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library building, costing about $1,000,000. He was the Citizens' Union candidate for first mayor of the Greater New York (1897), but was defeated by Robert A. Van Wyck, the Tammany nominee. Mr. Low is president of the Geographical Society of New York and the New York Academy of Political Science, and vice-president of the New York Academy of Sciences.

LUBY, THOMAS CLARKE, Fenian agitator, died at Jersey City, N. J., November 30, 1901. He was born at Dublin, Ireland, January 15, 1822, and was educated at Trinity College there. Though he studied law, Mr. Luby never practiced, but took up journalism, and in 1864 became managing editor of The Irish People, founded by James Stephens (q.v.). This paper, under the complete control of the leaders of the Fenian movement, had an important bearing upon the development of a revolutionary spirit in Ireland, and was suppressed by the British government in 1865. Mr. Luby was arrested, convicted of treason, and sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment; but after serving a little more than five years was released on condition of remaining away from Ireland. He went to New York City soon after, where he continued the agitation for Irish independence. Mr. Luby published The Life of Daniel O'Connell and The Lives and Times of Illustrious and Representative Irishmen (1878).

LUDLOW, General William, brigadier-general, U. S. A., died at Morristown, N. J., August 30, 1901. He was born at Islip, Long Island, November 27, 1843, and graduated at West Point in 1864. Commissioned a first lieutenant upon graduation, he was assigned to duty as chief engineer of the Twentieth Army Corps, and was soon after brevetted captain for gallantry in action at the battle of Peach Tree Creek. As chief engineer of the left wing of Sherman's army he made the "march to the sea" in 1864-65, and was brevetted major and then lieutenant-colonel for gallantry. In 1867 he was commissioned a captain in the regular army, in the engineer corps, and in 1872 he was placed in command of the department of the Dakota, where he remained until 1876. He served, with government consent, as chief engineer of the Philadelphia water department from 1883 to 1886, revolutionizing the city's system, and in various places as government engineer in charge of lighthouses and river and harbor work, until he was sent to London (1893) as military attaché of the American embassy. In 1895 General Ludlow reported on the Nicaragua Canal project. At the outbreak of the Spanish-American War he was made a brigadiergeneral of volunteers and assigned to General Shafter's army, his brigade doing especially valuable work at the battle of El Caney. After peace was declared he was appointed military governor of Havana and was commissioned a brigadier-general in the regular army. On being relieved of duty in Cuba he was sent abroad to study foreign military institutions and prepare a plan for a United States war college, his report on which is now on file in the War Department. General Ludlow was sent in 1900 to the Philippines to succeed General Hughes in command of the southern islands, but developed tuberculosis and was invalided home early in 1901.

LUGGER, Otto, State entomologist of Minnesota, died May 21, 1901. He was born at Hagen, Germany, where he was educated, and served in the Prussian army as lieutenant of cavalry. Coming to the United States in 1865, he was employed for several years as an engineer on the survey of the Great Lakes, at the same time pursuing private studies in natural history. In 1868 he became assistant to Professor C. V. Riley, the State entomologist of Missouri, and in 1875 curator of the Maryland Academy of Sciences and naturalist of city parks in Baltimore. He joined the division of entomology of the United States Department of Agriculture in 1885, and three years later became entomologist to the Minnesota State Agricultural Experiment Station. While serving in this capacity he was successful in overcoming a threatened invasion of Rocky Mountain locusts or western migratory grasshoppers, which were then doing great damage in the western States. Mr. Lugger was the author of many papers and reports on various insects, and was considered one of the leading entomologists of the United States.


LUTHERAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES dates its inception as an organization from the establishment, in 1748, of the first synod or ministerium, that of Pennsylvania. It has (1901), included in the four general bodies and fifteen independent synods, comprising 62 synods in all, 6,914 ministers, 11,425 congregations, and 1,705,185 communicants; 5,725 Sunday schools, with 52,601 officers and teachers, and 570,129 scholars; and 4,034 parochial schools, with 190,095 pupils. The aggregate in contributions for the year equaled $1,185,959. There are throughout the world over 58,000,000 baptized members in the Lutheran Church, Germany alone having over 31,000,000. As a whole, the Lutherans control in this country 23 theological seminaries, with 88 professors and 954 students; 48 colleges, with 466 professors and 7,901 students; 31 academies and is ladies' seminaries; 18 hospitals, with 6,646 inmates; 43 orphan homes, with 2,547 inmates; 17 homes for the aged,

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asylums, etc., with 634 inmates; 11 immigrant and seamen's missions, with 10,885 inmates; and 8 deaconess institutions, with 4,920 inmates. A large number of periodicals are published, the majority in the English and German languages, but a considerable number also in Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Icelandic, Finnish, French, Slavonian, Lettish, and Esthonian.

The General Synod, organized in 1821, the oldest general body of Lutherans in America, has 198,575 communicant members, with 1,210 ministers and 1,561 congregations, and 1,514 Sunday schools, attended by 195,137 scholars. The contributions of this body, which is composed mainly of English adherents, amounted to $312,128. The General Council, made up of English, German, and Scandinavian ministers and congregations, and organized in 1867, is now represented by 1,306 ministers, 2,068 congregations, and 362,409 members. Its Sunday schools, 1,733 in number, enroll 213,019 scholars. Total contributions were $278,469. The Synodical Conference, dating from 1872, an almost exclusively German division, numbers 590,987 communicants, with 2,079 ministers and 3,755 congregations, and has 619 Sunday schools, with a membership of 27,950, its parochial institutions in number and attendance far exceeding its Sabbath schools. The contributions of this body aggregated $228,529. The United Synod of the South, organized in 1886 and practically embracing an exclusively English constituency, claims 206 ministers, 405 congregations, and 37,958 members, and 350 Sunday schools, with an attendance of 21,212 scholars. Its contributions equaled $24,982. The independent synods (German, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, and Finnish in nationality) have 2,113 ministers, 4,636 congregations, and 515,256 communicant members, 1,309 Sunday schools, and 112,911 scholars. Their offerings reached a total of $341,850.

The General Synod held its fortieth biennial convention May 29-June 6 at Des Moines, la. The meeting, at which the 24 district synods were represented by nearly 350 clerical and lay delegates, heard reports from the foreign missionary fields, that of India being notably encouraging; also from the home missionary work, now including 20 States and Territories, noting Lutheran gains in large cities, and particularly outside of New England. The body reaffirmed its entire adherence to the prevailing doctrinal standards and cordially received the delegate from the Lutheran General Council, who laid before the assembly proposals of cooperation, thus marking a step toward Lutheran unification. The General Synod in 1903 will meet in Baltimore. At the twenty-eighth convention of the General Council, in session October 10-15 at Lima, O., 10 synods were represented by 7 clerical and 49 lay delegates. A feature of the meeting was the presence of Rt. Rev. Gezelius von Schule, bishop of Visby, Sweden, the official representative of the crown at the Yale bicentennial and to the Swedish Lutherans in the United States. The missionary work of this body in India now includes 7 principal stations and 330 out-stations, with 5 ordained missionaries and 150 other workers, while the field in Porto Rico, established in 1900, has 2 stations, with churches and Sunday schools, and 2 missionaries and I teacher. Home missions are located in 40 States and Territories and in the Dominion of Canada. A new synod, that of the Pacific, was erected in 1901 as a result of the progressive work of this department in the Northwest. Other important matters before the assembly were in regard to the adoption of a uniform translation of Luther's Catechism and Ministerial Acts to supplement the "Common Service," and the substitution of a graded series of Bible lessons for the International Lessons in Sunday-school work. The convention of 1903 will be held at Mansfield, O.

LUTHER LEAGUE OF AMERICA, organized in 1895 in Pittsburg, Pa., for the purpose of training the younger church members for more active and efficient service in the church. It has State leagues throughout the country, organized into 43 district and 870 local leagues, which include a membership of about 40,000. Biennial national conventions are held; the next of which takes place in 1902. The order publishes the Luther League Review at Washington, D. C., E. F. Eilert, editor.

LUXEMBURG, an independent grand duchy of Europe, bounded by Germany, Belgium, and France. It has an area of 998 square miles, and a population (1900) of 236,543. Luxemburg, the capital, has a population of 30,000. Of the foreignborn population of the duchy 14,603 are German, 7,465 Italian, 1,891 Belgian, and 1,837 French. The population is mostly Catholic. By the provisions of the London treaty of 1867 the duchy was declared neutral territory. On the death of William III., King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxemburg, in November, 1890, Adolf, Duke of Nassau, succeeded to the duchy. It is governed by the grand duke and a chamber of deputies, elected directly by the cantons. For commercial purposes Luxemburg is included in the German customs union. The estimated revenue for 1901 was 12,098,920 francs (franc equals 19.3 cents) and the expenditure 12,472,060 francs. The debt is 12,000,000 francs, funded at 3%2 per cent., chiefly incurred by railway construction. The savings banks, January 1, 1900, held 15,896,928 francs. The mining and smelting industries are of considerable importance, comprising, in

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1899, 72 iron mines, 8 smelting works, 28 blast furnaces, and 7 refining foundries, employing 11,095 workmen. There are 294 miles of railway, 596 miles of telegraph line, and 582 miles of telephone lines. The post-offices number 84.

MCADAM, DAVID, justice of the New York Supreme Court, died in New York City, December 22, 1901. He was born there, August 25, 1835, and was educated in the public schools. Admitted to the bar in 1859, he remained in active practice until 1874, when he was first elected a judge of the marine court, afterwards the city court. From 1882 to 1890 he was chief justice of the city court, and in 1891 was elected to the superior court, from which position he went to the supreme court as associate justice in 1896. He was known as a most indefatigable worker and a judge of great discernment and balance. Justice McAdam wrote: Marine Court Practice (1868); Landlord and Tenant (1875); Terms of Court (1875); and a short time before his death he had completed a work on The Law of Negligence as Applied to the Relations of Landlord and Tenant.


MCCLURG, General ALEXANDER CALDWELL, American publisher, died at St. Augustine, Fla., April 15, 1901. He was born in Philadelphia in 1835, and graduated at Miami University, Oxford, O., in 1853. After studying law for a time, he entered the publishing house of S. C. Griggs and Company, in Chicago. He enlisted in the Union army in 1862 and rose to the rank of colonel and brevet brigadiergeneral of volunteers. As chief of staff of the Fourteenth Army Corps, he fought in numerous battles, and was with Sherman on his march to the sea. Upon the close of the war, he became a partner in the Griggs house, which later became Jansen, McClurg and Company, and finally A. C. McClurg and Company. In 1899, after the establishment was destroyed by fire, General McClurg reorganized the business on the lines of industrial cooperation, much of the stock being distributed gratis among the employees of the company and more sold to them on easy terms.

MacCORMAC, Sir WILLIAM, British surgeon, died at Bath, England, December 4, 1901. He was born at Belfast, Ireland, January 17, 1836, and was educated in medicine in Dublin and Paris, and at the Queen's University of Ireland, Belfast. After practicing for a time in Belfast and London, in 1870, at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, he joined Dr. Franks, a former English army surgeon, and Dr. Sims, an American, in establishing the Anglo-American ambulance system, and was present at the battle of Sedan, where his services attracted the favorable notice of the officers. Upon his return to England he was made assistant surgeon to the newly-built St. Thomas' Hospital, and later was made chief surgeon. In 1896 he was chosen president of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, a position to which he was thrice reelected. He published: Notes and Recollections of an Ambulance Surgeon (1870); Antiseptic Surgery (1880); and Surgical Operations (1885).

McKINLEY, WILLIAM, twenty-fourth President of the United States, died at Buffalo, N. Y., on September 14, 1901, from a bullet wound received at the hand of an assassin on September 6, while holding a public reception at the Pan-American Exposition. He was born in the village of Niles, Trumbull County, O., January 29, 1843, and came of Scotch-Irish stock, of which the first American representative settled in Pennsylvania about the middle of the eighteenth century. William McKinley, after attending for a time the school of his native village, was taken by his parents to Poland in Mahoning County, to enjoy the better educational advantages offered by the academy in that town, where, as a student, he soon distinguished himself by his assiduity, and particularly by his parliamentary skill in the academic literary society. At sixteen he entered the junior class of Allegheny College, at Meadville, Pa., but was compelled by poor health to abandon his collegiate career shortly afterward, and became a teacher in the public schools. Responding to President Lincoln's call for volunteers after the firing on Fort Sumter, he enlisted as a private in the Twenty-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry, on June II, 1861, in which regiment Rutherford B. Hayes was a major. McKinley's first promotion was to commissary-sergeant on April 15, 1862, and in this line of duty he performed meritorious service at the battle of Antietam, for which he was commissioned second lieutenant on September 24 of the same year. He served throughout the war, rising to the rank of major by successive promotions for merit, and at different periods served as aide to Generals Hayes, Crook, Hancock, and Carroll. At the close of the conflict, although personally desirous of following a military career, he left the army in deference to the wishes of his family and entered the law office Judge Glidden at Canton, O. In 1867 he graduated at the Albany (N. Y.) Law School, and being admitted to the bar of Ohio, began practice at Canton. From 1869 to 1871 he was prosecuting attorney for his county, but failing a reelection in the latter year, returned to his legal practice, although retaining an active interest in

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