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follow Christ; else he would not bid correspondent in his letter by no means them follow him. We do not affirm that exhausts the possible alternatives respectall men can follow him into all his expe- ing the person of Christ. It may be that riences; but we think it perilous to at he is neither God nor a good man richly tempt to draw the line and affirm that he endowed by God, but a man in whom God had some experiences into which we may so dwelt that in him the world beholds not follow him. If one begins to attempt the express image of God's person. such a discrimination, it is quite impossi- The statement with which our correble to say where the attempt will cease; spondent closes his letter, namely, that it has led some critics to the conclusion “ Jesus Christ was God,” he will not find that men cannot follow him in loving their anywhere in the New Testament. The enemies, because to love one's enemies is only approximation to it is the outcry of divine, and we are human. Certainly it Thomas, “ My Lord and my God ;" and is not alone in outward conduct that we it is quite clear that this is the language are to follow him; at least Paul did not so of adoration, not of metaphysical definition. think. We are to be conformed to his The New Testament declarations are such image, and so conformed that he may be as,

“ He that hath seen me hath seen the seen to be the firstborn among many Father,” “ the Son of God,” “ the express brethren; we are to be not only heirs of image of his person,” “God was in Christ," God but joint heirs with Jesus Christ, in- “God was manifest in the flesh.” Jesus heriting from the Father—at least this Christ is the supreme historical manifestais the plain implication-what he in- tion of God; but God is greater than the herited. This implication is confirmed sum of all manifestations of God, as Gladby the fact that nearly if not quite all stone was greater than all his statecraft, the phrases used in the New Testament and Phillips Brooks was greater than all concerning Jesus Christ are used in his sermons. Combining the New Testaa modified form of his disciples : he is ment's characterizations of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, we are sons of God; what we get would be a statement somehe is in the image of God, we bear thing like this: The Infinite and Eternal the image of the heavenly; he is the was so in Jesus of Nazareth that Jesus of Great High Priest and King of kings, Nazareth was, in all that he said and did we are to be priests and kings unto God; and thought and felt, an image of the Eterin him the spirit of the Godhead dwelleth nal, the supremest manifestation of God bodily, we are bid to pray that we may be possible in a human life, so that looking filled with all the fullness of God. What upon him we see the Eternal in miniature, Paul implies Christ explicitly affirms in as in looking through a telescope we see the his prayer that we may be one in him moon so reduced in size that its image can and in his father, as he is one in the be imprinted on the retina of the eye. In Father.

common parlance it is legitimate to say, We do not affirm that there is not in the “ This is the moon ;” in exact definition relationship between Jesus Christ and the that phrase is not legitimate; what we Father something which is not and cannot see is an image of the moon. In common be in the relationship between the dis- parlance it is legitimate to say, In Jesus ciples of Christ and the Father: on that Christ I see my God; but if we are to subject we neither affirm nor deny. But use exact definition, what we see is a we do not think it is safe to affirm that manifestation or image of God, God rethere is anything in that relationship im- vealed to human experience because God possible for the disciple to desire, to aspire revealed in and through a human life. after, and even devoutly and humbly to ex- Nor does it appear to us any serious pect. To say that Jesus Christ was simply objection to this New Testament interprea devout man is one matter; to say that the tation of Jesus Christ as God manifest in devout man can become what Jesus Christ man, that if one holds it “ love and worwas is quite another matter. We do not ship and surrender would go over the even affirm this last, but we do affirm that head of Jesus Christ straight to God.” no one knows enough of either Jesus This language does not seem to us feliciChrist or the Infinite Father or the rela- tous; for it seems to ignore the fact that tionship between the two to deny it. Our God is seen in Jesus Christ and through


Jesus Christ, not merely beyond him. fields that no mere man has ever trodden, But, barring this serious criticism, it appears or even thought of as possible or profitto suggest what Paul suggests in the state- able, and these are now being explored ment that “through him (Jesus Christ by feminine feet. we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father;" and what Jesus Christ himself suggested in his declaration, “ This The most interesting new occupation is life eternal, that they might know thee that has come under the Spectator's notice the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thus far is that of the " sunshiner." Let thou hast sent.” Jesus Christ is not a this not be confounded with the “moonsubstitute for God; he is access to God; shiner" of Southern fiction. Spirits are and we are to bring to God all our love concerned in it, indeed; but they are and all our worship and all our surrender, spirits of an irreproachable and untaxable because we no longer worship an unknown kind. The lady who “scatters sunshine” God, but God made known to us through at so much a ray is an extremely lawhis Son.

abiding person, and not in hiding from We do not object to our correspond- the revenue officers. Her spirits are ent's theory of metaphysical unity, though proof, though-proof against the blues, we do not understand very clearly what against rainy days, against all the ills that it means; but we do object to making flesh is heir to—and this calm and cheer this or any other intellectual hypothesis a she communicates to invalids, to the standard for measuring either Christian lonely, to all the depressed and melanexperience or Christian teaching. The choly souls, old and young, that can standard of the New Testament is very afford her ministrations. She goes and different; it is practical, not metaphysical. sits with her clients, and envelops them It is following Christ, not merely in his in her “ aura,” as the Theosophists would ethical principles and in his humane sym- perhaps put it, and

perhaps put it, and reads aloud to them, pathies and activities, but also in his and plays games, and discusses current spiritual experiences and in his fellowship events, and teaches them the last stitch with the Father; it is loving and honor- in crochet or Battenberg (the Spectator ing and serving Jesus Christ; it is loving will not vouch that Battenberg is a stitch, and honoring and serving the Father in but he thinks it is), and so fills the air Jesus Christ and through Jesus Christ; with microbes of cheer that the contagion it is following his example, sharing his is irresistible and immediate. Whether life, being conformed to his character. she ever takes a day off and has a good The New Testament knows no other cry all to herself the Spectator cannot standard than this standard of life, and find out; but one would think that the the Church has no right to substitute in reaction from such determined good Christ's name any other.

spirits must come at times. Some call her a "professional cheerer," but this

name has a certain sound of forced and The Spectator

business-like gayety about it that would

seem to defeat its object. A man (if he The Spectator notices without surprise, ever had dreamed of the possibility of though with admiring interest, the novel such an occupation) might be a profesdevelopments of feminine industry that sional cheerer, but his sunshine would have lately come under his observation. be of inferior quality anyway, without the It might be thought that when the four spontaneous charm of the feminine rays. hundred and odd professions, vocations, and occupations of the sterner sex were opened to feminine enterprise, the Eternal- While the purveyor of mental and Womanly would be satisfied with such spiritual sunshine thus caters to the souls a variety of choice. But no! it does of her fellows, the Spectator has lately not content woman's soul to be a black- heard of another enterprising feminine smith, a notary public, a sea-captain, or worker who has taken up the task of proeven a mayor. These are commonplace; viding food for the family needs. The these have been done before. There are “co-operative marketer," as she calls


needs was the prime necessity, yet simul- new sort of postage-stamp every six taneously the desire for ultimate unity hundred miles. was dimly felt. The first uncertain at- Then came echoes of after-dinner tempts in this direction were suggested speeches in London, mostly by men who by the circumstance that, while all the had never been near Australia, of an unyoung colonies imposed customs duties real, intangible, and wholly artificial bond for revenue purposes, their tariffs differed, between England and her colonies, to be and there arose in consequence perpetual called Imperial Federation, which seems irritation over the cumbrous system of no nearer accomplishment to-day, and can collecting intercolonial duties. A customs never be accomplished until there has been union or Zollverein would have removed a great deal of hard thinking concerning many obstacles in the way of early Aus- such trifling matters as the representation tralian progress, but all efforts to that end or non-representation of colored races in were frowned upon by the Colonial Office Britain's many colored dominions, to say in London. As time went on, the policy nothing of direct representation of the grew of protection to native industries in over-sea dominions in the Imperial Parlianearly all the colonies, and the resulting mentary institutions. It presupposes, too, inequalities of taxation served to sever for its happy and successful continuance yet more widely provinces whose interests a far more intimate knowledge of British should havə been one. As fate willed, colonial possessions, their local needs, the two most powerful colonies, adjacent their internal policy, than most Englishin situation, New South Wales and Vic- men, or even most English statesmen, can toria, were those in which the tariffs lay claim to as yet. differed most.

But I digress. It had continually been The question remained in abeyance for reiterated by Australian federationists many years, kept alive, it may be, by the that, once faced with war at our doors, fierce speechifying of such men as Dr. federation would become the question of Lang, of New South Wales. He was still the hour, with only one solution possible, living, a very old man, in my childhood, though few, perhaps, realized the disadvanand I can remember hearing him spoken tages that must be attached to any form of as a theorist, a dreamer, and a very of federation arising as the premature offtalkative and polemic debater. His spring of necessity and danger. Yet, if speeches gave timid folk the idea that union has been accomplished without that federation of the colonies and severance dread motive as auxiliary, it was troubles from Great Britain meant one and the in the Pacific and the episode of the dissame thing, and meant it at once, and he puted annexation of New Guinea by was accordingly looked at askance by Queensland which helped to bring matters many. Although working legislators al.

to a head, and in 1883 the first interways asserted that federation had not yet colonial conference was held. It would come “ within the sphere of practical only weary the reader to drag him through politics,” every one believed that it must an account of variously styled conventions, arrive sooner or later, and every person conferences, and councils that led up to said so most emphatically at the chance the Federation Bill of 1898. Apart, too, moment when the shoe pinching his par- from these a great deal of quiet, educative, ticular corn made him feel his isolation constructive work was going on. The most keenly. For instance, break of late Sir Henry Parkes, whose influence as gauge on the intercolonial railways was a popular speaker was surpassed by none, felt to be an absurd and unbrotherly threw his influence into the scale. Mr. arrangement; the professions recognized Edmund Barton addressed public meetthat separate examinations for doctors or ings all over his own colony, New South lawyers or surveyors were a serious draw. Wales. The strong men of South Ausback. Even the casual traveler's colony- tralia, Mr. C. G. Kingston and Mr. F. W. loving soul became wrathful when, on Holder, gave in their adhesion ; while the crossing the border, his buggy had to be most powerful political body in Victoria, impounded and registered, and his or her the Australian Natives' Association, with tin box or other paltry belonging searched Messrs. Alfred Deakin, I. L. Purves, for mythical cigars, or when he had to buy A. J. Peacock, and Dr. Quick among their leaders, adopted federation as part of thoughtful who counseled care and foresaw their platform.

possible difficulties were howled down as The bill of 1898 was submitted to a “unpatriotic "oras“ Little Australians ”referendum in the four colonies to be it was in Victoria that was found the man federated— New South Wales, Victoria, who of all its critics deserved and deserves South Australia, and Tasmania. Queens to be most carefully heeded. This was land had not then cast in her lot with the Henry Bournes Higgins, a North of Irerest. It passed in all of them, but in New land man by birth, but by training and South Wales the figures fell short of the re- residence an Australian. Still in middle quired minimum of eighty thousand affirm- life, he is a barrister whose law is too ative votes-a not altogether unanticipated sound for any opponent to belittle, but result in view of the strong opposition of who has somehow, from a variety of causes, many prominent politicians in New South just fallen short of the highest success as Wales. At one eventful moment on that a politician. He is so lacking in policy June evening the returning officers some- that, while his friends are found lamenthow doubled certain figures, and great ing his want of tact, his enemies ascribe was the jubilation of the crowd surround- his occasional changes of opinion, and not ing the newspaper offices in both Mel. occasional but persistent championing of bourne and Sydney when the magic num- every weak and unpopular cause, to want bers went up. The excitement when the of principle. By temperament he is forced bill did pass two years later had lost a into the role of Cassandra, and he meets good deal of its edge by repetition. with Cassandra's fate. A cold, unimpress

And why, with the admitted need for ive speaker, without a trace of humor federation, was the bill of 1898 not ac- save of the esoteric sort, with no notion of cepted by the people? For two different playing to the gallery, he was the man who classes of reasons. Each class had its above all others tried to save Australia own chief spokesman. One was Mr. from repeating needlessly and with her George Houston Reid, the finest, the most eyes open the mistakes which the United incisive, the jolliest of Australian debaters. States made a hundred years ago under An ardent free-trader, he perambulated pressure of dire necessity, and which the his own free-trade colony of New South great bulk of Americans would willingly Wales, urging that the financial basis of undo to-day. Readers in the United the proposed Constitution would involve States will think it strange that in framing for New South Wales an abandonment of a federal constitution the experience of her free-trade faith, and a check to the the United States in regard to the difficourse of the prosperity she had achieved culty of amending it should have been under it. He had other and serious ob- overlooked or neglected. The very sigjections, but this was the point on which nificant fact that you find it almost imhe stood firm. Indeed, he may be said possible to amend your Constitution withstill to stand firm, for his influence has out the awful help of a civil war seems to been unremittingly in the direction of a have been unknown to most of the men lowered tariff all round. In the bill of concerned in framing ours. '98 stood a clause scathingly termed "the What Mr. Higgins fought against was Braddon blot,” after Sir Edward Brad- fixing upon ourselves and our children a don, of Tasmania. It directed that of the rigid, unalterable, unimprovable Constitucustoms revenue collected at all seaports tion. What he pleaded for was to trust by the federal government only one-fourth the good sense of posterity, whose diffishould be retained for federal expendi- culties we cannot foresee, and whom we ture, three-fourths being credited to the have no right to bind in iron fetters. respective treasuries of the contributing Given this flexibility, it did not matter very States. This clause in the Constitution much what were the provisions regarding as it has been adopted is modified by finance or defense, or even the Constitution being alterable after ten years, but as itself. But the whole bill as first molded long as it stands it implies a fairly heavy bore the impress of this conservative, tariff.

provincial, un patriotic idea that change Yet it was in Victoria, where federation was dangerous, and, being dangerous, became such a parrot cry that the more should be made practically impossible by


hedging reform around with a barricade of their Constitution to suit changing circumformalities. He and his supporters gained stances as need arose. They forgot that something by their foresight and persist a bill, the preamble of which asserted that ence.

In the 1898 bill four consents the States agreed to unite in an indissowere necessary for any amendment of the luble commonwealth, and the concluding Constitution-an absolute majority of both clause of which bound down future genfederal houses, a majority of the people, erations in bands so rigid that nothing and a majority of the States. In the Con- but force may sever them, was something stitution as now established, one of the very different from the unwritten consticonsents, that of the second house, has tution of Great Britain under which we been dispensed with. But this still leaves have grown up. reform, however urgent, at the mercy of the About the middle of 1899, on different States' representatives, just as the States dates, the new federation bill was accepted of Nevada or Iowa have equal power with by all the colonies on the mainland of the State of New York; and it is among Australia. Later on it received the Imthe States' representatives that trouble is perial consent with only one important most likely to arise, for State representa- alteration touching legal powers of appeal tion is not only equal, to start off with (six to the Privy Council in England, and it to each State, irrespective of population), came into force on the first of January of

, but is by the Constitution unalterable. the present year. New States may, indeed, be admitted, but And now we are federated. Yes, in where are they to come from? Only from about the same sense as a man and woman outside Australia, as the whole continent are said to be married when they leave is in the union already, and the voting the altar. Mid pomp and loud shouting power of no State, however small, how- the ceremony of federation indeed took ever reactionary, can be diminished with- place in Sydney on the first day of the out its own consent.

new century; but the long life together of Lord Brassey, Mr. Alfred Deakin, and mutual dependence and assistance, of other airy orators all burked these vital bearing and forbearing--in this sense fedquestions, urging with oratorical insincer- eration cannot yet be said to have begun. ity that a free and independent people It lies before us as it lies before each bride ever retained their power of molding

and groom.


By Richard Burton On the beach at Coronado curves the shore in crescent wise, And the blue of sky and water merge divinely to the eyes; Dim, fair islands lift like phantoms from the bright Pacific floor, And the breakers fall but blandly where the sea-gulls dip and soar. There a spell of scented languor seems to still the pulse of pain, And perpetual springtide hovers over land and slumbrous main, There the blooms are lush and brilliant, there some great ship, wearing west, Seems to pause as loth at leaving all a haven holds of rest. And the idler, lapped in pleasance, charmed to dreams by sound and sight, As he watches dawn or sunset or the sweeping stars of night, Lets his mind go groping backward to the strenuous pioneers, When the red gold fever took them in the far, untranquil years; To the Spaniards with their visions--quick to fancy were they then Of some vast and hoarded treasures; Coronado and his men; To the splendid quests and tumults, to the torments and defeats, To the rovers by the rivers and the pirates in their fleets.

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