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would, at first thought, at least, seem to

Speed in Air and Water

While it cannot be indicate that this is the case. Various

affirmed that the explanations of the breaks have been given problem of sailing through the air at will by engineers, and the public have again has been solved, several achievements in been allowed to see, in this case as in many the last few year's have made great others, that expert testimony is not always advances. Dirigible balloons—that is, harmonious. It has been asserted that balloons that can be steered by the the breaks were due to rust caused by navigator-have been manufactured by leaving certain parts of the rods unpainted; several aeronauts, and have made parit has been asserted that these rods were tially successful flights. The latest was strained by heat expansion, and that suffi- that of M. Santos Dumont, who, about cient allowance had not been made for two weeks ago, started from St. Cloud, this; it has been asserted, also, that the near Paris, sailed to and around the enormous increase of weight on the bridge Eiffel Tower, and returned to a spot on account of the present trolley system near his starting place, where, however, and the placing of heavy tubes and other his landing resulted in the wrecking of weights on the bridge have caused the his machine. A speed of thirteen and a breaks. In any of these cases it is a simple half miles an hour was attained. M. matter of construction and engineering Santos Dumont failed to win a large money ability to replace the broken parts; the prize offered by an enthusiastic French real question of importance is whether scientist for such a voyage under stated there is a continued strain which will make conditions only because he exceeded the breaks of this kind probable in the future. time limit. It is admitted, however, that If this is so, it is certainly not beyond the his balloon was dirigible—if the wind was power of modern engineering skill to not too strong, a rather important if. reconstruct, truss by truss and suspensory Like the other dirigible balloons—those of rod by suspensory rod, that part of the Krebs, Zeppelin, and others—that of M. structure which connects the bridge proper Santos Dumont was extremely expensive with the suspensory cables. Another to make, difficult and delicate to manage, question of very great importance which and the margin between the power has come up is that of inspection of the evolved by the motor and the resistance bridge. The bridge engineers claim that of a moderate wind was small.

Not a continuous inspection goes on, but it does few scientists maintain that the fixed relanot appear that this inspection has been tions between weight of possible material systematic. The very fact that the breaks in balloon construction and power obtainwhich have just been mended were discov- able are such that for practical and useered by a police officer, and not by an ful purposes the problem of air-navigation engineer or inspector, and the additional is really fundamentally impossible of solufact that there were several breaks and tion. Meanwhile the navigators of the that they probably did not occur simulta- ocean are vying with the aerial experineously, tend to show that there is need of menters in proposing new methods of systematic inspection at stated hours and propulsion. The steam turbine machinof regular and accurate reports to the engi- ery, invented by Mr. Parsons, has passed neers in authority. The lack of such beyond the experimental stage. Extraorsystematic inspection has been ascribed dinary speed has been attained in small by some writers to the fact that too many yachts, and now a good-sized passenger of the bridge officers owe their appoint- steamer has been built with turbine ments to political influences rather than machinery. The King Edward, lately to special skill and experience. If this be launched on the Clyde, has had trial trips true, it is only one more argument for such with excellent results ; the vessel is 250 a thorough municipal reform to follow the feet long, 30 feet wide, and the average elections of this fall as shall make even speed of her trial trips was almost 2012 such suspicions impossible. The argument knots an hour ; taking into account size, usually brought against municipal owner- weight, and coal consumption, this comship of such public highways as the bridge pares not unfavorably with the magniti

. is this very danger of political appoint cent record made last weck by the ments to the posts and offices involved. Deutschland, of the Hamburg Line, of an average speed of 23.51 miles per hour for He had in his diocese the universal esteem the whole distance from New York to of the workingmen because he had for Plymouth. The future of the turbine them that respect which is more than system seems assured, and the inventors sympathy. To the charge sometimes are confident that it will soon be applied made that the Christian ministry does not to mercantile purposes and even to the dare to apply to social questions the preocean passenger traffic. Several advan- cepts and principles which Jesus Christ tages are claimed, among them absence inculcated, a quite adequate answer is of vibration, saving of space, and in- furnished by pointing to the teachings of creased speed with decreased expense. Bishop Westcott, and to the honor given

to him by the Church, not in spite of but

by reason of his courageous Christian The cable announces the teaching. Bishop Westcott

death of the Rt. Rev. Brooke Foss Westcott, D.D., Bishop of

The fifth annual Durham, on Sunday, July 28, in the sev

The Hampton Conference

Negro Conference, enty-sixth year of his age. He was successively Regius Professor of Divinity in

held at Hampton, Va., during the third Cambridge, Honorary Chaplain to the

week of July, was devoted to discussion Queen, Canon in Peterborough Cathe- of the practical improvement of conditions dral, Canon of Westminster Abbey, and

and reports of work actually done. StatisBishop of Durham, but these well-deserved

tics presented showed nearly a million honors given to him by his Church are

acres in Virginia now owned by negroes, less significant than the honor given to

and taxable property valued at over sixhim by the Church universal for his pub

teen millions. Negro children make a lic services to the cause of scholarship and

third of the total public school enrollment, of human progress. He represented the

and their teachers receive a fifth of the best type of English character. He had

whole sum paid by the State for teaching. the fine scholarship of the German with

A strong argument for compulsory educaout his scholasticism, and the modern

tion appears in the fact that the proporspirit of the American without his super

tion of negro criminals in the Virginia ficiality. “The Greek New Testament,” penetentiary to the total number of crimiby Drs. Westcott and Hort, is recognized nals is about equal to the proportion of by all scholars as the final authority in

negro illiterates to the illiteracy of the textual criticism. His “Commentary upon

State, viz., four-fifths. Principal Washingthe Gospel of St. John” combines the ton, of Tuskegee, in his opening address, excellence of minute scholarship with spir- in agriculture for all who must earn their

insisted on the importance of education itual insight, and, in spite of the advances which have been made in New Testament living from the soil, as nine-tenths of criticism in recent years, his “ History of negro children must. At present less than the Canon of the New Testament” still

one per cent of the negro school populaholds a front rank in books of its class.

tion of the country are being taught any

Mr. Washington His interest in Biblical criticism, in which thing of that kind. he was a recognized authority, because a

believes that agriculture is destined to progressive, though cautiously progress

be made part of every school course ive, leader, did not so absorb his thought throughout the country, just as arithmetic as to leave him no time for the more

is, and hopes that the negro will take practical side of life. In his diocese is a

the lead in that direction. In his optilarge mining population, and he interested

mistic view of present tendencies he said: himself, not only in the men as individuals, In the last two or three months I have met but in the social problems with which they wo men who, to a large degree, typify what ex-slave who cannot read and write. Last chapters and 7,300 “ Junior," the former year, after paying all his debts, he had $75 in increasing by a thousand chapters annucash left. He gave $10 of this money to Tuskegee for the education of a negro boy, and ally. Its president is Bishop I. W. Joyce. $10 more to a white school in his native town The numbers and spirit of the conventioris for the education of a white boy. These two and conferences of young Christians held types represent the kind of men that will come

is to come. One is an ex-Confederate soldier were concerned. He was President of

and ex-slaveholder. He came to me a short the Christian Social Union from its foun- time ago and said: “Mr. Washington, I've dation, and his utterances on the labor got converted to love the negro, and it's much question are in their way as radical, in the

harder than it is to love Christ.” This man true sense of that word, as those of Tol

pays $400 every year towards the support of a

negro school, and he not only gives money but stoï, without being in the least doctrinaire. service. The other man is a black man, an

this summer exhibit anoincalculable hope in the future-Southern white men who will be ashamed of narrowness and prejudice, and of remedy for the moral evils rife in colored men who will realize that they must American society. They accentuate the lay aside their narrowness and their prejudice. responsibility resting upon their leaderLet us not be discouraged.

ship for a practical identification of relig

ious interest with the need of social prog. The choice of San ress in all righteousness. The Epworth League

Francisco for the fifth International Convention of the Epworth League, July 18-21, seems to have been

Among the later outmade with a view to the encouragement

The Jewish
Chautauqua Society

growths of Bishop Vinof the pioneer and missionary work of

cent's prolific idea this Methodism in the Pacific States. The is as vigorous and promising as any of its call was heartily responded to, thirty to predecessors. Its fifth annual Assembly, forty special trains of “Leaguers ” arriv- held at Atlantic City, N. J., during the ing in the course of thirty-six hours, while last three weeks of July, demonstrated admirable organization joined with lavish the large interest it is gaining among Jews hospitality in welcoming the crowds. throughout the country --twenty-six States, Nothing is more unique in American life besides Canada, being represented on than the ease with which these “movable the list of its patrons. The aim of the feasts” of great churches are transferred Society and its affiliated Chautauqua cirback and forth between the Far East and cles is “to bring it about that the Jew the Far West. The Epworth League, shall study and know himself.” It is said which ranks next in numbers among simi- to be reaching the Jewish people more lar organizations of young people to the directly and efficiently in the lines of need undenominational Society of Christian than any other Jewish institution in the Endeavor, was formed in 1889 by the country. The need, as viewed by the consolidation of various small societies Society, is " to create a new birth of the previously existing. Its chapters now Jewish spirit,” both to contend with big. extend from Norway to Malaysia, in a otry, superstition, and ignorance, and for score of foreign lands, and spread through constructive effort in the promotion of the four great branches of Metholism in the moral life in the largest sense of the words. United States and Canada. Particularly Among the subjects on its programmenoticeable in its programme was the promi- historical, ethical, educational, sociologinence given to the moral and social inter cal, philanthropical, literary, Biblicalests of religion--a feature which has been none seemed to rouse keener interest observable in other recent conventions of than the conference on “the Social Side similar societies—by such topics as “ The of Synagogue Life." In opening it the Young Christian as a Citizen," “ Civic Rev. Dr. Stolz, of Chicago, said that the Righteousness," “ The City and its Perils," synagogue, which up to the nineteenth “ The Problem of the Poor.” “ The Church century had been the center of Jewish and the Newspaper," etc. Missionary and life, had shrunk into a shadow of its benevolent work, including systematic former self since the emancipation of the benevolence, formed another leading Jew had introduced him to a larger pargroup of subjects, in connection with ticipation in the world's life. To vitalize which there was a large exhibit of mis- Jewry with the old fraternal feeling, sionary and educational work. Sunrise remove the barriers between rich and prayer-meetings, as well as other notes of poor, and bring the front and rear pews erthusiasm, showed the old-time glow of together, the old idea of the synagogue Methodist responsiveness to the new occa- as the Beth Hokineseth, "the meeting. sions that teach new duties. The Epworth house," must be revived. To accomLeague now numbers 20,000 “ Senior" plish this, said he, " many congregations must change their laws and habits, and Theological Seminary in New York. It many synagogues must be built on new is particularly planned for Sunday-school lines.” The animated discussion of this teachers, men or women, re idents of the address made it plain that Jews as well city and vicinity. A complete course in as Christians are engaged with the prob- the English Bible and in pedagogy will lems created by, the cleavage of social be given in popular form, following the classes and those that have called into text-book and recitation method rather being the institutional church. The his- than the lecture method, and a Sundaytory of the Jews in modern Europe and school teacher's diploma will be conferred America was another of the more prom- on those who complete the course. The inent topics. Professor Gottheil, of plan includes extension work in Manhattan, Columbia, dwelt upon the part the Jews Brooklyn, and as far as Newark from the had borne on this continent since the day seminary as a center, with as many when Columbus's ship sailed with three churches as require it, in either the lecture Jewish mates and a Jewish physician. or the text-book method, as desired, from a

, The commercial development of Newport, November 1 to May 1. Thus systematic R. I., he said, was largely due to Aaron Biblical study is following the course of Lopez, in 1750, and Jews had taken an development taken by theological study. active part in the Revoluntionary War. A score of years ago the inchoate demand Professor Gottheil in another lecture for it was supplied by pastors, like Dr. sketched the divergence between ortho- Meredith in Brooklyn, as in Boston predox and reforming Jews, and affirmed viously, meeting large assemblies of teachthat in “ Zionism” is the bond which ers for weekly study of the Sunday lessons. will effectively hold together the diver- Just so divinity students used to resort to gent elements. ** The greatest Jewish learned ministers before the establishment reformer in this country [meaning, we of theological seminaries a century ago. suppose, Dr. Felix Adler) is doing just what Paul the Apostle did to Judaism. Without the lines that unite us to the

President Harper,

Bible Study in Palestine past we are bound to dissolve.” Such a

of the University line he found in Zionism, to which most of Chicago, has planned for a part of the orthodox Jews are attached. The pro- theological course of next year to be taken ceedings of the Assembly may be found in Palestine. A class limited to twenty succinctly reported in the Assembly will sail from New York about the middle Record ” (Philadelphia). “The Menorah of December, with Professor Shailer Monthly,” of New York, under new man- Mathews, author of the recently published agement, will henceforth sustain to the handbook, “New Testament Times in Jewish Chautauqua the relation which Palestine," as its instructor. The class “ The Chautauquan” sustains to the will make Jerusalem, where the American Chautauqua circles throughout the country. School for Oriental Research and Study Its editor will be the Rev. Dr. Harris, of will be at work under Professor H. G. New York, an active leader in the new Mitchell, of the Boston University, its movement.

headquarters for four weeks, with several

excursions weekly to points of interest. The conviction, which Two weeks are assigned to a camping A New Bible School has for some time found tour through Samaria, Galilee, and the

frequent and even forci- region of Decapolis beyond Jordan. Dable expression, that Sunday-school teach- mascus and Baalbek will be visited from ing is the weakest point in the present Beirût. In simultaneous study of the organization of the Church, has naturally Land and the Book, the illustrative interprompted efforts to supply what is lacking. pretation of the Bible will go on continuA few weeks ago we reported the success- ally, and original work in this will be ful work during the past year of the Bible expected of the students. Special courses Teachers' College recently established at will be given by Professor Mathews in Montclair, N. J. Provision for a less historical geography and the life of Jesus. advanced and more preoccupied class of Before returning the class is expected to students is now announced by the Union visit Cairo, Smyrna, Ephesus, Athens,

66

in New York

Naples, and Rome. Members of the

A class will register as students in the Uni

. A Year's Progress in versity, and will receive credit for work

Education done by them, as if residing at the University. This new line of personally con- Looking back over the scholastic year ducted Bible study is sagaciously initiated, just closed, the most prominent facts are and it is to be hoped will show such results the influence of the educational exhibits as to give it permanence.

at the Paris Exposition of 1900; the great

gift of Andrew Carnegie in aid of the ScotA Farm Laborers' Union

The long-talked-of tish universities; the growing prominence

Farm Laborers' of the educational problem in England; Union has this year a local habitation in the retirement of President Gilman after a some parts of Kansas. A correspondent quarter-century of service as President of of The Outlook at Wichita writes us that the Johns Hopkins University; the notethe union had its origin in the system of worthy celebration of the completion of employment agencies established in sev- the first decade of the history of the Unieral centers by an anti-union contractor versity of Chicago, and the incorporation to furnish farmers with the extra hands in the university of the Chicago Institute required to harvest their wheat. The for the training of teachers, endowed by men collected together at these agencies, Mrs. Emmons Blaine ; the steady growth saw that the farmers' need of workers was of sound ideas and policies in the domain greater than their own need of work, and of public education in the large cities, as agreed among themselves to unite in de- evidenced by the increased influence and manding $2.50 a day instead of $2 for authority of Superintendent Maxwell in · the day's work (sunrise to sundown) dur- New York and by the educational provising the harvest season. The men already ions contained in the newly revised charat work on various farms co-operated with ter for that city, by the reception accorded the movement, and the farmers were to the progressive policy of Superintendobliged to pay the $2.50 demanded or ent Van Sickle at Baltimore, as well as lose a good part of the crops. Our corre- by the re-election and hearty support of spondent states that " walking delegates Superintendents Seaver, of Boston, Soldan, have been employed by the Farm Labor- of St. Louis, Boone, of Cincinnati, and ers' Union," and that the same kind of Cooley, of Chicago ; the unqualified suclabor struggles that now go on in manu- cess of institutional co-operation on facturing industries are likely soon to large scale as manifested in the College prevail upon the farms. This prediction, Entrance Examination Board of the however, he prudently limits to farms Middle States and Maryland; and the where a large number of extra hands are foundation of the Washington Memorial required at special seasons. Fortunately, Institution at the National capital 10 these farms are less numerous than they co-operate with the universities of the were a generation or two ago. The in- country in promoting scientific research ventions of farm machinery have rendered through the use of the Government laborathe ordinary farmer relatively indepen. tories and collections. With each of these dent of outside help, and in the Middle topics we must be content with the briefStates, where diversified farming is the est possible reference. rule, there is rarely any need of import- The sigrificance of the several educaing gangs of men for special seasons. tional exhibits at the Paris Exposition was Even in the wheat district of the West, marked in two ways: tirst, by the renewed the diversified farm is gaining steadily interest which they aroused in technical upon the single-crop farm, and with this and commercial education ; and, secondly, gain the demand for extra laborers during by the lesson taught by the exhibit from the harvest season lessens. When em- the schools of the l'nited States, and comployment is steady, and the farm hand is mented on from one end of Europe to the engaged for the whole year, the personal other, that effectiveness is best promoted relations between himself and his employs by the development of general informaer are tou close to make the development tion and intelligence in the early school of strong unionism possible.

years, and by the consequent postpone

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