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finally, there might be a political union that is, she has no right to help elect without a commercial union, as is the the President and Congress of the United case in the Kingdom of Sweden and States. So long as she has all the Norway. These considerations make it other advantages of the Union, it is quite clear that, at least theoretically, a difficult to see any reason why justice community may be admitted to the Union or expediency demands that she should of States for some purposes and not for at any time join in this political union. others; it may be admitted to the inter- The Philippines are not bound to us national union and not to the commercial commercially or politically—they will union, or to the commercial union and have no share in electing our President not to the legal union, or to the inter- and Congress, and trade between them national and commercial and legal union, and the United States will not be free; but not to the political union. And this but they are bound to us by legal and is almost exactly what has taken place. international ties. After the Fourth of
Cuba has not been admitted to the com- July they will be no longer a military mercial union--there is no agreement that dependency; they will be recognized terriimports and exports between her and the tory of the United States, with a civil United States shall pass freely unhindered government of their own, conformed, as far by customs; nor to the legal union- as conditions permit, to that of the States there is no agreement that differences and organized Territories of the United which may arise between her aud ourselves States; the Philippines will be guaranteed shall be submitted to a judicial tribunal, by us against foreign invasion or domestic the Supreme Court of the United States, anarchy, much as our several States and or any other; ·nor to the political union Territories are guaranteed; and their citishe has no share in the election of our zens will have presumptively a right to President and Congress. But for certain appeal to the Supreme Court of the United international purposes she is one with the States, and an unquestionable right to United States, for she has agreed that she appeal to the Courts of the United States will neither directly nor indirectly alienate in the Philippines. The possession of her territory to a foreign power, and we liberty founded on justice, protected by have agreed implicitly, and doubtless will law and guaranteed by a Republic abunagree explicitly as soon as a treaty can dantly able to fulfill its guarantees——this be drawn and adopted, to guarantee her is what the Fourth of July, 1901, will mean against foreign invasion and against to the people of Porto Rico and the Philipdomestic anarchy. Porto Rico is united to pines, and, though in less measure, to the United States by all the bonds which less fortunate Cuba. bind the several States together except And the Fourth of July ought to mean, the political bond. Internationally she
Internationally she and we believe will mean, to all Ameriis at one with us, and we are pledged to cans more than it ever meant before. On protect her alike from foreign invasion the Fourth of July, 1898, the destruction and from domestic anarchy as if she were of Cervera's fleet at Santiago practically a State in the Union. Legally she is at brought our war against Spain to a close. one with us; her people may appeal to Up to that time for three centuries she had the United States Supreme Court for pro- treated her colonies in the Caribbean Sea tection, and any differences which might and in the Pacific Ocean as legitimate arise between her and any State in the subjects for legalized plunder. Their Union or between her and the Federal people had never known either civil or Government can be submitted to that religious liberty, and in Cuba and the Court, a fact exemplified in certain of the Philippines had never known civil govso-called Insular Cases already so sub- ernment or an era of peace. We have mitted. And after July 4, 1901, she will turned the plunderers out; we have supbe commercially one with us; under the pressed the anarchy which almost invariForaker Act, as she has assumed the ex- ably follows the overthrow of a longpenses of her local government, all imports continued despotism; we have estaband exports between Porto Rico and the lished civil government; we have given United States will, it is expected, be free to the people a large share in that govBut she is not politically in the Union; ernment, a share which will be increased as experience and training prepare them politics to understand the bill's form and for it; we have given them in General to gauge the difficulties in application. Wood, Governor Allen, and Judge Taft Up to the present France has lacked some of our very ablest and best men to legal provisions for the free grouping and organize their governments for them and for the collective action of her citizens. prepare them for self-government; we By the existing legal status no meeting of have done this despite the suspicions and more than twenty-one persons may be the jeers of a minority at home intensify- held. The Associations Bill asserts the ing the suspicions and awakening the absolute freedom of religious or secular opposition of the Cubans, the Porto associations, except (1) in the case of Ricans, and the Filipinos abroad. But mixed organizations of Frenchmen and the first stage in our work of emancipation foreigners, (2) in case the headquarters of is accomplished, and the Fourth of July, organizations are in foreign countries, or 1901, is a fitting occasion to celebrate so (3) in the cases of organizations the memsplendid an achievement. It will always bers of which live in common. The be possible to contend that the result bill has a twofold purpose: first, to all might have been accomplished at less cost, French citizens it secures the widest freeby negotiations with Spain in the case of dom of action ; secondly, it places just Cuba, by negotiations with Aguinaldo in restraints upon certain monastic orders, the case of the Philippines. We are not Let it not be thought that this measure is of that opinion; but the discussion is now an instrument of anti-clerical persecution. profitless, since neither party to it can Instead, it meets a great national wantever hope to convince the other. The a want presented to the Parliament by unquestionable fact is that, whether at thirty-three bills in thirty years; a want necessary or at excessive cost in life and expressed again and again by the leading treasure, whether by the best method or spirits of France from the days of Prime by a method not the best, the work is Minister Guizot to our own. While the accomplished and these peoples who have measure has been opposed by a few idealnever been protected in their persons or ists, it has the general support of the libtheir property, who have never known the eral public and of those who sympathize meaning of just government, general edu- with the modern idea of liberty. Such a law cation, or freedom in religion, are to-day is demanded also by the irresistible current freed from the oppressions of the past and of the national life, which for a generation by the American flag which floats over has put into practice freedom of associathem are guaranteed protection for the tion. Its effect will be to bring French future.
law up to date with modern French life. That is quite sufficient to afford a new As compared with the legislation affectoccasion to Americans for rejoicing on the ing Roman Catholic associations and orFourth of July in this opening year of the ders in some other Roman Catholic lands, twentieth century.
the measure is liberal. It will not dis
turb the Roman Catholic orders already The Associations Law in comply with Government requirements
legally authorized. Others have only to
to be admitted to the same privileges. France
The whole system of ecclesiastical maOn Friday of last week M. Waldeck- chinery, paid by the State and enjoying Rousseau, Prime Minister of France, car- State favors, remains untouched. The ried the most important project of his parish priests, at present the most intelliMinistry, and perhaps the most important gent and most devoted whom France has project of any recent French Ministry— known, have never enjoyed so much freethe Law of Associations Bill. The meas- dom. Indeed, by many the law is viewed ure now only awaits the signature of Pres- as a protection of the parish clergyman' ident Loubet to become law. In a single against the intrusions of his monastic session the Chamber of Deputies of the brother. A fair examination of the text French Parliament, by a majority of sixty- of the law reveals no trace of an antifour, adopted the bill as amended by the religious spirit, whatever may be the Senate. It is important to all students of attitude of some of those who framed it.
If the priests now form an element of some political well as religious security in France, the monks do not; hence M. Waldeck - Rousseau, in introducing the Associations Bill, had in mind a social protective purpose. Some Roman Catholic monastic orders have become a real danger for a progressive society. State action was demanded by their accumulation of wealth, especially in real estate, as the accompanying map shows, and their skill in avoiding com
2ae pliance with the just demands of the State as regards taxation. The demoralizing nature of this evasion
The small shaded blocks in the above map show the amount of real estate held was emphasized by twenty years ago by the monastic orders in each department of France ; the large that of their powerful black blocks show the amount held at the present time. press, as shown in the recent Dreyfus for a quarter of a century in a liberalizagitation, when, by deliberate plotting ing atmosphere of science, philosophy, against the Republic, the Assumptionists art, industry, commerce, and progressive and " La Croix” obtained such a scan- thought. They are capable of seeing that dalous reputation; but especially by the their Church is not wronged. They will course of the orders towards education—in support the law because it is legally reagradually imbuing the minds of the young sonable and seems an adequate check to with a hatred of non-Roman Catholics— the growth of monasticism. and by the distortion of history for “ pious” The orders, however, not unnaturally ends. As the Associations Law was meant view the present issues through the prism for free citizens, the monks who have sur- of their mediæval Christianity. Every rendered their personality by monastic progressive reform which dispossessed vows are excluded from the benefits of this the Church of some of her prerogatives law unless they belong to legally authorized has been interpreted by them as a war orders. Some of the unauthorized may against religion and God. They are secure recognition; the others are sup- ready to unite with all the opponents of pressed, though not in a harsh and arbi. the present Ministry. They would doubttrary manner. Praiseworthy efforts have less go to great extremes, and do so, at been made to deal equitably with their least in their language; but they know property, and even pensions have been that the currents of modern life are provided for the members of the dispersed against them. Notwithstanding their flatorders.
teries to the army, it is far from symIt was to be expected that Freethinkers, pathizing with them. The industrial and Israelites, and Protestants would be most the commercial world are indignant with favorable to this law, but Roman Catho- them. Philosophers, scientists, and edulics are far from being uniformly opposed cators know only too well that the to it. A large number of them have lived triumph of the orders would mean retrogression. The intelligent peasants, the is no small part of his strength, since it moral backbone of France, dread nothing makes it possible for him to throw into more than government by priests and whiter light and more definite outline the monks. It is obvious, then, that the religious growth and the moral development progressive part of France will heartily of the man whose story forms the central support the law. The orders protest, but theme of his novel. will have no alternative but to accept the inevitable.
which they are now creating the present Concerning Christian
Cabinet may, by some sudden coalition, be overturned. But the best of the monks know that the real spiritual power It is difficult for any one not a votary of their Church will not be lessened. of Christian Science to understand what The forces of her life, ill spent in some it is. This is partly because, like other monastic activities, will intensify the ener- theologies, it has a dialect of its own; gies which are rapidly bringing about partly because, like other religious enthuthe humanization and the spiritualization siasms, its language is more or less mystiof the Roman Catholic Church in France. cal; and partly, in our judgment, because The triumph of the orders would have it is not a coherent and self-consistent sysbeen, if not a calamity, at least an anach- tem, but a mosaic of self-contradictory ronism.
affirmations and negations. In our endeavor in this article to tell our non
Christian Science readers what we regard Ralph Connor's Story
as at once the secret of its power and its In this issue The Outlook begins the ethical evil, we expect that our definitions publication of a serial story by Ralph as well as our criticisms will be unsatisConnor (the Rev. Charles W. Gordon, of factory to our Christian Science readers. Winnipeg, Manitoba), author of " The Sky In this endeavor we accept as an authoriPilot" and "Black Rock,"two stories which tative interpretation of the principles of have not only been widely read, but which Christian Science, in so far as it can have awakened the deep interest always be properly said to have principles, the aroused when vital conditions of life are Annual Message from Mrs. Eddy to her realistically treated from the standpoint of followers, read in the Boston Christian a writer who believes in God and in man, Science Temple on Sunday, June 23, and and who therefore, feeling deeply with all printed in full in the Boston “Herald" of classes of men, enters with his imagination the following morning. into their experiences and comprehends This Annual Letter is largely devoted to their problems. Very rarely have relig. an attempted definition of Christian Sciious motives been worked out to their ence and a defense of it against critics. logical results in character more forcibly, It consists of three parts: the first devoted or has character been projected against to an interpretation of the doctrine of more striking backgrounds, than in Mr. Christian Science concerning God, the Gordon's earlier work. He has shown a second to its doctrine concerning evil, first-hand knowledge of somewhat primitive and the third to a specific reply to a speand elementary aspects of a life of great cific critic. dramatic interest; the ability to know a The first may be dismissed in a few man when he sees him, no matter how words. Mrs. Eddy denies that Christian rough his exterior; and throughgoing relig. Science repudiates or ignores the personion, free from pietism, from fanaticism, ality of God. It is true that she apparfrom provincialism, and therefore fresh, ently has no clear idea of what personality wholesome, and manly. In “The Man is; she certainly gives no clear definition from Glengarry" Mr. Gordon will describe of her idea. It is true that she confounds the life of a boy growing into manhood Tritheism and Trinity, and shows herself against surroundings the blackness of wholly ignorant of the technical meaning which is strikingly and awfully outlined on of the word person (or persona) in the the canvas in the first installment of the Church definitions of the Trinity. But, story. Mr. Connor's realistic treatment making due allowance for a mind wholly untrained in philosophy, coupled with an words, that evil, devil, sin, is a lie, therefore ambition to use philosophical terminology, Christian Science love lays the ax at the root
is nothing, and the father of nothingness. In it may be fairly said, probably, that Mrs. of sin, and destroys it on the very basis of Eddy's doctrine of God is that of a divine nothingness. When man makes something immanence, though very vaguely con- of sin, it is either because he fears it or loves ceived and therefore ill defined. She it. Now, destroy the conception of sin as denies, in common with all evangelical and the love of sin; and there is nothing left
something, a reality, and you destroy the fear Christians, a corporeal deity and affirms of it, and sin disappears. A man's fear conGod's spiritual personality. Her exact quers him in whatever direction it runs. language is as follows:
From the old aphorism, "Whatever is We understand that God is personal in a is right,” Mrs. Eddy deduces the pleasing scientific sense, but is not corporeal nor anthropomorphic. We understand that God is conclusion, Whatever is wrong is not: the infinite Person, but not three persons in sin is nothing; therefore the way to vanone Person. Christian Scientists are Theists quish sin is to believe that it is nothing. and Monotheists.
Believe that it does not exist and it ceases Coupled with this is the further affirmation to exist. of the divinity of Christ :
It is self-evident that evil is not Truth ; then When Jesus said, “I and my Father are
it follows that it is untrue; and if untrue, unone,” and “ My Father is greater than I,” this real ; and if unreal, to conceive of evil or sin was said in the sense that one ray of light is
as real is sin in itself. To be delivered from light, and it is one with light, but it is not the believing in what is unreal, from fearing it, full-orbed sun. Therefore we have the author following it, or loving it, one must watch and ity of Jesus for saying, Christ is not God, but pray that he enter not into this temptationis like God.
even as one guards his door against the ap
proach of thieves. Sin is thought before it is The figure is a very common one in acted; you must control it in the first instance, orthodox interpretation of the evangelical or it may control you in the second. To overconception of Christ's divinity. In other come sin, it must become unreal to us ; and it is
good to know that sin has no divine authority ; passages in her Letter, Mrs. Eddy con
therefore man is its master. I rejoice in the founds Principle with Personality, and scientific apprehension of this grand verity. writes in phraseology not easily distin- This doctrine that sin is naught, that it guishable from that of pantheism; but does not exist, that it is nothing, that to we must charitably impute this to either believe that it exists is itself sin, that at confusion of thought or imperfection in best it is but a negation—the absence of the use of language, and recognize, on virtue, as darkness is the absence of light the whole, that she at least attempts to constitutes at once the power and the affirm her belief in both the personality vice of Christian Science. Who would not of God and the divinity of Jesus Christ.
be glad to believe that there is no sin in Certainly the distinctive tenet of Chris- the world? Who would not rejoice to tian Science is not to be found in what believe that in his own life sin can be vanits representative declares about God, but quished by simply believing that it does in what she declares about evil. That not exist ?' Who would not rejoice to be declaration is as follows:
thus freed from all fear of sin and its Incorporeal evil embodies itself in the socalled corporeal, and is manifested in the
flesh. consequences, and all conflict with sin and Evil is neither quality nor quantity; it is not temptation, if only the deliverance could intelligence, a person, or a principle, a man or be real and permanent? This doctrine is a woman, a place or a thing, and God never not consistently stated nor logically folmade it.' The outcome of evil, called sin, is lowed out; but this logical inconsistency another nonentity that belittles itself until it annihilates its own embodiment; this is the adds to its popular power, for when one only annihilation. The so-called' visible sin revolts from the necessary conclusions should be invisible: it ought not to be seen, he is calmly assured that they are not felt, or acted; and because it ought not, we
conclusions. must know that sin is a lie, an illusion, nothing, and only an assumption that nothing is
This was not the view of Christ, who something. We must not assume the position bade his followers fear him who hath that sin is sin, and can take possession of us power to cast both soul and body into and destroy us, but that we take possession of the fire of Gehenna ; this was not the sin with such a sense of its nullity as destroys it; it can have neither entity, verity, nor experience of Paul, who wrote, almost as power" thus regarded, and we verify Jesus' though he had a prevision of Christian