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Naples. He served in the French Army from 1852 to 1870, and subsequently was Brigadier-General on half-pay, the law of 1886 disqualifying members of ex-regnant families being relaxed in his case. In October, at Naples, aged 78, the Duke of San Donato, prominent in the risings against the Bourbons, and as an advocate of Italian unity. In October, Robert Hepburn. For eleven years President of the Royal Caledonian Society, of which he was one of the founders, and for over sixty years actively associated with the Royal Scottish Corporation and the Royal Caledonian Asylum. One of Mr. Hepburn's last services, in his eighty-eighth year, was to assist in raising the Scottish Horse for the Boer War. He was the doyen of the Scottish colony in London, and not the least influential and remarkable of its members. _In October, General Henry Carr Tate, of the Royal Marine Artillery. General Tate, who had reached the age of 90, served in the Royal Marine Battalion on the north coast of Spain in the Carlist War of 1836. In October, in Minnesota, aged 80, Dr. Whipple, the Bishop of Minnesota since 1859, and one of the most distinguished figures in the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States. Dr. Whipple was an authority on Indian questions, and came prominently before his countrymen in 1862 by opposing the war of extermination against the Sioux Indians. He was one of the Government Commissioners after the war, and his recommendations led to a reform of the system of dealing with the native tribes. With these he had great influence, and the treaty with the Sioux Indians opening the Black Hills for settlement was made by him. In October, Lieutenant-General Sir John Cox, K.C.B., a veteran of the campaigns in Afghanistan in 1840-2, in which he repeatedly distinguished himself. He afterwards served in the Crimea, and again in the Indian Mutiny campaign, where he was repeatedly mentioned in despatches, promoted, and made C.B. He became a K.C.B. in 1896. At the end of October, aged 40, as the result of wounds received in action near Brakenlaagte, Colonel George Elliot Benson, Royal Field Artillery, who after much honourable service in the Soudan and Ashanti, had served with the Kimberley Relief Force under Lord Methuen, acting, after the death of Colonel Northcott, as Deputy-Assistant AdjutantGeneral. He was mentioned in despatches, March, 1907, and during the guerilla warfare of the summer and autumn distinguished himself highly. In reporting his death, Lord Kitchener said that “the service loses a most gallant and capable commander, who has invariably led his column with marked success and judgment." Among the other officers who fell in the same engagement were (aged 40) Lieutenant-Colonel Eustace Guinness, R.A., who had obtained promotion to that rank for his services during the war; Major Frederick Dymoke Murray (aged 29), of the Black Watch, who had obtained two steps during the war; Captain Michael William Howard Lindsay (born 1872, s. of Mr. William Alexander Lindsay, K.C., Windsor Herald), of the Seaforth Highlanders, who had served with the Chitral Relief force (1895), and was wounded and mentioned in despatches for very gallant and conspicuous conduct at Magersfontein ; Captain Frederick Temple Thorold (aged 28), of the Yorkshire Light Infantry and 3rd Mounted Infantry, who had a medal with two clasps for the Tirah campaign, and had taken part in many important engagements in South Africa ; and Second Lieutenant Archibald John Corlett (aged 25), who had been promoted to that position in the East Kent Regiment from the ranks of the Natal Police, for general ability and meritorious services.


Ex-Governor Eyre. — On November 30, at Walreddon Manor, Devon, died Edward John Eyre, formerly Governor of Jamaica. He was born in 1815, in a Yorkshire rectory, and emigrated to Australia in 1833, engaging there in sheep farming, and acquiring an estate on the Murray River, where he was a magistrate and Protector of the aborigines, of whose rights he was a steadfast champion. He afterwards took to exploration, and crossed the Continent overland from Sydney to the west, publishing the results of this and other

journeys, in 1845, under the title of * Discoveries in Central Australia," work of enduring interest, not only because of its geographical information, but for the knowledge and sympathy it displayed in matters affecting the aborigines. Lord Grey appointed him in 1846 Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, then under the administra. tion of the late Sir George Grey, and Eyre held this office until 1853. In the following year he was sent to the West Indies in administrative positions in the lesser islands, and in 1862 he

1901. ) OBITUARY.

145 went to Jamaica as Governor in the more fearful loss of life and property ; absence of Sir Charles Darling, be that praise was due to Governor Eyre coming Governor-in-Chief in 1864. for the skill, promptitude, and vigour

It will have been seen that his which he manifested during the early sympathies were with the inferior stages of the insurrection, to the exerraces, and he had had experience cise of which qualities its speedy terof the West Indian “native” problem mination is in great degree to be before he went to Jamaica, where attributed; and that the military and events were to take a form which ex naval operations appeared to have been posed him to odium in certain quarters prompt and judicious.” On the other for qualities foreign to all previous hand, they also reported, having regard indications of his nature and his con to the measures taken after the supvictions. The island was in a discon pression of the insurrection, with the tented state from various causes, and a view to the prevention of its recurrence, coloured man, George William Gordon, that the punishment of death had been a member of the Legislative Assembly, “unnecessarily frequent,” that “the was engaged in an active agitation of a floggings were reckless” and sometimes seditious character among the negroes. barbarous," and that “the burning On October 11, 1865, the negroes rose in of 1,000 houses was wanton and cruel." Morant Bay, sacked the Court House, The evidence on which the mulatto committed several atrocities, and in all Gordon was convicted and executed, killed twenty-five persons, wounded was, in the opinion of the Commisthirty-five, sacked and destroyed stores sioners, “wholly insufficient." The and houses, and endeavoured to raise ex-Governor and also General Nelson, the entire island. Governor Eyre sup who had command of the troops at pressed the rebellion forthwith by pro Morant Bay, and Lieutenant Brand, claiming martial law and by displays R.N., who had presided at many of the of force, and the danger of a general courts martial, were put upon their trial rebellion being ended, the proceeded to for murder at the Central Criminal the punishment of those responsible Court, and also on other issues. The for the rising. Gordon was seized in grand juries threw out the bills in Kingston under martial law (which had every instance, and the agitation in not been proclaimed in the capital), England gradually subsided. Eyre deported to Morant Bay, tried by a was not again employed in the service court martial, and summarily executed. of the Crown, though the costs of his In all 340 persons were executed by defence were eventually refunded him, sentence of court martial, and seventy and he received a pension. For the five others were hanged or shot by the last thirty years of his life he had been soldiery and maroons without trial ; in retirement, maintaining throughout 1,000 houses were burned down by the a dignified silence with regard to the authorities, and furniture, etc., de events which had at one time made his stroyed.

name a cause of sharp division among When the news of these measures his countrymen. reached England there was a great outcry against the Governor. John Li Hung Chang.–Li Hung Chang, Stuart Mill denounced Eyre vigorously, the most prominent Chinese diplo. and demanded that he be put on his matist of the latter half of the ninetrial for murder; but Carlyle defended teenth century, and next to the Emhim with great force and eloquence in press Dowager the most conspicuous a famous essay, the burden of which factor in recent international history was that Eyre by his promptitude saved in the Far East, was born in the early the whites from a general massacre, twenties of Bureaucratic stock. He and the island from ruin. Charles matriculated at Pekin in 1847, and by Kingsley also strongly championed influence was made Commissioner of Eyre. Eyre was recalled, and a Com Finance at Su-chau-a lucrative post mission sent out to the island to which provided a starting point for a investigate the whole matter. The career which was believed to have Commissioners, who were General Sir resulted in great wealth. He first H. Storks, Mr. Russell Gurney (Re became known to Europe for the part corder of London), and Mr. J. B. Maule, he played in the suppression of the reported that “such was the state of Taeping rebellion, and readers of the excitement prevailing in other parts "Life of Gordon" will recall an ocof the island that had more than a casion when Li Hung Chang executed momentary success been obtained by certain rebels whose lives Gordon was the insurgents their ultimate overthrow pledged to preserve, an act of treachery would have been attended with a still which was bitterly resented by Gordon


at the time. After the overthrow of found him useful in her conflict with the rebels, Li Hung Chang, not then the Emperor, who, having imbibed the more than forty, was made Viceroy of ideas of the Reform party in China, Nankin, and then Viceroy of Canton, a sought to free himself from her tute. position which brought him into con lage; and changes were made in the tact with the Western world, and en Court which gave Li much of his former abled him greatly to consolidate his pre-eminence as counsellor. It appears influence. He was concerned in the to be possible that while in Russia coup d'Etat of 1875, by which the two he had laid the foundations for the Dowager Empresses renewed their lease intimate connection between Russian of power, and proclaimed the child i policy in Manchuria and the comKwang-su, Emperor.

plaisance of the Chinese Government Henceforward Li's personal history in conforming to it, for at this time marches with that of China and the he was denounced by some of his ever-recurring friction with the West colleagues as the paid agent of the ern barbarian, and he made a great Northern Power. Subsequent events reputation for adroitness and subtlety confirmed the probability of this theory. in negotiations. After the death of He lost his place in the Tsung-lithe Empress Tsu An, the Empress Tsu Yamên. Then came the coup d'Etat Tsi became supreme, and with her Li of 1898, the death blow to the Emperor's Hung Chang closely allied his fortunes. hopes of emancipation from the How far he played a part in the Palace masterful Empress Dowager. Li Hung intrigues which cleared out of the Chang was again in discredit with the Dowager Empress's way—and out of Li Empress, and was sent into Shantung, Hung Chang's path-high personages and afterwards to the Kwang Provinces such as Prince Kung and the Marquis as Viceroy. When the Boxer outTseng (whose mysterious death is re break arose he left Canton and betook garded as a blot on the fame of the himself to Shanghai, hesitating on the Dowager Empress) none can truth

one hand to obey the edicts of the fully say

The effect was to make the Court against the foreigners, and on Dowager Empress and Lithe arbiters of the other to associate himself with the the destiny of China. For many years Yangtse Viceroys in the maintenance he endeavoured to create an organised l of foreign life and property. In the conArmy and Navy, and to encourage the fused diplomatic history of this period development of the material resources

| it is as yet difficult to say what Li's of China, adding meanwhile to his position was. He held himself forth riches, and to his renown among Euro as mediator, and wished to proceed peans as

a crafty statesman. The to Pekin on a mission of peace, but collapse of China in the war with the allied admirals refused to deal Japan led to his disgrace, and to him with him, and there was, indeed, some fell the humiliation of suing to the victor talk of arresting him. On the relief of for peace. That task discharged, and Pekin, however, he came to the front while still in disgrace, he was sent on with Prince Ching, armed by the Court, a mission to Europe-a contemptuous

which had fled to Signan-fu, with emissary to Russia to represent the powers to negotiate a peace. The story Chinese Emperor at the coronation of 1 of the negotiations need not be told in the Tsar. He was received at Moscow this place. There is, howerer, little with great honour, and indeed in every doubt that while he was negotiating the European capital he visited, including peace he was in collusion with Russia London. It was,” says a writer in for the advancement of her interests the Times, the apotheosis of a career and ambitions in Manchuria-a line of of splendid imposture." On his return policy cut short by his death, and, to China he was subjected to the in apparently, to the satisfaction of the dignity of a fine for walking on a grass Chinese diplomatists who have since plot in the precincts of the Palace, and taken control of affairs, for it would was relegated to a seat in the Tsung. seem that they are as much opposed li-Yamên. Events soon, however, gave to Russian designs as Li Hung Chang him an opportunity of forcing himself was secretly in favour of them. to the front. The Dowager Empress

On the 2nd, Dr. Alexander Hughes Bennett, a well-known physician and authority on epilepsy. On the 4th, Wm. Henry Bagshawe, K.C., Judge of County Courts. Born 1825; called to the Bar in 1848, and was made Judge in 1881, after a successful career at the Bar. On the 4th, Mrs. Henschel (née Lillian Bailey), the famous soprano, and the wife of Mr. Henschel, the equally well-known musician. On the 4th, the Hon. Conrad Dillon, s. of the sixteenth Viscount Dillon, formerly Chief Clerk in the Probate Registry, and an active worker in the Temperance

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147 cause. On the 4th, John Lawrence, of Caerleon, in his 95th year, one of the oldest Masters of Hounds, and a popular figure in Monmouthshire, where he was a considerable landowner. In Germany, Dr. Bruno Schoenlank,* the prominent Socialist author and agitator, a man of brilliant gifts and embittered life, an illegitimate child and a social rebel, whose intellectual powers were marred by nervous disease, and whose career was prematurely ended at the age of forty-two. On the 4th, in Liverpool, John Jackson, a cricketer famous as a fast bowler in the early sixties. On the 6th, Reginald H. Culme-Seymour, eldest s. of Mr. H. H. Culme-Seymour. A famous Oxford oarsman; he stroked the New College boat and Oxford University boat in victorious races in 1901. On the 6th, at Hampstead, aged 55, Miss Kate Greenaway, one of the most successful and dainty illustrators, and the re-creator of an earlier fashion in children's clothing. On the 7th, aged 76, General Henry Knightley Burne, C.B., who had served with distinction in the Sutlej campaign, 1845-6, and in the Burmese War of 1852-3. He was a descendant of Charlemagne and Alfred the Great on the maternal side, and the sixteenth in direct descent from Edward 111. On the 9th, the Rev. Frederick Alexander Ormsby, Vicar of Christ Church, Clapham, where his extreme practices and teachings attracted much attention. On the 9th, Sir James Agnew, formerly Premier of Tasmania, to which colony he had emigrated in 1839. On the 10th, aged 78, Sir Franklin Lushington, the Chief Magistrate of the Metropolis. In early life he served as a member of the Supreme Council of Justice in the Ionian Islands under Sir George Bowen. He received his appointment to the magistracy in London in 1869. On the 10th, at Brighton, aged 100, the Rev. Wm. Hil Tucker. He was the author of “Eton of Old, or Eighty Years Since," a book greatly valued by Etonians. From 1845 to 1892 he was Rector of Dunton-Waylett, near Brentford. At Sydney, New South Wales, aged 68, William Chalmers, Bishop of Goulburn; from the fifties a missionary in the Straits Settlements, and, since 1881, a prominent ecclesiastic in New South Wales. On the 10th, Richard Vary Campbell, Sheriff Principal of the counties of Berwick, Roxburgh and Selkirk, and a prominent Liberal Unionist, as well as a distinguished Scottish lawyer. On the 10th, at Constantinople, the Grand Vizier Halil Rifat Pasha. He was born in 1807, and in early life became a Provincial Governor, from which he advanced eventually to the post of Grand Vizier, succeeding Kiamil Pasha in 1895. A confidant of the Sultan and a complaisant servant, but, as Turkish officials go, a man of capability and honesty. On the 11th, at Brighton, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Horatio Vance, Lieutenant of the King's Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard. He had served with distinction in the Crimea and throughout the Mutiny. On the 12th, Wm. Robert Brownlow, D.D., Roman Catholic Bishop of Clifton, and a scholarly antiquarian. On the 12th, aged 86, at East Grinstead, Arthur Hastie, the oldest practising solicitor in England. On the 13th, Admiral Sir Wm. Houston Stewart. He entered the Navy in 1835, and saw service in the Carlist War, 1836-7, in Chili, and during the Crimean War, being specially mentioned for services at the siege of Sebastopol. In the early sixties he was Superintendent at Chatham Dockyard, and afterwards of Devonport and of Portsmouth. From 1873 to 1881 he was Comptroller of the Navy at Whitehall, and in the latter year was made an Admiral and Commander-in-Chief at Devonport, retiring in 1884. On the 14th, aged 73, Colonel J. H. Mapleson. In his time a celebrated operatic impresario. At sea, on the 9th, aged 44, Joseph Renner Maxwell, Judge in the Gambia Colony. On the 16th, aged 78, Lord Hood of Avalon, a member of a family famous in naval annals. He served at the bombardment of Acre, and afterwards with the Naval Brigade before Sebastopol, and in China at the capture of Canton, eventually attaining the position of Director of Naval Ordnance. From 1879 to 1882, after a period spent at the Admiralty, he was in command of the Channel Fleet, and in 1885 was made First Sea Lord of the Admiralty, retiring in 1889, and being raised to the Peerage in 1892. On the 16th, aged 70, Surgeon-General Wm. George Nicholas Manley, V.C., who behaved with conspicuous gallantry during the operations against the Maoris in New Zealand, for which he received the V.C. He served also with the British Ambulance Corps during the FrancoPrussian War, receiving both German and French decorations for his services to the wounded; in the Afghan War, and in the Egyptian War of 1882, when he was mentioned in despatches, retiring from the Army in 1884 with a reputation unsurpassed in the Medical Service. On the 19th, Colonel David Milne-Home, an officer of the Horse Guards, who served with distinction in the Egyptian War of 1882, and afterwards sat as Conservative member for Berwick-on-Tweed. On the

* Dr. Schoenlank died Oct. 30.

19th, Dr. Henry Sutherland, a distinguished physician, who paid special attentior: to subjects connected with mental disease; for fifteen years Lecturer on Psychological Medicine to the Westminster Hospital. On the 21st, aged 44, Edmund William Smith, archeological surveyor of the North-West Provinces, a post in which he had done much excellent work for the preservation of the architectural wonders of that region. On the 22nd, at the German Embassy, aged 70, Count Paul von Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg, since 1885 German Ambassador to the Court of St. James's. Count Hatzfeldt was a s. of the Count Edmund von Hatzfeldt who married and divorced the Countess Sophie, the friend and patroness of Ferdinand Lassalle; for many years he enjoyed the confidence of Prince Bismarck, for whom he was right-hand man in the Foreign Office in Berlin for some time, being Secretary of State under the great Chancellor. He came to England when the relations with Germany were somewhat strained owing to Germany's developments as a Colonial power in Africa, and during his sixteen years' residence in England did much, often in very difficult circumstances, to maintain friendship between the two Governments. On the 23rd, Robert Holmes White, Solicitor to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and prominent supporter of the Church of England Young Men's Society. On the 24th, Arthur Lewis, the husband of Miss Kate Terry, and a well-known figure in musical and artistic society in London. On the 24th, aged 83, the Very Rev. Evan Lewis, Dean of Bangor since 1884; a learned clergyman and author who had contributed much to the vitality of the Church in Wales. On the 25th, Colonel the Hon. Granville Wm. R. Somerset, third s, of the second Lord Raglan, formerly of the Navy, in which he served in Egypt in 1882, and afterwards of the Royal Monmouthshire Engineers. In November, the Rev. Henry Dew, for fifty-eight years Rector of Whitney-on-the-Wye, Herefordshire. He died in his eighty-fifth year, and was widely known not only as a clergyman, but as an agriculturist, and also an advocate and exponent of the almost lost art of archery. In November, Noel Hoare, born in 1811; was one of the last survivors of the battle of Navarino, where he was wounded, and his naval career was closed. He was a member of the great firm of brewers, and took a great interest in Church questions, being one of the committee who opposed the appointment of Dr. Temple to the See of Exeter. In November at Colombo, aged 29, Captain Charles Stewart Knox, s. of Major James Knox, Governor of Wandsworth Prison. He did excellent service in South Africa during the present war. In November at Munich, aged 63, Julius Rheinburger, a popular composer, and well-known teacher at the Munich Conservatoire. In November in Egypt, the Rev. Edwin John Davis, formerly Foreign Office Consular Chaplain at St. Mark's, Alexandria ; an excellent Oriental and classical scholar, an author of books of travel, and a deeply loved and respected member of the English community in Egypt.

DECEMBER Sir Wm. MacCormac. On the 4th died Committee of the Red Cross Society at Bath, Sir William H. MacCormac, helped to procure his selection as the distinguished surgeon, who crowned Assistant Surgeon to St. Thomas's a brilliantly successful career by giving Hospital, then newly opened, and he his aid to the Government with the remained attached to this institution Army of Natal during the earlier for the rest of his life, besides holdstages of the Boer War. He was born ing other appointments in hospitals. at Belfast, in 1836, the eldest son of a Alike as surgeon and as lecturer he physician. He received his medical was at the head of his profession, and education in Dublin and Paris, gradua countless students and sufferers are ting in arts, medicine and surgery, at ! indebted to him in a degree to whieb the Queen's University, Ireland. After limits cannot be set. His career in a short spell of practice in his native London was temporarily interrupted by city, he came to London, and on the a visit with Lord Wantage to the scene outbreak of the Franco-German War of the Turko-Servian War of 1876, but went to Paris, where he served with the story of his years is one of a the ambulance organised by Mr. (now practice of almost overwhelming diSir) John Furley, as chief surgeon. mensions, and of accumulated honours. Sedan was the headquarters of the He was made a Baronet in 1897, and ambulance, and it was in his work in Surgeon-in-Ordinary to the Prince of the field that Mr. MacCormac laid the Wales, and on the accession of the foundations of his reputation, and ac King, Serjeant Surgeon. His work in quired his unrivalled dexterity as a the South African War, as chief of the surgeon. On his return home the civilian consulting surgeons, was of

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