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and continued, notwithstanding the astical History in the University of entreaties of her advisers, to transact Cambridge, and was elected a Fellow business. On January 19 it was an of Emmanuel College, receiving shortly nounced that her condition caused afterwards the honorary degree of grave anxiety, and from one end of the D.C.L. from Durham, and of LL.D. Empire to the other eager messages of from Glasgow. In 1885 he was apinquiry and condolence poured in. A pointed Canon Residentiary of Worslight rally roused a moment's hope cester, and was Examining Chaplain that her constitution would triumph, to Bishop Philpott. Meanwhile he had but it was speedily extinguished, and been engaged in literary work, the first on January 22, at 6.30 P.M., the Queen two volumes of his History of the passed peacefully away, surrounded by Papacy” having appeared in 1882, of her children and grandchildren, among which further instalments appeared whom was the German Emperor, who down to 1894, when the demands upon on the first news reaching him had his time prevented his completion of a hurried from Berlin and reached work which met with the approval of Osborne in time to spend the last two both Protestants and Roman Catholics. days by his grandmother's bedside, and In 1886 he founded the English Histo share in the respectful sorrow which torical Review, at Oxford, and retained was felt and expressed throughout the the editorship for five years. In the world at the passing of Victoria the same year (1886) he was sent to the Beloved. The reverence and affection United States to represent Emmanuel she inspired, her noble character and College, Cambridge, at the 250th anni. lofty devotion to duty, were a source versary of the founding of Harvard of strength to the British Empire, College, Mass., which conferred upon and one great Minister after another him the degree of LL.D., and in 1889 testified that her influence was exer his own college at Oxford, Merton, cised with signal wisdom, and always elected him an honorary Fellow. In within constitutional limits and with 1890 he was nominated to a canonry out regard to any personal preference. of Windsor, but before he was installed
the Bishopric of Peterborough fell Bishop of London.-Mandell Creigh vacant by the translation of Dr. Magee ton, son of Robert Creighton, of Carlisle, to the Archbishopric of York, and Dr. a man of small means, was born in Creighton was nominated and con1843, and after five years at the Car secrated in Westminster Abbey in 1891. lisle Grammar School, he obtained a In the following year, at the tercenScholarship at Durham Grammar tenary of Trinity College, Dublin, he School, then under Dr. Holden, and was made a Lit. Doc. His distinction thence was elected postmaster at Mer as a preacher and a scholar was marked ton College, Oxford, 1862. He obtained by his nomination as select preacher a First Class in Moderations, 1864, and at Oxford (1886), at Cambridge (1887), graduated in 1866 with a First Class in as Hulsean Lecturer (1892) and Rede Lit. Hum., and a Second Class in Law Lecturer (1895) in the University of and History. In the same year he was Cambridge, and as Romanes Lecturer elected Fellow of his college, and re in the University of Oxford (1896). In mained there as tutor until 1873, when, this year also he was present at the having married Louisa Hume, daughter coronation at Moscow of the Emperor of Robert von Glehn, of Sydenham, the and Empress of Russia in the Kremlin friend of Mendelssohn, he was ordained as the chief representative of the Angli(priest, 1873), and in 1875 he was ap can Church, and although his precise pointed to his college living of Emble status was a matter of keen controversy ton, near Bamborough Head, North in his own country, he was received umberland. There he had for a time and treated with great honour by the as his curate A. H. Dyke-Acland, who Emperor and the hierarchical authorhad previously been at Cuddesdon ities of the Russian Church. His Theological College, and subsequently activity and power of organisation, renounced his orders and became M.P. with the exercise of careful control for Rotherham, and Vice-President of and discreet supervision, won for Dr. the Council, 1892-5. Mr. Creighton Creighton the confidence of the clergy was appointed by Bishop Lightfoot and laity throughout the diocese of Rural Dean of Alnwick, 1879, and Peterborough. He did much to forHonorary Canon of Newcastle by Bishop ward the restoration of the cathedral, Wilberforce, of Newcastle, 1882 ; but and to bring about harmonious action in 1884 he resigned his connection between all sections of the Church, and with the North of England on being as far as possible with the Nonconappointed Dixie Professor of Ecclesi formists. On the Bishopric of London
105 becoming vacant by the transfer of Dr. at Fulham Palace on January 14, Temple to the Primacy (1896), public apparently painlessly, and was buried opinion welcomed him as a most fitting with great solemnity amid marks of
At the confirmation of his widespread regret in St. Paul's Catheelection in Bow Church, Mr. Kensit dral. attempted to make a protest, on some unintelligible grounds, but the only Duc de Broglie.-Charles Jacques result was an invitation from the Victor Albert, Duc de Broglie, was son bishop to the interrupter to tea at of Achille, Duc de Broglie, Minister Fulham Palace. In his administration under Louis Philippe, a prominent of the diocese of London he displayed statesman, who had married a daughter & remarkable combination of wisdom, of Madame de Staël, and grandson of energy and zeal. The differences be a politician who had perished on the tween the High Church and Low scaffold during the French Revolution. Church parties, as represented by the He was born in 1821, and after a proEnglish Church Union and the Church mising university career entered the Association, were threatening to pro diplomatic service, but the revolution duce a serious breach in the Church of 1848 obliged him to retire into private of England. Dr. Creighton devoted life. He devoted himself to literature, himself to attempting to promote har and to a series of historical articles in mony, and his recognised authority on the Revue des Deux Mondes and Le the historical aspects of ecclesiastical Correspondant. His more important questions was of great service in this religious works were, “ The Church and connection, Whilst ready to recognise the Roman Empire in the IVth Cengreat latitude of opinion within the tury," “La Souveraineté Pontificale Church, he was prepared to enforce its et La Liberté," and “La Liberté discipline against such as were fla Divine et la Liberté Humaine." In grantly contumacious, and this know 1862 he was elected a member of the ledge of his character did much to French Academy, but rather on politrestrain many of the extreme party. ical grounds than for his literary disIn 1899 he presided with a dignity tinction. In 1869, on the promise of and tact which were universally recog. the establishment of the Liberal Emnised at the London Church Congress. pire, he stood as a candidate for the One of his last acts was to inaugurate Corps Législatif in the Department the Round Table Conference held at of the Eure, but was defeated by his Fulham just before he fell ill, at which official opponent, having taken part representatives of both parties met to with Thiers, Dufaure, Daru and others discuss certain points of doctrine con in founding L'Union Libérale. On the nected with the Holy Communion. establishment of the Republic he was His own position was that of a Broad returned for the Eure as a Monarchist Churchman in doctrine, in sympathy, to the National Assembly in 1871, but however, with many views of High M. Thiers, anxious to get rid of so Churchmen, and recognising their zeal dangerous a competitor, offered him and devotion to their work under the the post of ambassador in London. most unpromising conditions. In the From this post, however, he continued distribution of his patronage he was to direct the policy of the Orleanist specially wishful to promote hard party, and was constantly in Paris workers in obscure parishes without voting from his place in the Chamber reference to their individual opinions. against M. Thiers, who had abandoned
In addition to the “ History of the the Orleanists for the Republic, as the Papacy” (1882-94), Bishop Creighton form of Government which
" least had found leisure during his busy life divided” the nation. The Duc de to compile “ Primers" of Roman and Broglie, as leader of the Conservative of English History, and he was the Right Centre, endeavoured to force on a author of various standard works, "The Monarchical Government, and in May, Age of Elizabeth," “ The Tudors and 1873, having compelled M. Thiers to the Reformation,'
"“ Life of Simon de resign, persuaded Marshal MacMahon Montfort,” “ Cardinal Wolsey," etc. to become President. He was appointed
He had been troubled for some time Minister of Foreign Affairs and Presiby an internal complaint, and late in dent of the Cabinet. In order to carry 1900 underwent an operation for appen out a fusion between the Legitimists dicitis, which seemed at first success and Orleanists, and to benefit by the ful. Further complications, however, nomination of all mayors having been ensued, and a second operation was placed in the hands of the Govern deemed necessary, and from this the ment, a vote was carried making the Bishop never rallied, but passed away Marshal's Presidency endure for seven
years; and the Comte de Paris paid the composer Lavigna, and made such a visit to the Comte de Chambord progress that in 1839 his first opera, at Frohsdorf in August, 1873. The ic Oberto Conte di San Bonifacio," was arrangement, however, broke down
produced at Milan. He had married before the latter's refusal to abandon in 1836 Margherita Barezzi, daughter the white flag, and the Duc de Broglie's of a merchant at Busseto who was an refusal to accept it in lieu of the tri ardent musician, but in 1839-40 Verdi colour, and in May, 1874, having been lost both his young children and his beaten on a question of procedure by wife just as he was completing "Un the defection of the Legitimists, the Giorno di Regno.” In 1842 he again Duke resigned office and his seat as a appeared before the public with pieces Deputy.
which were more to their taste- * NaIn 1876 he was elected to the Senate bucodonosor " (1842), I Lombardi" by his department, and the political (1843), Ernani” and “I Due Fosadventure known as the “ Seize Mai
(1844), all of which were enthusi-the date of the dismissal of Jules astically received and played at all the Simon's Cabinet—brought back M. de opera-houses of Europe. In more than Broglie as President of the Council one of these operas political allusions and Minister of Justice in an Orleanist were discovered in the songs, and Verdi, and Bonapartist Cabinet, when he the letters of whose surname could be again attempted to overthrow the Re made to stand for Vittorio Emmanuele, public. He was opposed by Gam ré d'Italia, was raised to the rank of a betta, who so organised the elections popular leader. The three next operas throughout France that a crushing from his pen,
“Giovanna d'Arco" and Republican majority was returned, “Alzira" (1845), and
Attila" (1846). and Marshal MacMahon was informed added nothing to Verdi's fame, but the that his only alternative was
production of “ Macbeth" in London mettre ou se démettre.” The Duc de brought him to England in 1847, and Broglie's Government was beaten as in the same year his “I Masnadieri” soon as the Chambers met in Novem
was performed for the first time at her ber, 1877, and was forced to resign, Majesty's theatre, Jenny Lind taking and in the following year a vote of the chief part. This was followed by censure was passed upon him by the “Il Corsaro" (1848), “La Battaglia Chambers for his unconstitutional acts di Legnano" (1849), “Luisa Miller" when in power. From that time he (1849), and “Stiffelio" (1850), of which took little part in politics, and having only “Luisa Miller" was destined to in 1885 failed to secure re-election, he cross the Alps. Up to this time Verdi retired into private life, and devoted had done little to distinguish his art his leisure to literary work, chiefly from that of numerous fluent comconnected with the eighteenth cen posers, whose aim was to find effective tury. His principal works were “Le songs for distinguished singers. In Secret du Roi," Frédéric II et Marie 1851 he produced at Venice his powerThérèse," " Frédéric II et Louis XV," ful and dramatic work, "Rigoletto," and subsequently he edited in an elabo founded on Victor Hugo's drama, “ Le rate form“ Les Mémoires de Talley roi s'amuse." This was followed by rand”-his last work being a series of “Il Trovatore" (1853), and in the same articles in the Revue des Deux Mondes, year by “La Traviata," at first a failure, entitled, “Le dernier bienfait de la but afterwards one of his most popular Monarchie,” dealing with the reign of operas. This was followed in rapid Louis Philippe. In 1845 the Duc de succession by “Les Vêpres Siciliennes Broglie married Malle. de Galard de (1855), “Simone Boccanegra (1857), Béarn, and died at his home in Paris Un Ballo in Maschera" (1859), ** La on January 19, 1901, having for several Forza del Destino" (1862), and “ Don years suffered from cancer in the throat. Carlos ” (1867). In 1871 the Khedive.
Ismail commissioned him to write an Giuseppe Verdi, the Italian com.
opera on a subject chosen by Mariette poser, was born in 1813 at Roncole, a Bey, and the result was
Aida," provillage in the Apennines, where his duced at Cairo in the winter of 1871, father was an innkeeper. He received and in 1874 he composed his famous his first lessons in music from the Requiem in memory of Manzoni. After village organist, and by his aid he was this he retired to his country house at enabled to go to Milan to pursue his Sant'Agata, and occupied himself more studies. He was, however, rejected at with agriculture than with music, but the Conservatoire for want of suffi in 1887 his “Otello was produced cient musical ability. He thereupon with the greatest success at Milan, and placed himself under the direction of six years later was followed by an even
107 more astonishing work, “Falstaff,” so Senator, but in neither capacity took fresh and full of youth that it was im any active part in political life. He possible to realise that the composer retained his faculties to the end, and had passed his eightieth year. Subse. died at Milan, on January 27, quite quently he devoted himself chiefly to peacefully. A grand funeral was acChurch music, and produced a “ Stabat corded to him by the State; all the Mater" and a Requiem” of great theatres and places of amusement were purity and elevation of style. In 1861 closed, and signs of public grief were he was elected a member of the Italian
everywhere manifest. Parliament, and in 1874 was made a 1
On the 1st, at Hastings, Minnesota, U.S.A., aged 69, Ignatius Donnelly, born in Philadelphia, and educated and practised as a lawyer; was successively Congressman, Senator, and Governor of Minnesota; nominee of the people's party for the Vice-Presidency, 1900; the discoverer of the Bacon cryptogram in Shakespeare's plays, and author of "The Great Cryptogram" (1888). On the 1st, at the Oratory, Brompton, aged 81, Father Richard Stanton, the first member of the Order of Oratorians, founded by Cardinal Newman. On the 2nd, at Oxford, aged 59, Baden Henry Baden-Powell, C.I.E., eldest s. of Professor BadenPowell, of Oxford. Educated at St. Paul's School; entered Indian Civil Service, 1861 ; Judge of the Chief Court of the Punjab, 1885-9; largely concerned in the establishment of the Lahore University ; Hon. M.A. Oxford, 1894 ; author of "Land Systems of British India,” “The Indian Village Community,” etc. On the 2nd, at Elm Park Road, Chelsea, aged 53, Æneas Ranald Macdonell, Chief of Glengarry, s. of Æ. R. Macdonell, H.E.I.C.S. M., 1874, Catherine Frances, dau. of Henry Herries Creed. On the 4th, at Park Grove, Edgbaston, aged 82, Sir John Jaffray, first baronet. Born at Stirling. Educated there and at High School, Glasgow; joint editor of the Birmingham Journal (1844), which afterwards became the Birmingham Daily Post; a strong Liberal, who took an active part in local affairs; was one of the chief supporters of John Bright, and one of the founders of the National Liberal Federation; was prominent in the foundation of the Birmingham and Midland Institute, the Birmingham Free Libraries, and several hospitals, besides being interested in various industrial undertakings. M., 1850, Anna, dau. of Wm. Munton, of Bourne. On the 5th, at Weimar, aged 82, Grand Duke Karl Alexander of Saxe-Weimar, whose birth was celebrated by both Goethe and Schiller. He lived a quiet and retired life, and was a liberal patron of music and the fine arts. He restored the Wartburg, preserved the Goethe and Schiller houses and their archives for the German nation, and was the patron of Liszt. M., 1842, Princess Sophia, dau. of King William of Holland. On the 6th at Chesterfield Gardens, Mayfair, aged 70, Lord Leconfield, Henry Wyndham, second baron. Educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford ; served in 1st Life Guards, 1849-67; sat as a Conservative for West Sussex, 1854-69. M., 1867, Lady Constance Evelyn Primrose, dau. of Lord Dalmeny. On the 6th, at Finchley Road, N.W., aged 63, George Alexander Laws, s. of Cuthbert Umfreville Laws, of Newcastle-on-Tyne. Apprenticed on merchant ship, 1851; served in Government transport service in the Crimean War, 1854-5, and continued seafaring life until 1865, when he became manager of a Steamship Company; served on numerous Royal Commissions dealing with the merchant-navy; took a leading part in opposing the “New Unionism” of the Sailors and Firemen's Union, 1890, and was an energetic supporter of the Shipping Federation. On the 7th, at Sydney, N.S.W., aged 81, Hon. Sir Edward Knox. Born in Denmark. Educated at the Royal Academy, Copenhagen, and at the Cathedral School, Lübeck; went to Australia, 1839; became manager of the Commercial Banking Corporation of Sydney, 1849-55, when he founded the Colonial Sugar Company, and remained Chairman of both until his death. Elected M.L.C., 1856, and again, 1881-5. On the 7th, at Pentre-Brychan, Wrexham, aged 75, LieutenantColonel Henry Warter-Meredith, a grandson of Mungo Park, the African traveller. Entered the Army, 1843; served with 41st Regiment through the Crimean campaign, 1854, and was severely wounded at Inkerman. On the 7th, at Bordighera, aged 60, Major-General Henry George Waterfield, C.B., s. of Major J. Waterfield. Entered the Indian Army, 1857; served with 52nd Regiment through the Indian Mutiny, 1857, and with 66th Ghoorkas, 1858-9; in the Hazara Expedition, 1888 ; commanded 45th Sikhs, 1885-9; in command of the Second Division of the Chitral force, 1895; several times mentioned in despatches. M., 1861, Emily, dau. of Edmund Scott Barber, of Llantrissant House, Glamorgan. On the 9th, at Ribsden, Bagshot, aged 70, Richard Copley Christie. Born at Lenton, Notts. Educated at Lincoln College, Oxford; Professor of History at Owens College,
Manchester, 1854-6; of Political Economy, 1855-66; called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1857; Chancellor of the Diocese of Manchester, 1872-93: Chairman of Sir Joseph Whitworth & Co., 1887-95; a generous benefactor of Owens College and other institutions; learned bibliophile and collector; author of “Etienne Dolet (1880); edited “Diary of Dr. John Worthington " (1886); “Letters of Sir Thos. Copley” (1888), and wrote many literary articles in English and French. On the 10th, at Sydney, N.S.W., aged 68, Sir James Robert Dickson, K.C.M.G., D.C.L. Born at Plymouth. Educated at gow; went to Victoria about 1850, and migrated to Queensland, where he engaged in business; sat as Member of Legislative Assembly, Queensland, 1873-87, and 1892-1900; Secretary for Public Works, 1876; Colonial Treasurer, 1876-9, and 1883-7; Premier and Chief Secretary, 1898; Delegate to England, 1900; Minister of Defence in the First Federal Cabinet, 1901. M., 1855, Annie, dau. of Thomas Ely, of Sudbury, Suffolk. On the 10th, at Rangoon, aged 48, Sir Edward Spence Symes, K.C.I.E. Educated at University College School and University College, London. Entered the Bengal Civil Service, 1873; Assistant Commissioner in Burmah, 1876; Secretary to Chief Commissioner and officer in charge of Delhi State Prisoners, 1886 ; Chief Secretary to the Government of Burmah, 1897; K.C.I.E., 1900. On the 10th, at Anerley, aged 57, Surgeon-Lieutenant-Colonel Saunders B. Haliday, who possessed medals for service in the Abyssinian and Afghan campaigns ; retired from Indian Medical Service, 1887. On the 12th, in Kensington, aged 62, Right Rev. Bransby Lewis Key, s. of C. Aston Key, an eminent London surgeon. Educated at Kensington Grammar School, and St. Augustine's College, Canterbury; ordained in South Africa, 1864, and placed in charge of the Transkei district, where he remained until 1883, when he was consecrated Coadjutor Bishop to Dr. Callaway, whom he succeeded as Bishop of Kaffraria, 1886. On the 12th, at Holwood, Kent, aged 47, Lord Lionel Cecil, s. of second Marquess of Salisbury, and half-brother of the Premier; was Major 5th (Volunteer) Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers, and served in first Transvaal War. On the 13th, aged 43, Lieutenant-Colonel John Blandford Ratteclyffe Butler, of the Indian Staff Corps, mentioned in despatches, and received medal for services with Jacob's Horse (6th Bombay Cavalry) in Afghan War, 1880. On the 13th, at Grosvenor Square, London, aged 62, Sam Lewis, the “ Prince of Money Lenders "; he bequeathed upwards of a million sterling to public charities, including 400,0001. for housing the London poor. On (or about) the 13th, aged 78, M. Hermite, a distinguished French mathematician. On his 70th birthday was presented with medal in presence of an internationally representative scientific gathering. On the 15th, aged 65, M. Arthur Desjardins, Avocat-Général at the Court of Cassation; an eminent authority on international law; arbitrated between England and Belgium as to expulsion of an agitator; agreed with majority of Court of Cassation in favour of revision of the Dreyfus case. On the 15th, at Old Elvet, Durham, aged 75, His Honour Judge Edgar John Meynell, s. of Thomas Meynell, of Kilvington Hall, Yorkshire. Educated at Ampleforth College; called to the Bar, 1852; Recorder of Doncaster, 1870; County Court Judge (Durham), 1873. M., 1856, Maria Louisa, dau. of Richard Samuel Short, of Edlington, Lincolnshire. On the 15th, at Fiesole, ag 73, Arnold Boecklin, a Swiss painter of repute. Born at Basle. Studied at Düsseldorf, Paris and Rome; subsequently divided his time between Rome and Munich; protected by Graf von Schach, 1854-74; appointed Professor of Landscape Painting at the School of Art at Weimar, 1860; painted the mythological pictures on the stair. case of the Munich Museum; settled in Florence, 1876; painted, among other large works, “ The Island of the Blest," “ The Island of the Dead," " Prometheus Vinctus,” “ Spiel der Wellen," and others expressing the spirit of Homer and Æschylus. M., 1850, Angelica, a Roman orphan, who afterwards sat as model for the central figure in his chief pictures. On the 16th, at Bombay, M. Mahadev Govind Ranade, C.I.E. Judge of the High Court of Bombay since 1893; was highly esteemed by both Europeans and natives. On the 16th, at Hampstead, aged 91, Henry William Chisholm, s. of Henry Chisholm, of the Exchequer Office, and Confidential Clerk to Lord Grenville when Prime Minister Educated at Bradford (Wilts) and Bath; appointed Clerk in the Exchequer Bill Office, 1824; assistant to Beaumont Smith, Senior Clerk, whom he succeeded on the discovery of the forgery of 400,0001. Exchequer Bills by the latter, 1842; Chief Clerk of the Exchequer, 1862-7; Warden of the Standards, 1867-77; compiler of the great “Account of National Income and Expenditure, 1688-1868"; author of “ Weighing and Measuring ” (1877), etc. On the 17th, at Rome, aged 57, Frederic W. A. Myers, s. of Rev. F. Myers, of Keswick. Educated at Cheltenham and Trinity