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Would you avoid such a scene? O yes; I know you would. Then know yourself, ere it arrive. Be faithfully and intimately acquainted with your own heart. Then shall your life be happy and useful; and your death serene, perhaps gloriously triumphant. May you live the life and die the death of the righteous !
SPECIMENS OF OLD ENGLISH. No. XV. EPICURUS was the author of that sect which was callec! by hys name Epicurea. He did coumpt the chiefe felicitie to consist in pleasure; but not in the pleasure of the body, as Aristippus did, but in the pleasure of the mynde ; that is, in the lacke and absence of all griefes and sorowes. He condemned logike, affirming that philosophy myght be comprehended in simple and playne wordes. He sayd the goddes had no providence of worldly thynges. Thys Epicurus Lucretius so much preferreth and commendeth, that he sticketh not to affirm that he doth so darcken the light of all other philosophers, as the sunne doth darcken the clearnes of the starres. He is sayd to have bene of most continent lyfe; but yet it came to passe, that through the name of pleasure, (in which he sayd man's chiefe felicitie to consist,) soch as be given to pleasure were called Epicures. Laertius writeth that Epicurus was a man of a very spare diet, and that he lived only wyth browne bread and water. Notwithstanding hys disciples did degenerate from hym, and tourned their master's opinion to a bodily and beastly pleasure.*
(Continued from page 271.) Q. What is light?
A. An unknown but highly important substance, the medium of vision, and by which surrounding objects become perceptible.
* The Poore Man's Librarie. By G. A., Byshop of Exceter.
Q. You designate it a “substance :" do you take it to be matter in some form?
A. It is generally taken to be material, though it has not been yet ascertained to be ponderable, to possess gravitation or aggregation. By some, light is regarded as the undulations of an ethereal medium, which in the eye leads to the sensation of sight, as the vibrations of the air lead to the sensations of sound in the ear.
Q. From whence does light proceed ?
A. Rays which, as they proceed from some point, continue to separate.
Q. Do rays of light keep the same distance from each other as they proceed onward ?
A. No: they are supposed to spread, in proportion to the squares of their distance from the body from which they proceed; that is, at the distance of two spaces they are four times thinner than at one; at three spaces, nine times, &c., spreading upwards, downwards, sidewise, &c.
Q. What are converging rays?
A. Rays which, from the surfaces of bodies, are sent back to the eye, and by which those objects become visible.
Q. What are refracted rays?
A. Rays which are bent from the line in which they had proceeded, by entering a more dense or more rare medium.
Q. Are all rays of light alike refrangible ?
4. No: it is supposed that some rays are more refrangible Q. How do you distinguish that light which is alike refrangible ?
A. It is known as primary, simple, homogeneal light.
Q. By what terms do you know that light, the rays of which are not alike refrangible?
A. Those rays are known as compound, heterogeneal, and dissimilar. The colours produced by homogenous rays are termed primary or simple; those of heterogenous are known as secondary or mixed colours.
Q. How are those bodies known through which light quickly passes ?
A. They are said to be transparent, as air, glass, water, &c.
Q. By what term are those bodies known through which light does not so pass ?
A. They are known as opaque bodies, as stone, wood, &c.
Q. What causes one body to be transparent, and another to be opaque?
A. By Sir Isaac Newton transparency was supposed to arise from the particles and their intervals or pores being too sinall to cause reflexion at their common surfaces ; so that all light which enters transparent bodies passes through them, without any portion of it being turned from its path by reflexion. Opacity he supposed to arise from an opposite cause ; namely, when the parts of bodies are of such a size as to be capable of reflecting the light which falls upon them, in which case the light is “ stopped or stifled” by the multitude of reflections. *
Q. Are the same terms still adopted, to give the cause of transparency and opacity ?
A. Transparency is now supposed to be connected with the arrangement and density of bodies : when particles are uniformly arranged and of equal density, the light which falls on thein is equally attracted in all directions; it is therefore in the same state as if not attracted at all, and passes freely through these bodies. Many, if not all, bodies attract and admit light; but the particles of these bodies being either unequal in density, or not uviform in their arrangement, the light is so differently attracted and directed, by such a number of surfaces, of different densities, as not to find a passage through them, and they are termed opaque. The different states of carbon may illustrate this: when crystallized, we have in the diamond one of the most transparent and dazzling substances in nature; when in the form of charcoal, it is black and opaque.
Q. You say that light is supposed to proceed especially from the sun: may I venture to ask, what is that glorious body? how does light proceed from it ? and what are those spots thereon of which I have frequently heard ?
A. As an humble inquirer like yourself, let me take you to Dr. Herschell for replies to your queries. By this celebrated man, the sun is supposed to be a solid opaque body, which turns on its own axis, the primary planet of our system; a habitable world, which has mountains and valleys like our earth, higher and deeper in some proportion to the magnitude of the two bodies; and that the inhabitants thereof are furnished with organs adapted to their residence.
It is also supposed that the sun has an atmosphere capable of being decomposed ; that the emission of light is connected with the actual decomposition of this atmosphere ; and that this luminous atmosphere, and not the sun itself, is the glorious object we behold. This atmosphere is supposed to consist of various fluids, more or less transparent ; and as the clouds belonging to our earth are probably decompositions of certain elastic fluids, so we may suppose that in the vast atmosphere of the sun similar decompositions may take place, but with this difference,—the decompositions of the elastic fluids of the sun are of a phosphoric nature, and attended by lucid appearances, as they give out light.
This atmosphere is sometimes so transparent, as to allow parts of the body of the sun to be seen through it ; and what we term spots are, in fact, either the high mountains of the sun, projecting beyond this shining atmosphere, or openings therein, by which these mountains are seen : these black spots are known as maculæ. The sun has also some peculiarly bright and shining parts, which are termed
tures of these luminous fluids, or their condensation on some peculiar parts of the surface of the body.
In this way Dr. Herschell supposes light to be connected with the sun ; accounts for the spots that are seen thereon ; and supposes that the rays are not hot in themselves, but produce this sensation by their action on other bodies.
The sun is the great and glorious image (if it be lawful to speak of a created image) of God, “ dwelling in light;' of Him who is the απαύγασμα from the αυγασμα, the proceeding splendour from the inherent splendour, (Dr. Clarke, Heb. i. 3,) “the Light of the world," and the source of uncreated heat.”
“Hail, holy light; offspring of heaven first born!
Of the eternal co-eternal beam.
THE SIN AND PUNISHMENT OF GEHAZI. What the true principle and source of Gehazi's guilt was, will best appear from his punishment; which being dictated by the Spirit of God was, beyond all doubt, rightly directed.
When Naaman was healed of his leprosy by obeying the directions of the Prophet Elisha, he returned in gratitude to acknowledge the obligation; and earnestly entreated the Prophet to accept from him some valuable proofs and tokens of his gratitude. The Prophet having absolutely refused them, his servant thought that was an