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engineering science to the Nile sources, one of the most fertile regions of the earth, and the home of millions of prosperous agriculturists. This is the goal of Anglo-Egyptian statesmanship, and the ambition to reach it by common effort is now shared by all enlightened Egyptians from the Khedive downwards.

His Highness in the late autumn of 1901 visited the Soudan for the first time, and was received with much enthusiasm, notably at Khartoum, where representatives of the tribesmen gathered from all parts. He declared himself to be deeply impressed by what he saw of the work of the military and civil authorities. That England can depend upon his active and sympathetic help is now assured. As illustrating the radical change in the attitude of the governing classes of Egypt towards British control, it may here be mentioned that in May Arabi Pasha was permitted to terminate his exile in Ceylon.

The occupation in June of certain points in the Bahr-elGhazal by the Anglo-Egyptian forces led to considerable discussion in France and Belgium, where an attempt was made to create the impression that Great Britain had encroached upon territory leased to Belgium and had exceeded her rights under the Convention of 1894. Nothing of the sort had, however, been done. There were no Belgian posts in the Bahr-elGhazal, Belgium being prevented from establishing a foothold in the province by virtue of her agreement with France. The Anglo-Egyptian occupation was effected in the ordinary course and by virtue of the reconquest, by which Egypt resumed all her former rights in the Soudan. There was no breach of the Convention of 1894, and the discussion in the Continental Press was more remarkable for its animus against England than for a knowledge of the facts of the matter.

III. EAST AFRICA AND UGANDA.

Abyssinia and Northern Somaliland.-Events in Abyssinia proper have pursued a normal course, and British relations with the Emperor Menelek bave been further strengthened by the combined operations in 1901 against the Mullah, Muhammad Abdullah, the son of an Ogaden shepherd, who, about ten years ago, founded a new sect near Berbera, and whose activity had been that of a minor Mahdi. His political and religious energies were directed equally against the Abyssinians on the frontier and British power in the Northern Somaliland Protectorate. Abyssinian action against him in 1900 had been indecisive, and his influence grew so menacing that plans were concerted with King Menelek for his suppression. Ras Makonnen, the Abyssinian Commander-in-Chief, was to make an advance from the frontier, while a British force from Berbera was to enter the Ogaden country. Major the Hon. A. Hanbury Tracy and Captain R. T. Cobbold were attached to Ras

1901.)

The Somaliland Expedition. -- Uganda. [399 Makonnen's force, and it was agreed that for the purposes of the operations the frontier should be regarded as non-existent. A column of Somali levies was formed by February under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Swayne, and in April moved to Burao. The Abyssinians had then driven the Mullah and his Ogaden followers into the Dolbahanta country, within the Protectorate. On June 1 the column reached Sanala, southeast of Eldab, and captured much of the enemy's live stock. Leaving a zareba under Captain Macneil with 300 men, Colonel Swayne moved against the Mullah's camp at Yahel. The zareba meanwhile was twice fiercely attacked, but gallantly defended, and the enemy driven off. Further operations resulted in the break up of the Mullah's force, but the Mullah was neither killed nor captured. Lord Lansdowne kept a firm hand on the expedition, deprecating an advance into the arid and difficult country of the Haud, but a series of crushing blows were dealt at the Mullah's influence, and the results of the joint expedition were temporarily to relieve both Abyssinia and the Protectorate from what threatened to be a serious menace. Italy was informally acquainted with the purpose of the expedition, but it may be mentioned that the disturbances did not extend to Italian Somaliland. Here, as in Erythrea, where the delimitation of the frontier with Abyssinia has been concluded, there is nothing notable to record.

Uganda, Unyoro and British East Africa Protectorates.-The most important fact of the year is the completion of the laying of the line of rails from Mombassa, which at the end of the year reached Lake Victoria. The completion of earthworks, ballasting and viaducts will occupy the greater part of 1902. According to Colonel Gracey, R.E., who made a special report on the line in 1901, an approximate estimate of the total cost is 5,206,0001. After the operations against the Nandis (an extremely warlike race), in the latter part of 1900, Uganda enjoyed unbroken peace. The Special Commissioner, Sir H. H. Johnston, who has been succeeded by Colonel Hayes Sadler, of the Northern Somaliland Protectorate, issued his report on the country in July. After a succinct history of this ancient African Kingdom he traces events since the advent of the whites—the religious civil wars, the rebellions, the Soudanese revolt-and describes the substitution of a civil for a military administration. He calculates that, since the establishment of the Protectorate in 1894, Uganda has cost Great Britain 1,394,0001., and 4,900,0001. (Colonel Gracey's figure is 5,206,0001.) for the railway.

He then proceeds to consider the question, what hope there is of ever recovering this sum, either by direct payments to the Treasury or by profit to British commerce. The subject is complicated by the political reasons for which Uganda is held—the necessity of control over the Nile springs and the secondary necessity of holding a large portion of East Africa as a reserve for the population of India. As for the financial and commercial

outlook Sir H. Johnston knows the country to possess wealth in certain trade products “which is almost sure to bring about a financial equilibrium within the next few years." The Eastern Province—about 12,000 square miles—js “decidedly a white man's country,” with a rich soil, healthy climate, and, to a great extent, uninhabited by any native race. He specifies the great variety of tropical and subtropical products-above all rubberthe Protectorate can yield. There are great coal beds on the upper plateau of Mount Eglon; iron (including hematite) ore is abundantly met with throughout the Protectorate ; there is an abundance of good limestone for building and brickmaking earth ; there are unquestionable indications of gold in distant parts of the Protectorate, and traces of copper in Busoga, but investigations into the mineral wealth of the region have thus far “ led to no very encouraging results."

On the whole Sir H. Johnston's report on the economic resources of the region does not excite enthusiasm, or belief in their rapid utilisation and development, or in the chances of getting back any considerable portion of the capital outlay by the Imperial Government. The administrative side of the report, however, shows gratifying results. The local revenue for the year ended March, 1901, was 66,0001. ; postal and telegraph services have been effectively organised ; road construction has been proceeded with ; the transport service has been improved ; surveys have been made of the Nile Province; a good main road has been cut from Ankole, on the German frontier, northward through Toro to the Nile near Wadelai ; the military forces of the Protectorate have been reorganised, and the political organisation of the various Native States perfected.

A somewhat similar general report on British East Africa was received in June from Sir C. Eliot, giving an exhaustive description of the administrative organisation, resources and population of the four provinces-Jubaland, Tanaland, Seyidiye and Ukamba. Rubber is the most promising immediate product; gold discoveries in the mountain masses of the Kenia and Taila Hills are always possible, “but hitherto we have no data to warrant optimistic views.” Sir C. Eliot asks that the civil and military staffs should be increased and that Imperial money should be spent in developing the Protectorate. “If it is worth while to spend 5,000,0001. on a railway it must be worth while to spend a few thousands in making that railway pay.". The argument is a sufficient description of the economic position of the Protectorate. The news of the year 1901 may be compressed into an account of the punitive operations in consequence of the murder of Mr. Sub-Commissioner Jenner in Jubaland in November, 1900, by the Ogadens. Colonel Ternan was in command of the expedition, which reached a point fifty-seven miles beyond Afmudu, without, however, capturing the actual murderers, one of whom was reported killed. A heavy fine was inflicted on the Ogaden Sultan. Lord Lansdowne was opposed to the occu

1901.)
Africa, East and West.

[401 pation of interior posts, and it appeared that the province of Jubaland was “ of little or no value." It was, therefore, decided to hold only Kismayu and Yonte and abandon Mfudu and other interior positions, thus leaving the Ogadens to quarrel among themelves.

Turning to German East Africa, it should be noted that the State grant in aid in 1901 was 445,8501. ; that the Usambara Railway is being extended to Nomba, and that a syndicate has been formed to lay a railway between Dar-es-Salaam and Mroyo. The capital is 22,000,000 marks, and the Government guarantees the interest at 3 per cent. The concession is for ninety-three years, and the line is to be completed in five years. In Zanzibar and Pemba, which have suffered a severe loss by the death of General Sir Lloyd Matthews, there has been steady progress in the working of the Slave Decree, 1,685 persons receiving their freedom. The abolition of slavery is so gradual that the dislocation of commercial and social life is, on the whole, less disastrous than seemed to be probable. In the British Central African Protectorate there was during the year ending March 1901 a marked falling off in the exports (from 79,3001. to 38,7001.), and a number of coffee plantations have been abandoned. In North-Eastern Rhodesia there are as yet no European settlements of importance, but a good route to Fort Jameson has been opened via Tete. Portuguese East Africa again presents no features of note apart from military activity along the Transvaal border. In Madagascar peace has prevailed, but the French are finding the island more difficult to develope than was believed would be the case. In Mauritius there is little to note. The general condition of the colony is sounder than in previous years, but the poverty of the people is chronic, and the Governor, Sir Graham Bower, suggests that the development of South Africa may give a field for Mauritian emigration.

IV. WEST AND NORTH AFRICA.

West and North Africa during 1901 have provided little that is of dramatic interest, and, generally, the record is one of the gradual extension of European influence. Dealing with the British possessions first, it should be noted that, in conjunction with the French, operations were undertaken in the Gambia valley against Fodi Kabbah, who was killed, and that the Gover. nor, Sir G. Denton, concluded an agreement with the local chief, Moussa Mottah, by which both banks of the Gambia right up to the French frontier became British territory. The Gold Coast, Ashanti and the Northern Territories have been recovering from the effects of the Ashanti war, upon which fresh ligbt has been thrown during the year by the publication of official correspondence, which makes it clear that the principal immediate cause of the rising at Kumassi was Sir F. Hodgson's demand for the production of the Golden Stool and for the payment of

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arrears of the old indemnity. The revenue for 1900 shows a total (for the entire region) of 333,2031., the highest ever raised. Imports were of the value of 1,294,2631. and exports 855,4451., but there was a steady decline in the gold exports; and there was so much company-mongering in connection with the industry that the Colonial Office issued a belated warning against the sale of bogus concessions. On the other hand, the prospects of the gold industry are good, given sound finance and management, and the future of the country is promising. Great developments are expected to follow the completion of the Sekondi Railway. In Sierra Leone affairs seem to have resumed their normal condition after the unsuccessful revolt against the Hut Tax, which is now, according to official statements, being satisfactorily collected. The revenue in 1900 was 168,6681. and the expenditure 154,4211. The Protectorate receipts were 33,4681., of which 30,046l. was yielded by the Hut Tax. Agitation against the tax is, however, continued, and some Europeans claim that the prosperity of the colony is steadily declining because of persistence in the exaction of the impost. In Lagos the chief fact to be recorded is the opening in March of the railway from Lagos to Abeokuta and Ibadan, for which the Imperial Government had made an advance of 792,5001. under the Colonial Loans Act of 1899. In North and South Nigeria there has been a recrudescence of administrative and military activity, which became possible upon the withdrawal of the troops lent to the Gold Coast for the relief of Kumassi. There was no special report from Northern Nigeria, but General Sir F. Lugard has been actively engaged in organising the administration. Early in the year an expedition under Colonel Kemball overthrew, after sharp fighting, the Emirs of Kontagaro and Bida, said to be the most powerful feudatories of the Sokoto Empire. In June Fadel Allah, the son of the notorious Raba, who had been killed by the French on the confines of the British sphere, entered the country south-east of Ibi, on the River Benue, and asked for British protection, and an officer, Major M'Clintock, was sent to him. Before the question could decided by General Lugard, the French, who had driven Fadel from the neighbourhood of Lake Chad, and had entered Bornu, in the British sphere, came up with Fadel's army, and in the engagement that ensued the chief was killed. The position was that Bornu was without a Sultan, and that the French were in force on British territory, but precise particulars are lacking, and the political consequences of the “invasion” or justið. able intrusion were not apparent. Unfortunately an English officer in the region was killed by two Frenchmen, but this seems to have been a case of murder to resist lawful arrest. In Adamawa a column under Colonel Morland overthrew slaveraiding chiefs and established a British resident at Yola.

In Southern Nigeria the revenue for the year ending March 31, 1900, was 164,1081., and the expenditure 176,1401. Major

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