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The following Part is occupied with the transactions of ONE DAY, beginning with the sunset of the evening on which our Saviour ate the passover, and ending with the sunset after his burial. As we know (see John xix, 31.) that he was crucified on the day before the Jewish sabbath-which began on Friday at sunset-there is no doubt that he ate the passover on the Thursday evening. Yet it is clear (see John xviii. 28. compared with Matt. xxvii. 1.) that the Chief Priests and Elders had not eaten the passover when they delivered him up to Pontius Pilate on the morning of Friday. It is further clear from Josephus (see Bell. Jud. lib. VI. c. ix. § 3.) that, at least as the general custom, the lambs for the passover were killed between three and five, in the afternoon, on the 14th of Nisan; and (Ant. lib. III. c. x.) that they were eaten that evening, viz., in the beginning of the 15th. The Chief Priests and Elders, therefore, must have eaten the passover on the evening of Friday, the day on which our Lord was crucified.

It is further clear from the records of St. Mark and St. Luke, (see Part IX. Sect. i.) that these Evangelists regarded the day on which our Lord ate the passover, as the very day on which the paschal lamb was to be killed.

The law enjoined (Exod. xii. 6.) that the lamb should be killed on the 14th day of the first month, IN THE EVENING: “literally, (says Mr. Wellbeloved on the passage), between the twilights, i. e., most probably, between sunset and darkness." On this point there has been, however, diversity of interpretation; some reckoning from three till sunset, and others from noon to sunset. "Of these three modes of reckoning, (continues this able and learned critic), the first suits best the celebration of the first passover": but it is obvious that in the time of Josephus the second was the one adopted.

The account of Josephus of course respected the system of the Pharisees, to which sect he belonged; and before his time, this may have become almost universal. But those of the Jews who neglected the traditions of the Pharisees, and followed the literal interpretation of the scriptures, might be expected to kill the lamb after sunset on the 14th of the first month; i. e. at the commencement of that day-instead of the close of it, as the Pharisees did. Jennings (Jewish Antiquities, vol. II. p. 182) states that the Karaites did not kill the lamb till after sunset, between that and the end of twilight: Kuinoel also states (on Matt. xxvi, 17.) that the Sadducees interpreted the direction for the time of killing the lamb to denote between six and seven in the evening.

As the lamb was to be slain on the 14th of the month, and eaten on the same night, those who killed it after sunset must have eaten it on the evening before those who killed it in the afternoon of the 14th: the former ate it in the evening of the 14th; the latter, on the evening of the 15th.

In A. D. 30, which was, most probably, the year of the Crucifixion, the full moon at Jerusalem occurred about half-past ten P. M. on Thursday, the 6th of April; and the 14th of Nisan comprehended the twenty-four hours from the sunset of that Thursday. According to the preceding views, the Scripturalists would kill the lamb after sunset on the Thursday, and eat the passover that evening: the Traditionalists would kill the lamb in the afternoon of Friday, and eat it on Friday evening, after the Sabbath had begun.

The Feast of Unleavened Bread lasted seven days from the day on which the passover was killed but as on that day the Jews removed all leaven from their houses, and ate only unleavened bread, the Feast of Unleavened Bread (as appears from Josephus) was sometimes reckoned eight days; and the day on which the passover was slain was, on that reckoning, the first day of Unleavened Bread. This then began at sunset on the Thursday.

This solution of the apparent discrepancy in the expressions of the Evangelists, respecting the Last Passover, appears quite satisfactory. It was suggested by the beforementioned statement of Jennings; and it is actually given and approved by Kuinoel.


Events of the 14th of Nisan: i. e. from Sunset on Thursday to Sunset on Friday.


The Sadducces begin to slay the lamb for their Passover.
Christ in the Paschal Chamber.

9-11. P. M.
MIDNIGHT. The Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane.

1. A. M.



7. A. M.

9. 94.


3. P. M.



Christ betrayed by Judas: then taken to the house of Annas, and afterwards to the palace of Caiaphas: there he was kept, till sunrise, before the High Priest and his partisans in the Sanhedrim, who were seeking for witnesses against him; and by them was pronounced worthy of death.

The (second) Cockcrowing.

Assembling of the Sanhedrim in their Hall in the Temple: they condemn

Our Lord is taken before Pilate, who sends him to Herod, by whom he is
sent back to Pilate.

Condemnation of Christ by Pontius Pilate.

Christ crucified.

The darkness begins, which spread over the whole land for three hours.
Our Saviour expires, at the hour of Evening Sacrifice, when the Pharisees
and their followers were beginning to slay the lamb for their Passover.
The Veil of the Temple rent from top to bottom.

Christ taken down from the Cross, hastily embalmed, and then interred.
Beginning of the Sabbath:





Peter and John commissioned to prepare for the Paschal Supper.



12 AND on

17 Now on the first
the first Now the day of
day of unleavened bread day of unleavened bread, unleavened bread came,
the disciples came to when they killed the when it was necessary
Jesus, saying unto him, passover, his disciples for the passover to be
"Where wilt thou that say unto him, "Where killed.
And he sent
we make ready for thee wilt thou that we go and Peter and John, saying,
to eat the passover?" make ready that thou "Go and make ready for
18 And he said," Go into mayest eat the passover?" us the passover, that we
the city, to such a man, 13 And he sendeth two of may eat it.”
9 And they
and say unto him, The his disciples, and saith said unto him, "Where
Teacher saith, My time unto them, "Go ye into wilt thou that we make
is near; I keep the pass-the city, and there will ready?" 10 And he said
over at thy house with meet you a man bearing unto them, "Behold,
my disciples." 19 And a pitcher of water: fol- when ye have entered
the disciples did as Jesus low him. 14 And where- into the city, a man
commanded them: and soever he shall enter in, will meet you bearing
they made ready the
say ye to the master of a pitcher of water:
into the
the house, The Teacher follow him

saith, Where is the guest-house where he entereth
chamber, in which I may in. And say to the
eat the passover with my master of the house,
disciples? 15 And
he The Teacher saith unto
will show you a large thee, Where is the guest-
upper room furnished chamber, in which I may
and ready there make eat the passover with my
ready for us." 16 And his disciples !


12 And he


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Circumstances at the Paschal Table before the Institution of the

MATT. XXVI. 20 Now when evening came, he placed himself at table with the twelve.

Lord's Supper.*


17 AND when evening came, he goeth with the twelve.


14 AND when the
hour came, he placed
himself at table,+ and
the twelve apostles
with him. 15 And
he said unto them,
"With desire I have
desired to eat this
passover with you

before I suffer: 16 for
I say unto you, I
shall not any more
eat of it, until it be
fulfilled in the king-
dom of God."

17 And he took
the cup, and gave
thanks, and said,
"Take this, and di-
vide it among your-
selves: 18 for I say

unto you, I will not
drink of the fruit of


* The order of those occurrences which are recorded, appears to have been as follows:-1. Introductory observations of our Lord. 2. Observations in relation to the contention of the Apostles respecting precedency. 3. Jesus washes their feet, and discourses thereon. 4. He announces the treachery of Judas; after which this Apostle withdraws. 5. Declarations to the Apostles, including two announcements of Peter's denial of him. Then followed the institution of the Lord's Supper, as given in the following Section.

* Here the verb is ανεπεσε: in Matthew it is ανέκειτο. The first refers to the act of reclining, the latter to the state of recumbency. The engraving of the Last Supper from Poussin, (one of the Sept Sacramens), represents our Lord and the Apostles in the recumbent posture; thus truly picturing the reality. (See Note, p. 74). Another of the Sept Sacramens gives the scene in the house of Simon the Pharisee, (Part V. Sect. ii.), in the same correct manner.

Or, (without the idiom), I have earnestly desired, midvμig eñedvμnoa.

This must have been "the Cup of Wine" with which, says Lightfoot, "the Paschal Supper began.” See Hebr. and Talm. Exerc. on Matt. xxvi. 26.





the vine, until the kingdom of God shall have come."

24 Now there was even a strife among them, which of them seemed to be greatest. 25 And he said unto them, "The kings of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them; and they that exercise authority over them are called benefactors. 26 But ye shall not act thus: but let the greater among you be as the younger; and him that leadeth as he that serveth. 27 For which is greater, he that is at table, or he that serveth? is not he that is at table? but I am in the midst of you as he that serveth. 28 Now ye are they who have continued with me in my trials: 29 and, since my Father hath appointed unto me a kingdom, I promise unto you, 30 that ye shall eat and drink at my table in my kingdom; and ye shall sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel."


Now before the feast of the passover, Jesus knowing that his hour had come, that he should depart out of this world, unto the Father, having loved his own that were in the world, he

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