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ment of specialized instruction and train scholars and of scholarship, and the ing. In France, Germany, and England, modern-day annihilation of time and and elsewhere as well, an influential body space, so far as regards the ordinary busiof opinion has held that the earlier a child ness of life, have brought even that to is put in the line of direct preparation for pass. In one brief generation the higher his future occupation the better ; Ameri- education of the United States has been can experience and American theory point wholly revolutionized, and the part taken to the contrary policy, and they unite in in the revolution by these newest of unienforcing the position that general intelli- versity creations has been highly infiuengence, weil and thoroughly trained, is the tial, as all the world knows. best possible basis for future effective- The horizon of public education in the ness in special lines. In America, there large cities is clearer than for a long time fore, the elementary school wholly and the past. To those in New York who believe secondary school in large part are given in the total elimination of the school servover to general education and not to the ice from politics and from local “pull," training of particular aptitudes. The in the provision of adequate and assured exhibit at Paris fully justified the Ameri- funds for teachers' salaries, in the enforcecan contention, and European education- ment of a high standard of professional ists are openly suggesting that something attainment and efficiency, and in nonlike the American plan must be adopted interference with the chief educational there also.
officers in the performance of their statuSince the foundations that bear the tory duties, everything that law can give name of Wykeham and Balliol, nothing so has been given by the new charter which epoch-making has happened in the higher takes effect on January 1, 1902. The education of Great Britain as Mr. Carne- leaders of the present Board of Education, gie's colossal gift of two million pounds though in political sympathy with Tamsterling for the benefit of the Scottish many Hall, are beyond the reach of the universities. It is the example rather malign influences of that organization, than the amount of the gift, as Mr. Bryce and they are bending every energy to has already told the House of Commons, build and equip sufficient school-houses that will be most influential. Great and to support the statesmanlike policy Britain has never learned to endow higher of Superintendent Maxwell, which is rapeducation munificently with private funds. idly lifting the New York City schools It has made the most petty provision for up to a high place among those of the research, and when Harvard and Colum- world's great cities. In Philadelphia and bia, Cornell and Chicago, have been in in Pittsburg the situation is far from satreceipt of princely sums from private isfactory, although Superintendent Brooks, donors, Oxford and Cambridge, Edin- of the former city, is doing all that a man burgh and St. Andrews, have been slowly can do to surmount the obstacles that starving, while great landowners and personal and political influence put in his merchant princes have looked on and path. In Boston there is a temporary wondered at the niggardliness of Parlia- truce, and Superintendent Seaver is still ment! Mr. Carnegie puts such men to in office, but there seems to be no great shame, and it is hard to believe that his amount of confidence that hostilities will example will not be followed, and followed not be renewed sooner or later by those generously, by the wealthy men and women who look upon public schools as political of Great Britain.
spoils. In Chicago, St. Louis, Baltimore, The withdrawal of Dr. Gilman from and Cincinnati things are moving foractive service and the celebration of the ward, while in Cleveland the forces of Chicago decennial remind us of the reality darkness were met in sharp combat and of the new university dispensation under completely routed. which money and administrative skill During the year a group of the strongaccomplish what time alone was once est colleges in the Middle States and competent to do. With Berlin, Johns Maryland have been demonstrating that Hopkins, and Chicago before us, it is that ancient bugbear and mortal enemy unreasonable to hold that universities of sound secondary education, the college cannot now be made, The mobility of admission examination, is not an insoluble problem. Fifteen colleges united with expect from it a distinguished service to the secondary schools to form a college the country and to science. entrance examination board, which has For some time to come all educational . successfully conducted examinations on a eyes will be fixed on the British Paruniform plan, at one and the same time, liament. Can and will Great Britain in sixty-one cities and towns throughout provide a universal and effective system the United States and at several places in of public education, elementary and secEurope. These examinations represent ondary, under non-ecclesiastical control ? the co-operative effort of the best colleges This is, in essence, the question which and the best schools, and provide a single Parliament must presently face. A powerstandard of attainment for secondary ful party in England thinks of State school pupils instead of the multiform schools, and talks of them, as mere charity and varying standards which have hitherto schools, to be economically maintained prevailed. From every point of view the and kept within the narrowest limits. work which has been so auspiciously This party is reinforced by another and begun is noteworthy, and it bids fair to equally powerful party which holds strenutake rank with the most far-reaching edu- ously that all education must be religious cational movements of our time. We in character and must include doctrinal commend it most heartily to the attention teaching. A small but growing party, of every college and secondary school supported by what we in America should teacher in the land.
consider the best expert educational In the Washington Memorial Institution opinion, would answer flatly in the affirmall that was best and wisest in the moveative the crucial question as put above. ment for a National university seems to With a newly chosen Parliament, and one us to have come to fruition. Against a controlled by the Conservative party, to National university many and weighty decide the question, at least for the present, arguments may certainly be urged, and it is fairly obvious that the best expert these are stated with great force in the educational opinion will not have its way. important report on the subject, just made Just what form of compromise emerges public, by the committee of the National from the struggle remains to be seen. Educational Association which has had the matter under consideration for three years past. On the other hand, the vast The Reform of the Theater resources of the Government at Washing. ton ought to be used in all possible ways Those who have read Mr. Norman for the advancement of science and the Hapgood's suggestive essays in the “ Con. arts, both liberal and useful. Congress temporary Review," the “International has given its consent to this use, and now Monthly,” the
Monthly," the “ Atlantic Monthly," and the Washington Memorial Institution has other magazines must have been imcome into existence to be the effective pressed with his clear vision on the subagent in the matter. The Institution is in ject of the drama in general, but of modern no sense a university, but it will co-operate methods of conducting theaters in particuwith universities, colleges, scientific asso- lar. In his recently published volume on ciations, and scholars generally in making “The Stage in America". the most importhe Governmental laboratories and col- tant chapter seems to us that in which lections useful for research. Director he gives his views on what really makes Walcott, of the United States Geological a theater worth while. This judgment Survey, is chairman of the board of trus. must be depressing to those who, like tees, and Dr. Gilman, who will turn over Mr. Hapgood, would presumably rather the presidency of the Johns Hopkins talk and read about Shakespeare and University to his successor in September, Schiller, Rostand and Ibsen, than to talk will shortly thereafter begin to organize and read about the methods of stage prothe work of the Washington Memorial duction. Much as we like the chapters Institution as its director. Every im- in the present volume on classic and conportant influence in the Nation's educa- temporary dramatists, full as they are of tional system is interested in the new Institution, and there is every reason to Hapgood." The Macmillan Company, New York,
I The Stage in America 1897-1900. By Norman
original comment and criticism, we turn but he thinks (and this is what distinto the chapter entitled “Our Only High- guishes him from some of his contempoClass Theater," feeling that, at the pres- raries) that running a theater ought to ent juncture, it contains more timeliness be taken more as an art than as a trade. than all the others combined.
In furtherance of this aim, Mr. Conried According to Mr. Hapgood, and accord- has been endeavoring to extend his influing to many other lovers of the drama, ence among those classes of people who “our only high-class theater" is the Irving want to see the very best that can be put Place Theater in New York City, com- on the stage. In this respect he hopes monly called the German Theater, now much from the professors and students of that the old Thalia is given over to Yid- our colleges. To stimulate them he has dish plays and Yiddish audiences. At given lectures at some of our leading the Irving Place Theater may be seen, in universities, and he has also given perGerman, more classics than those given formances at colleges at his own expense. by any of our English-speaking companies. He reasons correctly that young men And at this theater the drama in general who have gained some smattering of Geris on a higher plane than it is in any man at college, and have thus early had other theater in the metropolis. It is their attention called to an opportunity of even on a higher plane than was drama continually adding to their knowledge of at Daly's Theater during the lifetime of dramatic literature, will be guided by it, Mr. Daly. With the breaking up of the not only in their own habits, but also in Daly company, the last of the old “stock those of their children. companies" was dissolved.
Wallack's, It is such an earnest purpose as this of that other almost equally well-known Mr. Conried's, impressively emphasized company across the street, had disappeared by Mr. Hapgood, that we are glad to a decade ago, and the less known but note with special emphasis. The present really better Boston Museum company degenerate and deplorable condition of had been dissolved earlier still. It is American theaters, but especially of those interesting to note, however, that the Ger- in New York City, is only too evident. man Theater does not represent the only The one way to redeem these theaters is stock company now playing in New York to return to the earlier, healthier, and City. At the Murray Hill Theater may more stimulating plan of the stock compabe found a company which varies its bill nies. Such a plan does not rule out star frequently and follows stock-company rôles. As we have seen at the German methods. We hope that it may be the Theater this winter, and at other theabeginning of a great American company, ters, single actors and actresses have just as we hope that Mr. Benson's ven been permitted to join these stock comture in England may be the beginning of panies as stars, and during such an a great English company which shall con- engagement the plays given are naturally tinue to revive the better class of English those deemed suitable alike for stars and acting. Already it has brought back to for stock actors. The friendliness between the stage dramas unknown to the present audience and actor, however, which has generation of London playgoers.
existed for scores of years at the Théâtre Mr. Hapgood points out several causes Français in Paris, and which is beginfor the superiority of the Irving Place ning to exist at the Irving Place Theater Theater. First, not only is the German in New York City, ought to be repeated taste more serious, but as, in general, in many an American city. It is true German-Americans represent no large that the unvarying personality of certain floating population (an important element actors may be accurately displayed in one in the support of the Broadway theaters), or two plays, and that they may acquire changes of bills are more compulsory. Of just renown thereby; but what the great course, this theater does not make as much public admires in an actor is versatility, money as a good many of the Broadway and they love to see a great favorite like houses make. Mr. Conried, its Director, the late Got, for instance, now as a patrisaid the other day that, if he were simply arch, now as a brigand, now as a lover. looking for business, he could find a The principal reason, however, for the better business than running a theater, formation of stock companies is for the education of the public, not merely to us here.” “I run no more hazard than for their diversion. It is impossible to your Majesty,” the man answered. “Not see a farce put on at the stages of the so," said the King; “ I am here where it Comédie Française in Paris or the Burg is my duty to be, and I may without preTheater in Vienna or the Irving Place sumption commit my life to God's keeping, Theater in New York City without long. but you—” The sentence was left incoming to see how a classic drama would be plete because the man fell dead at the presented, and thus the man who is King's feet. It was a foolish courage and merely drawn to one of these theaters to it cost a life. No good end was served ; be amused comes again to be instructed. the man gambled with that which did not The believer in idealism thus finds that belong to him and lost it by a throw of the he has some practical chance, because iron dice of war. William, on the other art, not merely “business," is empha- hand, lived in constant peril, but that peril sized.
was a part of his work ; and when he fell Not until the theater becomes a repre- at last by the hand of a cowardly assassin sentative of art, not until the theater in the little narrow hallway at the foot of manager has some art ambition, can we the staircase in the old palace at Delft, he hope for a theater which will be really fell in the place to which the hand of God creditable to either manager, actors, or had led him; that is to say, at the identithe supporting audience.
cal spot where he ought to have been in the discharge of his duty. The greatest
risks are justified when they are taken as Wasted Courage
a part of one's work; but no man has a
right to brave them simply as a matter of Courage is one of the prime qualities in indifference to danger, or as an occasion strong character. Without it, no man can for the display of a foolhardy courage. command either his own respect or the Life is too precious to be wasted in sham respect of others; with it, the greatest battles. faults are in a sense redeemed and smaller faults obliterated. One great act of cour- The Divinity of Christ age sometimes atones for the weaknesses of a lifetime, and, like a splendid mantle, The letter from a correspondent, which covers many deformities. But courage we print on another page, affords a curidivorced from duty is often mere rashness, ous illustration of the infelicities of theoidle braggadocio, inexcusable waste of logical controversy. The Outlook has strength, opportunity, and sometimes of never intimated that the story of the life. No man has a right to jeopardize Virgin birth is a myth, or that the worhimself or the things which are precious ship of Christ is man-worship, or that he to him unless some worthy end is to be is not the supreme Son of God in a sense served. To put everything at the disposal not shared by our common humanity, or of a great occasion or a great duty is to that he is not to be the object of our faith evidence one's devotion to some noble in bimself as a divine being, or that he cause or some great ideal, but to jeopardize is simply a great prophet born of an earthly all one's fortunes for mere caprice or dis- father. We reaffirm here the faith which play, or in a foolhardy mood, is to gamble The Outlook, in all its teaching, ethical with the things which are most precious and spiritual, assumes, and we reaffirm it William of Orange never lacked that cool substantially as it was affirmed in the courage which is the very highest form of editorial which our correspondent has a great quality. On one occasion on a apparently read with so little care and to battlefield in Flanders when, under a heavy so little purpose : We believe that Jesus fire of bullets, he was giving orders to the Christ is the Son of God and the express members of his staff, he discovered near image of his person; that God was in him the Deputy Governor of the Bank of Christ and that Christ was God manifest in England, drawn to the place by mere the flesh; and we believe that this was curiosity. The King said to him sharply, true in such a sense that he who has seen, “Sir, you ought not to run these hazards; tha: is, known, Christ, has seen, that is, you are not a soldier; you are of no use known, the Father. Or, if this is not plain
enough, we will state it in the exact words to give herself to me?" " Because," said she of John in the prologue to his Gospel : " In simply, "I love you." After this, they all the beginning was the Word, and the
called Wi-yu my little girl.
One day while Wi-yu sat by my side learnWord was with God, and the Word was ing how to hem a pocket handkerchief neatly, God. . . . And the Word was made flesh I asked her if she loved Jesus, of whom I had and dwelt among us (and we beheld his been talking to her. "No," she said, “ I do glory, the glory as of the only begotten hot; but I want to. I want to be a Christian, of the Father) full of grace and truth.” * But Jesus says. Suffer the little children Or we will state it in the words of Augus- to come unto me.' tine, whose orthodoxy our correspondent know what to do," said she
“I don't know how to go to him ; I don't will probably not question : “ The Son of know what to do," said she.
* Wi-yu,” said I, you must give yourself God is both understood to be equal to the away to him." She looked at me in surprise. Father according to the form of God in “ How can I do that?" she exclaimed. which he is, and less than the Father ac
“ How did you give yourself away to me ?” cording to the form of a servant which because I love you."
"I came to you and asked you to take me, he took." Or we will state it in the words “Why do you love me, dear?” She hesitated of a modern theologian, Dr. William New- a moment, and then answered, " I think it ton Clarke, of Colgate University, whose must be because you love me." “ Outline of Christian Theology” we
“ Yes, Wi-yu, that's just the reason. Now,
Jesus has been loving you all this time, while regard as the most spiritual treatise on you have not been caring in the least for systematic theology we have ever seen: him.” « Christ is the gift of the heart of God thinking. I did not say a word, because i
She stopped sewing and sat very still awhile, who desires to save the world. He
knew the Holy Spirit was teaching her. At comes to make known to men their true last she said : God, to infuse spirituality into their being “ Would Jesus be willing for me to give myand thus give to them eternal life.” And self awayto him just as I did to you?" we also reaffirm the declaration of the
“ Certainly, my dear child ; that is exactly
what he wants you to do. He wants all of editorial that “ Jesus Christ is not a substi- you, too. He wants your little feet to run for tute for God; he is access to God; and we him, your lips and tongue to speak for him, are to bring to God all our love and all and your whole heart to love him.”
After some our worship and all our surrender, be
more quiet thinking, Wi-yu
knelt by my side and said : “My dear Jesus, cause we no longer worship an unknown I give myself away to you. I give you my God, but God made known to us through hands, my feet, my mouth, my tongue, and my his Son ;” and we repeat, condensing it, heart; I give you all of myself. Please take the further declaration that to do this it is
me, dear Jesus.” She arose and said :
“Do you think he heard me ?" not necessary to believe that Christ's “I am sure of it,” said I ; "and you will find unity with the Father is a metaphysical his answer in your little Testament." Tounity, or to know what the phrase meta- gether we found these precious words in her
Indian Testament: “ Any one that cometh physical unity means, or to form any intel
unto me, I will not thrust aside.” Believing lectual conception of the nature of the that Jesus meant just what he said, she from unity between Jesus Christ and his Father. this moment knew that she was his own, dear,
Mrs. L. P. Broad has written and the saved child. Kansas Congregational Home Missionary If no one can be a Christian unless he Society has published the following little believes that jesus Christ is truly God, story ; hundreds of thousands of copies and that the unity of Christ with his of it have been distributed ; and it is re- Father was a metaphysical unity, then ported, apparently authentically, that this Mrs. Broad seriously erred. She should little story has led hundreds to begin a have explained to Wi-yu what the phrase Christian life:
"metaphysical unity” means-if she ner
self knew; we somewhat doubt whether Wi-yu's father and mother were pagans, She was a little Indian girl. She never heard
any one does—and should have explained a word about Jesus until she came to the mis
to Wi yu that she could not be a Christian sion. We were glad to take the children of until she understood. We think that Mrs. pagans, even while both parents were living. Broad was right in her interpretation of One day Wi-yu walked up to me and said: Christianity, and that Mrs. Parish is “I want to give myself away to you.". I was much surprised, but looked into the little girl's wrong.
We do not criticise or controvert black eyes and said: “Why does Wi-yu wish Mrs. Parish's theories; we simply regard