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196 WILLIAM McKINLEY

never before, and with increasing transportation facilities come increasing
knowledge and larger trade. Prices are fixed with mathematical precision
by supply and demand. The world's selling prices are regulated by
market and crop reports. We travel greater distances in a shorter space
of time, and with more ease, than was ever dreamed of by the fathers.
Isolation is no longer possible or desirable. The same important
news is read, though in different languages, the same day in all Christen-
dom. The telegraph keeps us advised of what is occurring everywhere,
and the press foreshadows, with more or less accuracy, the plans and pur-
poses of nations. Market prices of products and of securities are hourly
known in every commercial mart, and the investments of the people
extend beyond their own national boundaries into the remotest parts of
the earth. Vast transactions are conducted and international exchanges
are made by the tick of the cable. Every event of interest is immediately
bulletined.
The quick gathering and transmission of news, like rapid transit, are
of recent origin, and are only made possible by the genius of the inventor
and the courage of the investor. It took a special messenger of the Gov-
ernment, with every facility known at the time for rapid travel, nineteen
days to go from the city of Washington to New Orleans, with a message
to General Jackson that the war with England had ceased and a treaty of
peace had been signed. How different now ! . .
At the beginning of the nineteenth century there was not a mile of
steam railroad on the globe. Now there are enough miles to make its
circuit many times. Then there was not a line of electric telegraph ;
now we have a vast mileage traversing all lands and all seas. God and
man have linked the nations together. No nation can longer be indiffer-
ent to any other. And, as we are brought more and more in touch with
each other, the less occasion is there for misunderstanding and the stronger
the disposition, when we have differences, to adjust them in the court of
arbitration, the noblest form for the settlement of international disputes.
My fellow-citizens, trade statistics indicate that this country is in a
state of unexampled prosperity. The figures are almost appalling. They
show that we are utilizing our fields and forests and mines, and that we
are furnishing profitable employment to the millions of workingmen
throughout the United States, bringing comfort and happiness to their
homes, and making it possible to lay by savings for old age and dis-
ability. w
That all the people are participating in this great prosperity is seen
in every American community, and shown by the enormous and unprece-
dented deposits in our savings banks. Our duty is the care and security

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WILLIAM McKINLEY 197

of these deposits, and their safe investment demands the highest integrity
and the best business capacity of those in charge of these depositories of
the people's earnings.
We have a vast and intricate business, built up through years of toil
and struggle, in which every part of the country has its stake, which will
not permit of either neglect or undue selfishness. No narrow, sordid
policy will subserve it. The greatest skill and wisdom on the part of
manufacturers and producers will be required to hold and increase it.
Our industrial enterprises, which have grown to such great proportions,
affect the homes and occupations of the people and the welfare of the
country.
Our capacity to produce has developed so enormously, and our pro-
ducts have so multiplied, that the problem of more markets requires our
urgent and immediate attention. Only a broad and enlightened policy
will keep what we have. No other policy will get more. In these times
of marvelous business energy and gain we ought to be looking to the
future, strengthening the weak places in our industrial and commercial
systems, that we may be ready for any storm or strain.
By sensible trade arrangements which will not interrupt our home
production we shall extend the outlet for our increasing surplus. A sys-
tem which provides a mutual exchange of commodities is manifestly
essential to the continued and healthful growth of our export trade. We
must not repose in fancied security that we can forever sell everything and
buy little or nothing. If such a thing were possible it would not be best
for us, or for those with whom we deal. We should take from our cus-
tomers such of their products as we can use without harm to our indus-
tries and labor. -
Reciprocity is the natural outgrowth of our wonderful industrial
development under the domestic policy now firmly established. What we
produce beyond our domestic consumption must have a vent abroad. The
excess must be relieved through a foreign outlet, and we should sell every-
where we can and buy wherever the buying will enlarge our sales and
productions, and thereby make a greater demand for home labor.
The period of exclusiveness is past. The expansion of our trade
and commerce is the pressing problem. Commercial wars are unprofit-
able. A policy of good will and friendly trade relations will prevent
reprisals. Reciprocity treaties are in harmony with the spirit of the
times; measures of retaliation are not. If, perchance, some of our tariffs
are no longer needed for revenue or to encourage and protect our indus-
tries at home, why should they not be employed to extend and promote
our markets abroad 2 Then, too, we have inadequate steamship service.

198 WILLIAM McKINLEY

New lines of steamers have already been put into commission between the Pacific Coast ports of the United States and those on the western coasts of Mexico and Central and South America. These should be followed up with direct steamship lines between the eastern coast of the United States and South American ports. One of the needs of the times is direct commercial lines from our vast fields of production to the fields of consumption that we have but barely touched. Next in advantage to having the thing to sell is to have the convenience to carry it to the buyer. We must encourage our merchant marine. We must have more ships. They must be under the American flag, built and manned and owned by Americans. These will not only be profitable in a commercial sense; they will be messengers of peace and amity wherever they go. We must build the Isthmian Canal, which will unite the two oceans and give a straight line of water communication with the western coasts of Central and South America and Mexico. The construction of a Pacific cable cannot be longer postponed. . . . Who can tell the new thoughts that have been awakened, the ambitions fired and the high achievements that will be wrought through this Exposition ? Gentlemen, let us ever remember that our interest is in accord, not conflict, and that our real eminence rests in the victories of peace, not those of war. We hope that all who are represented here may be moved to higher and nobler effort for their own and the world's good, and that out of this city may come, not only greater commerce and trade for us all, but, more essential than these, relations of mutual respect, confidence and friendship which will deepen and endure. Our earnest prayer is that God will graciously vouchsafe prosperity, happiness and peace to all our neighbors, and like blessings to all the peoples and powers of earth.

ALBERT J. BEVERIDGE (1862 –)

THE BRILLIANT INDIANA ORATOR

MONG the younger men who have attained the honor of member. ship in the United States Senate may be named Albert Jeremiah

Beveridge, whose elevation to a seat in that distinguished body was a suitable reward for his brilliant oratorical powers and statesmanlike abilities. Like so many of our leading legislators, Mr. Beveridge was essentially a self-made man. Born on an Ohio farm, he obtained an education by working his way through DePauw University, for which laudable purpose he took up the honorable calling of a bookagent. His adopted profession was that of the law, in which he became an advocate in many important cases in the courts of Indiana. While still a boy, he had shown himself a ready and eloquent speaker in college contests, and he now employed his skill in oratory in the field of Republican politics, winning so high a position in his party as to be elected to the Senate from Indiana for the term beginning March, 1899. In the summer of 1899, Mr. Beveridge visited Eastern Asia, where he made a thorough study of the relations of the Russians and Chinese in Manchuria, his observations leading to a series of illuminating letters which throw new light upon the position and purposes of Russia in Asia.

EULOGY OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY

[At the meeting of the National League of Republican Clubs, held at Chicago in October, 1902, Senator Beveridge made a brief but telling speech, than which we can offer no more characteristic example of his style of oratory. Its occasion gave the cue to its character, which is that of an ardent eulogy of the Republican party, of whose principles Mr. Beveridge is an earnest advocate.]

Young blood is Republican blood. It is the blood that believes and builds; the blood of faith and hope and deeds. That is why there is no

200 ALBERT J. BEVERIDGE

political home for Young Americans except in the Republican party.
Young Americans are believers in the Republic's future. They do not
think that all the great work has been done.
Last year the Superintendent of a great railway system that enters
Chicago—himself a penniless, friendless boy who started as a freight
handler at 50 cents a day, and who is now only 50 years of age—told me
that among the Io,000 men under him he was searching for an Assistant
Superintendent equal to the work required. Said he: “The question is
not, Shall I take Brown or Jones or Smith? The question is, Where is the
man 2'' And that is the question which industry and politics and religion
and all the world has asked since the dawn of history, and never asked so
earnestly as to-day. “Where is the man P” asks modern society. And
the Republican party would have you say: “I am he by virtue of my good
right hand I am he by virtue of days of toil and nights of study 1" Dem-
ocracy would have you say in answer: “I am not he, and he does not live.
You ask too much You ask for equipment; I offer you complaint. You
ask industry; I offer you words.”
Greater America and Republicanism ; little America and Democracy.
It is no new story. In the history of every expanding race, its advance
has been opposed within itself. In England there were and are little Eng-
landers who saw ruin in every forward march of the British Empire that
circles the world with civilization. In Russia there were little Russians
who resisted the instinct of expansion and held in check for half a cen-
tury the flight of the Russian eagles. In Germany there were little Ger-
mans who fought the consolidation of the German people. Where are all
of them now History has effaced their names from the chronicles of
time, as nature destroys all trace of resistance to her fecund and produc-
tive forces. So shall it be in America, and the children's children of
those who now declare that imperialism is our death, and not our life,
will refuse to admit that their fathers advocated such a doctrine; and
they will refuse successfully, because the world will have forgotten the
names of those who at the beginning of the twentieth century resisted
the Republic's world advance.
You cannot name the men who fought Jefferson's purchase of Louisi-
ana; they are forgotten. You cannot name the men who declared that
the seizure of Texas and California was the Republic's doom ; they are
forgotten. You cannot name the men who declaimed against the folly of
taking Alaska; they are forgotten. Yet, when Jefferson's works shall
have grown dim, his capture for the Republic of the vast territory which
is now the Republic's heart will be his immortal monument. When
Seward's irrepressible conflict shall have become a curious phrase, his

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