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them as of no practical importance. We the uneducated, the little children, and emphatically deny that any theological because it turns the zeal of men away theories respecting the relation of Jesus from doing the work of the Master in Christ to the Father are a condition of simple loyal service and incites them to acceptance with Christ. We condemn doubtful disputations about words and such a misconception respecting the rela- phrases which have different meanings to tions of intellectual theories to the relig- the different disputants, and to many ious life as irrational, unscriptural, and mean nothing at all. To be a Christian pernicious. It is irrational because it is not to have a theory about Christ's substitutes theories about life for life it- relation to the Father, ancient or modern, self; it is unscriptural because it substi- conservative or liberal; it is to love him tutes a mediæval and scholastic test of because he loves us, to give ourselves to character for the simple test which Christ him because he has given himself to us, prescribed, “ If ye keep my command- and to set our feet to run for him, and our ments ye shall abide in my love;" it is hands to work for him, and our lips and pernicious because it shuts the door of tongue to speak for him, because our the kingdom of God against the humble, whole heart loves him.
THE END IN EDUCATION
1.–An Address by Arthur T. Hadley, LL.D. '
President of Yale University. N the whole ordering of our educa- their way. The demand for their increased tional life there are two tendencies recognition is but the natural reaction
against which we have to fight. One against the errors of a time when they of these is the tendency to measure the were hardly recognized at all. But when value of knowledge by its utility to the these things are made the whole aim of individual ; the other, the tendency to education, and when a school system is pursue knowledge for its own sake, without valued by these tests alone, we are in reference to its value to any one at all. danger of making knowledge at the
The first of these dangers is perhaps expense of character, and of training the more universal. It is seen in our practitioners at the expense of principle. primary schools, in the demands for the On the other hand, some of the teachers teaching of science, which is supposed to in our universities, in their protest against be practical. It is seen in secondary these utilitarian ideas of education, not education, in a call for the knowledge of only insist that knowledge is an end in those parts of language and history which itself, but make it the only end of educathe pupil is expected to be able to use, tion, and the summum bonum of intellectual and those parts only; in methods of study and spiritual life. They look with comof society which lay stress on the mechan- passion on the teacher who is occupied ism of politics instead of attempting to with the training of his pupils, as one who evoke the underlying habits of broad is debarred from the higher pursuits of judgment and public spirit. It is seen in classifying scientific phenomena or analyzour colleges and our professional schools, ing grammatical forms. Their ideal has, in the constant demand for the increase of indeed, much that is noble. As a protest purely technical training in comparison against prevailing commercialism it has with general education.
special value at the present day. But Not that I would undervalue these when we are told, as we sometimes are, things. Science-teaching and practical that such work is the only true goal of mastery of language, knowledge of goy university life, and that scholarship is ernmental methods and technical prepara- impossible if we are bent on the teaching tion for professional work, are all good in of men instead of the teaching of ideas, is like the conception of medicine which its work thereto. Thus crowded on both makes a hospital the place for experiments sides, the American college has become a in pathology rather than a place for the place of intellectual experimentation, cure of disease. It is an intellectual whereby a boy already well grounded in Pharisaism, which insists that man was the rudiments shall find out the line to made for the Sabbath, and deplores as a which he is best adapted before commitmisfortune the necessity of living in a ting himself irrevocably to his profession. community which holds to the doctrine In this new state of things the colleges that the Sabbath was made for man. have not the overwhelming power for
we are justified in raising the strongest " Delivered at the semideltennial of the Hill School, Pottstown, P., May 15,19,1.
protest. This conception of scholarship
There is a scholarship higher than that character-building which they possessed which is represented by either of these under the old system. The range of tendencies; a scholarship whose results choice of study interferes with the closeare not valued for their own sake, and ness of the community life. The possinot for the sake of the utility to the indi- bility of specialization allows some men vidual, but for the sake of their effect on to be misled by commercial standards, the community; a scholarship whose and others by too narrow scientific ones. devotees regard themselves, and rightly These dangers are increased by the curregard themselves, as holding a trust for rent direction of the demand in the world the benefit of the nation. Without this outside, which, in the increasing specialcollective ideal, which in its political ization of trade and industry, is calling aspect is the foundation of true democ- more for that knowledge of detail which racy and in its religious aspect the foun- will fit a man to take his place in a madation of true Christianity, our practical chine, and less—in the early stages of studies will degenerate into selfishness, professional or business life--for that our scientific studies into microscopic power which is necessary to keep the isolation. It is not a misfortune, but a social order running without stoppage or glory, to the colleges of America that they revolution. have, amid all their errors and failures, Here it is that the colleges find their subordinated the individual to the com- strongest need for help from the schools, munity ; that they have been less distin- and here it is that they gain their strongguished for the making of rich men or est support from an institution like this. for the making of scientific specialists When every other department of life is than for the making of citizens of a free being organized into combinations, we commonwealth.
cannot escape the same tendency in the But our collcges cannot maintain this world of teaching. If we are to preserve position single-handed. They are even our independence as educators, we must less able to do so to-day than they were as educators stand together. We must in times gone by. In spite of their growth organize an educational trust, if we are to in numbers, they now form a relatively preserve our position in the modern smaller part of the educational world than world. The beginnings of this movement they did two generations ago. At that are already seen. The relations of the time the work of the public schools was schools to the colleges, and of different elementary, that of the private schools schools and colleges to one another, are undeveloped. The college course closer than they were ten years ago. The looked to as the thing which constituted more completely the colleges are involved education. The secondary school work in the problem of regulating the intellectwas arranged to lead up to what the col- ual experiments of the young men of the leges did. The opening years of profes- country, the more most of them rely upon sional life were arranged to take the college the schools to train up, in the years immegraduate as they found him. But with diately preceding, a body of men with that the growth of high schools on one side basis of intellectual and moral character and schools of theology and law and med- which shall render such experiments profiticine on the other side, a different state of able. Now as never before there is a need things has developed. Co-ordinate powers for schools which shall give to their boys in the educational world have arisen, the habit of valuing what is permanent as which demand that the colleges shall recog- distinguished from what is transient. It nize that which they are doing, and adapt is not necessary that their course should
be classical in the narrow sense, but class- vations; but religious it must be in the ical it must be in the broad sense, in lay- sense that it teaches them from one day's ing stress on those things which have end to the other to regard life as a trust impressed themselves upon the world's held for the benefit of the community, and experience as distinguished from those exercised with that regard for one's fellowwhich are merely ephemeral. It is not men which is the mark alike of the gentlenecessary that their training should be man and the Christian. Thus shall we predominantly religious in the sense of build up a race of men whose money and laying undue tension on any theological whose knowledge shall be made subservidoctrine or any series of outward obser- ent to the good of the people.
II.—A Baccalaureate Sermon by Lyman Abbott'
HE world is God's workshop, and contain too much; they contain too
men and women are the products little. They are not too complicated;
of his industry. The chips are they are too simple. We cannot depend all about us, and the products are far on the theologian alone to tell us about from finished—some perhaps never will God. We must go to the artist to tell us be; we cannot tell. But we are in the what is beauty, and to the musician to world to be made: this is the end of tell us what is harmony, and to the poet life—the development of true men and to tell us what is imagination, and to the true women, worthy to be called children father and the mother and the friend to of God. The process begins at the tell us what is love; and all these are cradle; so far as this life is concerned, it revelations of God. The difficulty with ends when we drop the body into the the creed is that it contains too little. grave, at what we call our day of death, Too few men have been working at it. but should call our day of resurrection, It is made up of crystals; but all our and rise up and go out from the school of beliefs should be seeds that are ever earthly life to some other life, for some growing larger and bursting the shell other preparation or for some possible within which they are placed. For we achievements, we cannot tell what. shall not begin to understand what
In this process we have to develop knowledge is until we understand somewhat we call our intellectual powers. thing of what God is, and we shall not We must learn to see, to hear, to touch; begin to understand what God is so long we must understand something of this as we confine our notions of divinity to outer world in which we live. We must those which are given to us by philosoknow how to interrogate our own con- phers. sciousness and understand something of But we are not only thinking creatures; the inward world, the world of thought we are emotive. We have appetites and and feeling. And we must learn how, passions, desires and aspirations. Appeby our reason, to draw conclusions from tite, passion, acquisitiveness, approbativethe things which we have learned from ness, self-esteem, ambition, as well as observation and from self-consciousness. faith and hope and love--these are all This triple process, studying the outer impelling us in one direction or another. world, studying the inner world, and To be educated is not merely to know deducing conclusions from what we have how to see the outer world, is not merely observed in both worlds, gives us what to interrogate the inner world, is not we call knowledge. And this which we merely to deduce right conclusions from call knowledge is acquaintance with God. what we have observed : it is to know It is acquaintance with the works which how to regulate this ill-regulated, pashe has made and with the life which he sionate life within us ; it is to understand has inspired. Our creeds are not too how to be full of passion and yet keep long; they are too short. They do not it controlled, as the engineer keeps the "Preached at Wellesley College Sunday, June 21.11.
fire controlled that makes the steam. A on the text - Beloved, now are we the con il passionless creature is a poor, useless, and it doth not yet appear what we shall bxs! - Johin ineffective creature. ül., 2.
It is to know how
to have the self-esteem that shall protect win our freedom, and then we say, Now us, and yet that shall not make us hard we shall have peace. Again the question and careless of others; how to have the comes, Do you love freedom for yourselves love of approbation that shall make us only and not for others ? For a score of care for the opinions of others and yet years the question is presented; finally not make us a reed that is shaken with comes the Civil War; slavery is abolished, the wind; it is to know how to have the and again we say, Now we shall have peace. faith that shall see the invisible, and yet Then God straightway opens other terrinot to look so absorbedly at it as to over- tories, and says, You have won freedom look the world in which we live, a faith for yourselves, now make other peoples that shall never degenerate into fanati- free. The boy brings the solution of his cism or superstition ; it is to know how problem on the slate to his teacher, and to have the hope that shall not so look asks, Is the answer right? The teacher into the life beyond as to allow us to says yes, rubs the figures off, hands the scorn the life that is; and to have a love slate back, and says, Now you can take a that shall never be mere sentimentalism. harder problem. So in life; every task
And this education which gives us is the preparation for a harder task, every knowledge and which trains our moral achievement opens the way for greater powers gives us, if it be a true education, achievement, every epoch is but the beginstrong, resolute will. I have heard some- ning of a new epoch. times of fathers resolved to break the will The whole history of life shows that of their children—they might better break education is itself the end of life. The their backs. The will is the very citadel little child lies in the cradle; the mother of life. I have heard of men who think cares for it, the father provides for it, that strong wills are needed for men, but they try to educate it, they send it to weak and pliable ones for women. No! school and to college, and then their The ong will is the essence of a strong child goes out into the world ready to character. The will is often compared to take up life himself, and presently he is the helm of a ship. If one could only set married, and a second home begins, and the helm when he starts out from New little children are given to him, and he York, and steer a straight course to Liver- trains them in turn, and the parents wait pool, navigation would be an easy matter. a little while to have as grandparents the But that we cannot do. The helmsman joy of children without the care of chilmust stand with his hand on the helm dren, and then their work is done, and and must turn it to meet the deviation they depart to enter upon some other of the compass, the shifting currents, work, in some other sphere, we know not the baffling winds. It is not possible to where. steer an undeviating course, but only a We are not in life for purposes of prosteady one, and one must be always shift- bation ; we are not here to be tried to see ing his helm in order to keep a steady whether we are fit fui heaven. There is course. An obstinate man is one who probation, but probation is not the end ties the helm and goes to sleep. The of life. As in college there are examinastrong-willed man is he who holds the tions, not to show how much we know, helm and knows when to change it, in but to ascertain whether we know enough order to meet the changing currents of life. to enter the next class, so in life our trials
This is education; to get knowledge, to are to ascertain whether to-day we are get regulated passions and appetites and ready for a new lesson to-morrow. We desires, and to get the strong will that are not here for achievement. We are gives us power over ourselves and master- not here to do things, we are here to ful control in life. And all life is educa- grow by the doing of things. We are in tive, for every stage in life is only prepa- the workshop to learn industry. ration for another stage, and every problem is an industrial school, and the purpose of in life is achieved only to have a more its industry is to make us men and women. difficult problem given to us. The ques
The ques- The end of life is not achievement, but tion came to the American colonies, Will life itself. you be free? Then you must fight for Now let me tell you why I have said freedom. For seven years we fight and this. A friend not long since read to me a
very pathetic letter which he had received generally lacks common sense ; the man from a Christian woman, which ran some- who says, I will be a prophet, is apt to lack thing like this: “My husband has but common morality. Columbus starts to a narrow income. We are not able to sail across the ocean that he may find a keep a servant unless we spend all his passage to the East Indies, and he stumincome, and I think now is the time to bles on America. Luther is a monk, lay by a little for our old age. My boys never purposing to revolutionize Europe, are at school, and I want to spend a little only determined that he will follow his time with them, entering into their studies, conscience wherever it may lead him. giving them what little help I can, assur- Morse is an artist, and while on shiping them at least of my sympathy. When board the idea of the telegraph comes to my husband comes home at night, he is him, and he works it out. Lincoln is a tired out, and I really do not see what politician in Illinois, with no thought of better thing I can do then than to read emancipating the slave, but he resolves to him, for his eyes are rather weak. that he will be true to himself, whether And so with the housekeeping and the he wins or loses a Senatorial contest. All children and the husband, I have no time truly great men are spontaneously great. left to serve the Lord.”
More than that, great men are not great I think there are many such women merely because they succeed. A great and a few such men-more women than man may fail. We revere the man who men, for the simple reason that women endeavors to do a mistaken thing, if he are more conscientious. You have gone carries into his endeavors a noble charthrough your college course. You are acter. We honor Robert E. Lee, though going out into life, and the temptation is had he succeeded in what he wished to to say to yourself, Now I must do some do, he would have inflicted incalculable thing to justify the expenditure which has injury on the human race. We honor been put upon my education; I must find him for what he was, not for what he did some mission to accomplish, some place or tried to do. to fill, some deed to do, else the time and But did not Jesus Christ have a great money spent in school and college will mission ? And did not Jesus Christ tell have been spent in vain. This is ar us to follow him in this great mission? honorable feeling, but it is a mistaken Can we be following him if we do not ourone. We are not put into life for a mis- selves take up some great mission of our sion; we are not put into life to do great own? Look and see.
In his first sermon things. We are put into life to be made he says practically this: I have come to men and women, and to do the things give sight to the blind, hearing to the which God has put into our hands to do, deaf, speech to the dumb, solace to the be they great or be they little.
suffering, emancipation to the slave. I No person can do a great work who have come to make the world a purer says to herself, Go to, I will do a great world and a better world. And then all work. Great work is not done in that his biography is written in the one senway. All great work is spontaneous. I tence, ** He went about doing good." was standing before a picture last week Did he do great things? Forget your with an art critic, who said, She paints preconceived ideas and read the story of better than she used to ; she has gotten his life, and answer what one great thing through worrying about details. She had this man did, as men count greatness. He lost self-consciousness, and the loss im- wrote no great book, led no great army, proved her as an artist. The other day founded no great State, organized no a literary critic said to me, No man can great Church, made no great oration. He write a moral novel purposely; if he is a talked to the Twelve about him at the moral man, his novel will be moral; if he supper with quite as much eloquence as is an immoral man, his novel will be he talked to the thousands in the Sermon immoral, and that is the end of it. Out on the Mount. Ile healed, but not so of our character grous our life; we do as many as in one single year are healed in we are. This is the reason of the popular the Massachusetts General Hospital. He feeling against the professional reformer. preached to a few hundreds, but not to as The man who says, I will be a reformer, many as Whitefield or Wesley or Beecher