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Rathenau, Dr., 250
Shipman, Clare, Reality, 146

Tribunal of the world, 44-45
Reality, Clare Shipman, 146
The ship subsidy, 433-436

Triumph of American diplomacy, Hannis
The reality of Christmas, 407

Shotwell, James T., The student and the Taylor, 331-340
Recent change of régime in Greece, Joannes citizen, 290-295

Turkey, 373
Gennadius, 31-34

Signs and portents in the Far East, 353-351 Tirentieth Conference of the Interparlia-
Recent developments in cooperation in Rus- Signs in Japan and China, 270-271

wentary Inion, 205
sia, 193
d slight lack of perspertire, 206

Trrenty-second laternational Peace Congress,
Reducing the army's officer personnel, 312 Some fallacies in respect to Near Eastern 200-207, 391-394
The Red l'ictory, 204

auffairs, Joannes Gennadius, 137-143
Relative strength of navies, 276
Some of the difficulties, 126-127

Reparations, 125-126, 126-127, 195

Soul of Mexico, Dr. Guillermo A. Sherwell,
What Germany has paid, 327

Underwood, 287
The revision of the reparation clauses The Soviet

disarmament conference, 427- l'nited States :
of the Treaty of Versailles and the 428

18 the l'nital States to blame? 287-
cancellation of inter-Allied indebt- Stanfield, Theodore, International Peace

edness, George A. Finch, 418-426 eventually, why not now? 261-262

United States against unlimited war,
The German moratorium, 128-430 Statutes of the Interparliamentary Union,

The repercussion of the Washington Con- 342-346

l'nitell States and the Permanent
ference, 151-152
Step by step, 84-86

('ourt of luteriiutional Justice, 246-
The revision of the reparation clauses of the The student and the citizen. James T. Slot-

Treaty of Versailles and the cancellation well. 290-295

United States budget for 1923 and
of inter-Allied indebtedness, George A. Submarine policy :

1924, 440
Finch, 418-426

Misstatements of Lord Lee regarding
The rerision of the Treaty of Versailles,

the article by Commander Castex
and French submarine policy, Maur-

Root submarine rules, 24

ice Leon, 93-9.5
Rowe, Dr. Leo S., 226

Submarines : United States, Great Britain, Venizelist and Constantinist régimes in
Russia, 30, 89

Japan, France, Italy, 11-24

Greece, ('onstantine Velas, 178-180
Recent developments in cooperation Sucurea in international trade, 128-129
in Russia, 193
Sulgrave Institution, 237

Property rights in Russia, 236

Superficiality of international law, Jackson
Japan and the Russian

Far East,
II. Ralston, 31-37

The war over the "no more war" movement.
Surprises at Lausanne, 126-427

An appeal to Christians for storving

Washington ('onference, 3, 8, 49-59, 81-86.
Russia, Samuel McCrea (avert, 37

131-132, 348-349, 408
A defense of Soviet Russia's budget,


The Washington Treaties abroad, 205

The varte in international effort, 167-168
Tacna-Arica dispute, Arbitration in, 305

The way of the new Ambassador to Ger-
Tavlor, Hannis, The triumph of American

many, 154-153
diplomacy, 331-340

The rule of nations, 87-88
Schober. Dr. Hans, The Austrian problem, This Society, 123, 163, 202, 2433, 283, 323. Wehberg. Dr. Hans, The ('ongress of the

Institute of International Law, 379-380
Scott, Capt. E. W., Our Treaty navy, 180. Tipping the soldier, 47

What is in the minds of students, 112

Tonnage : l'nited States, Great Britain, What Germany has paid, 327
Seashore, Professor, 222-224

Japan, 9

What Sir Auckland Geddes sees ahead, 192-
Seeking daylight in the Near East, 156-157 The Treaties, a completed job, 149-151

Select list of references on disarmament, Treaties, How it goes with, 102-104

Ilhat is this "neir state of mind ?" 43-44
Treaty of Versailles :

Where lie evils and hopes for the masses,
"Selling" international peace, George Maur-

Rerision of the Treaty of Versailles, 272-273
ice Morris, 256-257


Tomen's International League for Peace and
The sheathing of the surord-a pageant of

The revision of the reparation clauses Freedom, 278, 314, 402
peace, 249-250 .

of the Treaty of Versailles and the Women's Peace Association of Japan, 117
Sherwell, Dr. Guillermo A., The soul of

cancellation of inter-Allied indebt. The work of the Washington Conference,
Mexico, 69-73

edness, George A. Finch, 418-426 Theodore E. Burton, 348-349

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an organization which has done more for the men, HE AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY wishes that the year

women, and youth by the reaction upon them of the facts

of justice and fair-play than it has accomplished for the 1922 may be a year of achievement in behalf of a warless world. It reminds itself, and it would remind

peace-workers themselves who have been the special oball others, of the truth that there is something finer ject of its effort; an organization which is today the than Vietzche’s “Will to Power.”

defender of the principles of law, of judicial settlement, There is the will to redeem ourselves from meanness

of arbitration, of international conference, of internaand misery.

tional right-mindedness, and of a common understandThere is the will to achieve unto the deepest sum of ing among the Powers. permanent satisfactions in terms of increasing health

Its Mouthpiece and happiness.

It publishes monthly, and has published regularly There is the will to apply brains and co-operative in

since 1834, ADVOCATE OF PEACE, the first and widest telligence to the specific problems and the concrete

circulated of the peace magazines in the world. needs. There is the will to see more clearly, feel more deeply,

How It is Supported and express more truly, all to the end that life may be It is supported entirely by the free and generous gifts, more humane, more just, more free, more beautiful. large and small, of those who are interested in its work.

There is the will that the greatest number may attain It has never received a dollar from city, State, or nation. unto the greatest creative service, reaching thus unto

Its Name those wider significances of what it means to live. There is the will to glorify, as best we may, this in

It is the American Peace Society, with headquarters finitesimal trifle in space which we call the earth. in Boston for three-quarters of a century, but located in There is the will to end war.

Washington since 1911. It has been incorporated under

the laws of Massachusetts since 1818.

Its Challenge Just Now
What is It?

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace It is the first of its kind in the United States. It is (Elihu Root, President) appreciates and approves the ninety-four years old. It has made the principles of work of the American Peace Society. international peace known around the world.

It expresses this approval just now in terms of dollars

and cents. For every dollar of this Society's income, Its Purpose

this great Endowment will contribute another dollar up Its purpose is to prevent the injustices of war. This

to and including $15,000. it purposes to accomplish by extending the methods of

This offer ceases June 30, 1922. law and order among the nations. It aims to educate

Approximately one-half this sum is already in sight. the peoples everywhere in what an ancient Roman law

Think of the challenge not only of this offer of the giver called, “The constant and unchanging will to give Carnegie Endowment, but of this hour in the history of to every one his due.”

man's will to end war. What It is Built On It is built on law, fair-play, justice. If men and na

SPECIAL ITEMS tions were just, this Society would never have been born.

1. The index of the ADVOCATE OF PEACE, Vol. 83, year 1921, What It Has Done

is now ready and will be furnished free to those who de

sire it. It has spent its money and its men in arousing the

2. Replies to our questionary were all turned over to the thoughts and consciences of statesmen to the ways which

Committee on General Information of the Advisory Comare better than war, and of men and women everywhere mittee to the American Delegation, Conference on the Lim

itation of Armament. This committee has tabulated the to the gifts, rich and enduring gifts, which America has

replies and spread the results before the Armaments Conto bring to the altar of a governed world.

ference. It is hoped that the ADVOCATE OF PEACE will be able

also to make use of this illuminating correspondence. Bases of Its Claim for Support

3. Readers of the ADVOCATE OF PEACE will readily underIts claim upon men and women is that of an organiza- stand that where so much space is devoted to the Conference

on the Limitation of Armament a number of international tion which for nearly a century has been one of the

notes, special articles, and the like have been necessarily greatest forces for right-thinking in the United States;



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ADVOCATE OF PEACE powers to give their assent, and thus to make this agree

ment also international law for all. Edited by ARTHUR DEERIN CALL

While it does not seem possible to come to any agreePublished since 1834 by

ment as to the restriction of aërial warfare, there is a THE AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY

tentative provision for a commission to study the sub(1815-1828)

ject. Of course, the Four-Power Treaty, with its abroSuite 612-614 Colorado Building, Washington, D. C.

gation of the Anglo-Japanese pact, is an achievement of (Cable address, "Ampax, Washington")

the Conference as a whole. This same thing is true of PUBLISHED MONTHLY, EXCEPT SEPTEMBER

the Root rules securing national integrity, maintaining Sent free to all members of the American Peace Society, Separate the open door, promoting stable government, and refrainSubscription Price, $2.00 a year. Single copies, twenty cents each.

ing from taking advantage of existing conditions to seek Entered as Second-Class Matter, June 1, 1911, at the Post-Office at advantages at the expense of others in China. Washington, D. C., under the act of July 16, 1894. Acceptance for mailing

It is evident that the Conference as a whole will adopt at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3. 1917, authorized August 10, 1918.

the committee proposal to abolish foreign post-offices in

China by January 1, 1923. China's control over her It being im practicable to express in these columns the

tariffs is to be decidedly widened. There is an agreedivergent views of the thousands of members of the American Peace Society, full responsibility for the utter

ment in 'committee to fit the 5 per cent tariff to the ances of this magazine is assumed by the Editor. modern commercial situation. Indeed, there is an agree

ment to set up an international commission, which shall ACHIEVEMENTS ON THE WAY

meet in China, to study the question of raising the rate

from 5 to 71/2 per cent and to allow an additional 5 per NDOUBTEDLY the Washington Conference is achiev

cent on luxuries. The whole question of extraterritorial ing results. Aside from the fact that it is not a rights in China has been referred to a commission for Paris conference, but a peace-time conference, and that study and report. As soon as China shows that she can it is laying the foundations for the extension of the rules

maintain order, foreign troops are to be taken out of that of law and order, there is a substantial agreement in the country. It has been agreed to restore China's rights Naval Committee that the capital-ship ratio—United over wireless communications. States, 5; Great Britain, 5; Japan, 3; France, 1.75; Surely there is nothing here to justify such friends of Italy, 1.75—shall stand. In spite of the fact that exact the League of Nations, as, for instance, its Publicity definitions as to the area in which the status quo is to Director, in speaking slightingly of the work in Washapply to the fortifications of the Pacific have not been ington. Since, for example, China accepted the Fouragreed upon, enough has been decided in the Naval Com- Power Treaty, it does not seem pertinent to accuse the mittee to indicate achievement. Then there is the adop- Conference of "excluding China.” In the New York tion in the Naval Committee of the Root submarine Times of January 8 this Director is quoted as saying: resolutions, restating the old laws governing visit and search, and the rescuing of passengers and crew, includ

"The agreement adopted by five powers on submarine

warfare declares that certain rules are deemed an estabing the proposal that violations of this law be made acts

lished part of international law. Who makes internaof piracy. There is the agreement as between the five tional law ? Can five powers, without consultation with powers that no merchantman shall be sunk by a sub- the rest, arbitrarily hand down a ukase that binds fifty marine. There will be invitations to the other powers

other nations?" to give their assent, and thus make the agreement inter- Certainly not. And if the critic would spare the time national law for all.

to read the agreement, he would note that there is no While it has not been possible to agree upon a method "ukase” involved. The purpose is to make the agreeof restricting submarine and auxiliary craft tonnage, ment international law as for the powers ratifying. It there is an agreement to limit auxiliaries to a maximum is proposed to invite the other nations to accept the prinof eight-inch guns and battleships to a maximum of ciple, to the end that by their acceptance the principle sixteen-inch guns. There is an agreement as between may become international law for all the nations. the five powers to a rule to prohibit the use of poison gas We do not feel that this critic is justified either in in warfare, accompanied by an invitation to the other asking, “Why is it necessary in this day of democracy to go about the matter as if it were the secret business of “The Government of the United States, through the a few great powers, and what will be the effect on other courtesy of the Ambassadors of Chile and Peru in submarine-owning nations who have not been con

Washington, has been kept informed of the progress of sulted?” In the light of the methods followed in Paris, between the governments of Chile and Peru, looking

the recent negotiations, carried on directly by telegram this question is interesting. Of course, there is nothing toward a settlement of the long-standing controversy going on in Washington to warrant the aspersion that with respect to the unfulfilled provisions of the Treaty it is a "secret business of a few great powers.” Our own of Ancon. It has noted with the greatest pleasure and view is that the friends of the League of Nations achieve satisfaction the lofty spirit of conciliation which has for themselves no benefit by the oracular statement, that animated the two governments, and that as a result of

the direct exchanges of views the idea of arbitration of “the world cannot be saved by three or four nations, no

the pending difficulties is acceptable in principle to both. matter how powerful their armaments may be.” The It has also taken note of the suggestion that representaconference in Washington is concerning itself with con- tives of the two governments be named to meet in Washcrete problems relating particularly to the nations here ington with a view to finding the means of settling the represented. It is not true that "the voluntary co-oper

difficulties which have divided the two countries. ation of all nations, acting in concert, is essential to any cord, to assist in a manner agreeable to both govern

“Desiring, in the interest of American peace and coneffective solution of international difficulties.” As a

ments concerned in finding a way to ending this longmatter of experience, probably 99 per cent of “interna- standing controversy, the President of the United States tional difficulties” are settled between not to exceed two would be pleased to welcome in Washington the repreparties to a dispute.

sentatives which the governments of Chile and Peru The simple fact is that great difficulties are being met

may see fit to appoint, to the end that such representa

tives may settle, if happily it may be, the existing and overcome in Washington. European friends of the difficulties, or may arrange for the settlement of them League of Nations have been very gracious in their ref- by arbitration.” erences to the Washington Conference. The Washing

There are still other evidences of the vital push of ton Conference casts no aspersions upon the League of

the American spirit. The conference at Cannes was Nations. The American friends of the League of Na- undoubtedly inspired by the conference in Washington. tions are for the most part, we believe, friendly to the

And now we are to have a conference in March at efforts in Washington. That is the way it should be.

Genoa--a conference to include Russia and Germany, a conference leading to that association of European

States so necessary for the maintenance of peace in the AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY

world. So important is the resolution adopted by the LOOKING UP

Supreme Council at Cannes, January 6, calling this HERE ARE many evidences that American foreign read in its entirety. The resolution reads:

conference of all European States, that it may well be policy is coming once more unto its own. Of

"The allied powers, met in conference, are unanicourse, there is our Washington Conference; but there

mously of the opinion that a conference of an economic are other evidences. The shipment of arms and mu

and financial nature should be called during the first nitions to countries in which there are domestic dis

weeks of March, at which all the European powers, Gerturbances can be stopped by the President, under the many, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Russia inprovisions of a bill passed by the Congress and now in cluded, should be invited to send representatives. They the hands of the President for approval. This action

consider that such a conference constitutes an urgent on the part of the Congress is said to be in harmony and essential step toward the economic reconstruction with the action of other governments, following nego- opinion that the prime ministers of each nation ought,

. tiations by the American Department of State.

if possible, to take part themselves at this conference, so American statesmanship seems about to play an im- that the recommendations can be acted on as quickly as portant part in the settlement of the Tacna-Arica dis- possible. pute, a dispute hanging fire between Chile and Peru “The allied powers consider that the restoration of since the Ancon Treaty of October 20, 1883, the treaty

the international commerce of Europe, as well as the

development of the resources of all countries, are neceswhich brought to an end the war between these two

sary to increase the amount of productive labor and countries. This effort on the part of the American lessen the suffering endured by the European peoples. Government to bring the two South American States “A common effort by the most powerful States is together follows repeated failures on the part of the necessary to render to the European system its vitality, governments concerned to have the question settled.

which is now paralyzed.

“This effort ought to be applied to the suppression of The self-explanatory text of the American note to the

all obstacles in the way of commerce. It ought to be two governments reads:

applied also to granting large credits to the most feeble

T to

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