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Red-breasted Woodpecker .
Red-headed Woodpecker
Redstart
Red-Thrush
Redwing-Blackbird
Robin
Rose-breasted Grosbeak
Ruffed Grouse

R.

Picus Carolinus
Picus erythrocephalus
Muscicapa ruticilla
Turdus rufus
Icterus phoeniceus .
Turdus migratorius
Fringilla Ludoviciana
Tetrao umbellus

277
283

97
126
145

63
103
151

S.

Hirundo riparia
Strix Acadica
Tanagra rubra .
Strix Asio

Scolopax Wilsonii

Sand-Martin
Saw-Whetter
Scarlet Tanager
Screech-Owl
September
Singing-Birds
Snipe
Song-Sparrow
Sounds from Animate Natnre
Sounds from Inanimate Nature
Speckled Creeper
Spotted Tattler
Summer Yellow-Bird
Swallows : their Hibernation .
Swan
Swamp-Sparrow

168
194
102
195
160

26
228

12
260
293

97
252

73
179
316
93

Certhia maculata
Totanus macularius
Sylvia citrinella

.

T.

Totanus macularius

Tattler .
Testimony for the Birds
Titmouse, Black-capped
Turkey.
Turtle-Dove

Parus palustris
Meleagris gallipavo
Columba Carolinensis

252
238
280
312
309

U.
Upland Plover

Totanus Bartramius .
Utility of Birds, Facts that prove the

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Whippoorwill
Why Birds sing in the Night
Wilson's Thrush
Winter Birds .
Winter-Wren
Woodcock .
Woodpecker, Downy

Hairy

Red-headed
Wood-Sparrow
Wood-Swallow
Wood-Pewee.
Thrush-Wood

: 197

213
121
273

49
226
282
283

Troglodytes hyemalis
Scolopax rusticola

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283

Fringilla pusilla
Hirundo bicolor
Muscicapa virens
Turdus melodus

94
167
175
120

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AMONG civilized people those are the most cheerful and happy, if possessed of a benevolent heart and favored with the ordinary gifts of fortune, who have acquired by habit and education the power of deriving pleasure from the objects that lie immediately around them. But these sources of happiness are open to those only who are endowed with sensibility, and who have received a favorable intellectual training. The more ordinary the mental and moral organization and culture of the individual, the more far-fetched and dear-bought must be his enjoyments. Nature has given us in full development only those appetites which are necessary to our physical well-being. She has left our moral powers and affections in the germ, to be developed by education and reflection. Hence that serene delight that comes chiefly from the exercise of the imagination and the moral sentiments can be felt only by persons of superior and peculiar refinement of mind. The ignorant and rude are dazzled and delighted by the display of gorgeous splendor, and charmed by loud and stirring sounds. But the more simple melodies and less attractive colors and forms, that appeal to the imagination for their principal effect, are felt only by individuals of a poetic temperament.

In proportion as we have been trained to be agreeably affected by the outward forms of nature and the sounds that proceed from the animate and the inanimate world are we capable of being happy without resorting to vulgar and costly recreations. Then will the aspects of nature, continually changing with the progress of the seasons, and the songs that enliven their march, satisfy that craving for agreeable sensations which would otherwise lead us away from humble and healthful pursuits to those of an artificial and exciting life. The value of these pleasures of sentiment is derived not so much from their cheapness as from their favorable moral influences, that improve and pleasantly exercise the mind without tasking its powers. Those quiet emotions, half musical and half poetical, which are awakened by the songs of birds, belong to this class of refined enjoyments.

But the music of birds, though delightful to all, conveys active and durable pleasure only to those who have learned to associate with their notes, in connection with the scenes of nature, a crowd of interesting and romantic images. To many persons of this character it affords more delight than the most brilliant music of the concert or the opera. In vain will it be said as an objection, that the notes of birds have no charm save that of association, and do not equal the melody of a simple reed or flageolet. It is sufficient to reply that the most delightful influences of nature proceed from sights and sounds that appeal to a poetic sentiment through the medium of slight and almost insensible impressions made upon the eye and the ear. At the moment when these physical impressions exceed a certain mean, the spell is broken, and the enjoyment, if it continues, becomes sensual, not intellectual. How soon, indeed, would the songs of birds pall upon the ear if they were loud and brilliant like a band of instruments. It is simplicity that gives them their charm.

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