,894
204,630,335 Since 1891, when the total imports were 62,029,912 yen, there has been a steady annual increase, except in the year 1899, when the trade was affected by the over-exportation of 1898, caused by the knowledge that a new tariff law was to go into effect in the year following. At the same time the value of the imports over the exports has been increasing annually, although figures for the first eight months of 1901 would indicate that it had been checked at least temporarily. The imports for that period were 181,000,000 yen as compared with 207,000,000 for the first eight months
of 1900, and the exports increased from 123,000,000 yen to 156,000,000 yen for the same period.
The principal exports in 1900 were: Raw silk, 44,700,792 yen, which decreased from 62,627,720 yen in 1899; silk tissues, 22,944,670 yen; cotton yarn, 20,609,438 yen; copper, 12,738,407 yen; tea, 8,933, 149 yen; cotton tissues, 6,085,950 yen; straw plaits, 4,029,103 yen; rice, 3,589,073 yen, a decrease from 10,282,011 in 1899; and floor matting, 3,313,286 yen. Nearly one-quarter of the whole volume of trade is with the United States, which furnished 21.9 per cent. of the imports in 1900. Of the exports the United States took over one-half of the raw silk, a large part of the silk tissues, nearly all of the floor matting, and three-fourths of the tea. Nearly all of the cotton yarn and tissues go to China, Corea, and British India, while the greater part of the copper is sent to Hong Kong. During 1900 gold and silver coin and bullion were exported to the amount of $28,240,117 (56,762,635 yen), while the imports amounted to $5,735,882, leaving a net export of $22,504,235.
The trade of Japan with the countries of greatest commercial importance for the years 1899 and 1900 was as follows, in yen:
Imports to Japan.
Exports from Japan. 1899.
1900. 63,919,270 52,517,908 40,257,034 31,902,808 11,270,770 11,274,033
6,062,049 8,712,847 34,291,307 39,215,847 29,247,837 19,169,189 3,796,927 3,559,096
The import trade of Great Britain with Japan has not increased in the same proportion as that of other foreign countries. Although there was a substantial increase in 1900 over 1899, the increase over 1898, when the value of the imports was 62,707,572 yen, was not so marked. Of the total imports of about 53,000,000 yen in 1883, the first year in which countries were discriminated in Japanese customs returns, considerably over one-half were British goods, while in 1900 less than one-fourth of the imports were British, while on the other hand the imports from the United States and Germany show a proportionally large increase.
The shipping statistics of Japanese ports for 1899, exclusive of the coasting trade, showed a total of 3,403 ships of 3,608,494 tons entered and 3,549 ships of 3,777,716 tons cleared. About one-third of the tonnage was British.
Communications.-On January 1, 1900, there were 3,628 miles of railway in operation in the empire, of which 2,805 miles were operated by private corporations and 833 miles by the State. During 1899 permanent charters were granted for 170/2 miles and provisional charters for 26112 miles, showing a decrease in activity of construction of over 66 per cent., as compared with 1898. This decrease is probably due to the prevailing depression in commercial and financial circles. In addition to the lines already in operation, the government has planned to construct 1,230 miles of road, and private companies hold charters providing for the construction of 2,483 miles more, a total additional mileage of 3,713 miles. Building on these lines will probably begin as soon as the financial situation improves. The government has already paid upon the state railways the sum of 69,679,049 yen ($34,700,166), and the total paid-up capital of the private companies amounts to 173,667,846 yen ($86,486,587). The government expended for railway locomotives alone over 2,240,000 yen in 1900, mostly imported from Great Britain and the United States. During 1901 the government was constructing car-shops and locomotive works at Kobé, and will build most of its own rolling-stock in the future. Two-thirds of the steel rails used in Japan are imported from the United States. In May, 1901, the construction of an elevated railway in Tokio was begun. The road is modeled after that in Berlin, Germany, and will cost, when completed, 5,680,000 yen.
HISTORY. Legislative and Ministerial.-Early in the year 1901 the ministry of Marquis Ito, which had succeeded that of Marquis Yamagata in September, 1900, proposed a financial scheme which roused strong opposition in the house of peers. The proposition was for an increase of taxes on spirits, tobacco, sugar, beer, etc., to meet the increase of expenditure entailed by the Chinese crisis. The peers took at once an uncompromising attitude, which was generally regarded as a protest against the system of party government as represented and championed in particular by Marquis Ito. In March, when it had become evident that a compromise was impossible, the emperor used his prerogative and intervened, with the result that the peers reluctantly gave their consent to the bill, although their hostility to the ministry continued.