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the future, was one of those periods of quiet growth which are often fruitful because they are free from stir. One event was significant—the appointment in 1841 of Edward E. Salisbury to the professorship of Arabic and Sanskrit, for from it dates the beginning of a department of graduate instruction. The successorship fell to Dr. Dwight's nephew, Theodore Dwight Woolsey, a man whom it is hard to characterize, so rare a combination was he of simplicity, sincerity, and strength. Of all the college presidents who have left a lasting impress on generations of students by sanity, dignity, and force of character, Mark Hopkins, of Williams, is perhaps alone comparable with Woolsey. He brought to his administration (1846-71) unusual advantages in lineage and early training. He came of the Autocrat's “ Brahmin caste," but, through close intimacy with a father who

was an able and high-minded man of much in earnest was he that at times he business in New York, enjoyed from the laid aside the traditional dignity of the beginning a practical guidance seldom the college president, a degree of condescen- privilege of one who leads the scholar's sion hard for us to appreciate, and met life. After experience as a tutor at Yale, the students as man to man. Early in and studying theology, which, however, his administration, during one of the did not appeal to him as a profession, senior debates, of which he was umpire, Woolsey chose the calling of teacher, and, a question was proposed principally “to to fit himself for it, went abroad to study see what would happen"—this: “Are the in 1825. That was something scarcely Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- any one then thought of doing, either ments the Word of God?” Dr. Dwight from lack of means or from not regarding at once accepted the challenge. He urged the skeptical debaters to put forth their strongest arguments regardless of his presence, as they would were they debating among themselves. After all had said their say, he took up their arguments as if he had been himself one of the debaters, making, by contemporaneous testimony, one of the most convincing efforts of his life. From Dwight's methods, indeed, dates the kind of orthodoxy that has characterized Yale even to the end of the century. It is an orthodoxy strong but tolerant, yielding genuine respect to the conclusions of science in its own field, but refusing authority beyond it and insisting on the essentials of faith—an attitude by no means rigid, yet in principle consistent.

The long administration of President Day (1817-46), though of large importance in confirming the policies inaugurated by Dr. Dwight, and thus settling




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Drawn by Frank Adams. it as worth while, the accepted standards sometimes writing as many as two thouof scholarship being still provincial. His sand letters in a year with his own hand. final word from Europe is characteristic. Spare and bent of form, with finely " I should think my existence insupport- cut features and piercing eyes, Woolsey able and a burden," he wrote to his looked the type of quiet scholar; but, father, “if I had not an aim to be useful aroused on a moral issue, was capable of in my day and generation;" adding, “ I an indignation few cared to face. He have endeavored to gain a minute and was the embodiment of sincerity. So far thorough knowledge of the Greek lan- did he carry his hatred of an affectation guage, and to lay a foundation for an that he would not, on re-reading, substiacquaintance, such as few in America tute a “better-sounding ” word for the possess, with classical literature, in order one first chosen if the first clearly expressed to teach it." These sentences epitomize his meaning. Yet he appreciated the the ideals stamped on the Yale policy by rhythm of words as he loved nature, Woolsey—“usefulness," " thoroughness." himself sharing the poet's gift, as those As Professor of Greek (1831-46) he at know who have been privileged to read once introduced the more exact standards the small collection of his verse printed of European scholarship, and at the same privately for his closest friends. Stern as time enlarged its opportunities by adding a disciplinarian, he was most kindly of new authors and editing needed editions heart. It would be a violation of confiof the tragedians As President, while dence to tell how many thousands of insisting on thoroughness, he broadened dollars he loaned or gave to needy stuthe work of the senior year, introducing dents, a large part of which was never political economy and history. Through returned. Of a legal rather than a theointense interest in the issues of the impend- logical cast of mind, in preaching he ing Civil War he was led to take up appealed to the great fundamental laws, international law, on which he became so as when, in his powerful sermon on “ The eminent an authority. Meanwhile he Self-Propagating Power of Sin," he found time for the faithful performance appealed to “facts as old as mankind of the smallest duties of the place, quietly and as lasting as the soul, facts which doing its drudgery almost unnoticed, any heathen sage might notice and

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which Christianity does not create.” Of both ancient and modern ; mathematics a singular modesty, he not only refused and the physical sciences; philosophy, the place of Minister to England offered history, and the social sciences. But to to him by President Hayes in recognition preserve continuity, definiteness in the of his services as a publicist, but kept student's exercise of the right of choice, the offer itself a secret until the President each must so elect bis courses as to himself disclosed at a Yale Commence- attain a certain grade of advanced instrucment.

tion in his major subject of one group, The final form of the Yale education and a required grade in a minor subject as developed under Woolsey, in accord- from each of the other two groups. It is ance with a certain seriousness which under these restrictions that the excephad characterized it from the beginning, tional student will hereafter be able to consisted principally of the ancient lan- gain his A.B. degree in three years, guages and mathematics, and secondarily emphasizing even in the concession the of natural science (taught by text-book), tradition that the training of the many some modern language, English literature, comes first. history, political economy, psychology, The modernized curriculum is but one and international law. This form per- sign of the new order. Its advent is no sisted until 1884, or for thirteen years less marked by the co-ordination of the after Woolsey's retirement. Its aim was various departments, but especially by the to give training, discipline to the many, new opportunities of the recently estabnot to favor the aptitudes of the few, lished departments of music and forestry. and its rigorous application accomplished Yale's is indeed a busy university life of its purpose. Under President Porter many interests and contacts, as reflected (1871-86), who was respected for his in the great bulletins which announce the learning and loved for his kindliness, but club meetings and lecture courses of a who concealed under a mild manner single week. Of all this the bicentennial great tenacity of purpose. the university festival will take careful note, first recog. departments in law, medicine, the fine nizing how wisely the one ex-President arts, and graduate instruction

still spared, the second Dwight, builded strengthened, and the sum of $600,000 for the future. He divorced the office of raised for university purposes. But in President from that of instructor and these developments the university was of made it essentially executive. He raised deliberate purpose kept apart from the large sums for the necessary equipment college. Contributing to this was the in buildings and laboratories. He stimuindependent natural growth of the Shef- lated by the enthusiasm of discernment field School unhampered by tradition, the growth of the university spirit. He either in government or method; for initiated the movement by which $1,200,Sheffield received many students desiring 000 has been raised from 1,700 contribua modern education, who, had they entered tors for the bicentennial buildings, of the academical department, must have which the auditorium may bear the doubled the pressure for radical change. honored name of Woolsey Hall, with the The concessions of 1884 to the " optional” completion of the fund to $2,000,000 spirit, involving more and more of inci- apparently assured. But the bicentennial dental change, resulted in another depart programme itself will emphasize the past, ure in 1893, by which one-half the courses from its incidental features to the lasting were made optional as against one-third. embodiment of its significance in a special Under this new opportunity of choice, publication of a series of volumes, perhaps the displacement of the ancient languages twenty, by members of its faculty-a noteand mathematics by modern languages, worthy record of research. The range is English, the social sciences, and history the widest possible, from Hadley's “ Eduhas been rapid. A still further depart- cation of the Ameri an Citizen ” and ure will mark Yale's entrance on her Sumner's "Sociology" to Chittenden's third century. The student from sopho- “ Studies in Physiological Chemistry" more year on will have full liberty of and Lounsbury's “Shakesperean Wars." choice among courses classified under At its head will be that unique collection three groups : Languages and literature. of Americana, the " Diary of President Stiles,” edited by Professor Dexter. been consistently steadfast. To the great Against the background of the historical American tradition of democracy, knowaddresses by Justice Brewer, Dr. Fisher, ing no favorite in the class-room, and Dr. Gilman, Dr. Welch, President Nor- ranking a man on the campus by what he throp, and Mr. Thomas Thacher, will stand is and not by what he has; to another out the still cherished personalities of the great American tradition, the good of the men of light and leading who made the majority, applying a curriculum not to Yale that was—Thacher and Hadley, favor the few but to develop and discipline Dana, Loomis, Newton, Marsh, and Whit- the many; to the tradition of the humaniney. It all will recall the past: the collec- ties as opposed to the utilities, in teaching tion of curious text-books running back to first what the cultured man ought to know, the beginning, to 1701, and starting with rather than what, under pressure of inAmes's "Medulla Theologiæ;" the collec- dustrialism, he needs to know for his tion of paintings by Coloncl Trumbull and individual calling. Samuel F. B. Morse of the class of 1810, Can the university be true to the tradithe beginning of the Art School ; the tions of the college? The answer is the Greek Festival Hymn composed by Pro- felicitous word with which President Eliot fessor Goodell, and set to music by Pro- conferred on President Hadley the hood fessor Parker; the old “York Tune” once of his Harvard degree : “ Prophet of her more, first sung at the Commencement of upward career.” Under Hadley one 1718; the quaint historical costumes of the thing is assured—modification of tradition students in the great torchlight parade; will not mean impairment of ideal. To the pantomimes presenting dramatically that already bears witness the intensity this or that phase of Yale life to an of his deliverance on the materialism of audience of six thousand in the great American life. Confident, then, of a high quadrangle.


and strong leadership, the graduates and What is the substance behind these friends of Yale may, in the noble words shadows of two centuries lived ? What of Stedman's “ Commencement Ode," the outcome of Yale's evolution ?

“On a

with confidence commit her to her third map of the world,” says Lowell, "you century: may cover Judea with your thumb, Athens

Mother of Learning! thou whose torch with a finger-tip, and neither of them Starward uplifts, afar its light to bear, figures in the Prices-Current; but they Thine own revere thee, throned within thy still lord it in the thought and action of

porch, every civilized man.” Judea and Athens

Rayed with thy shining hair.

The youngest know thee still more youngmay have passed, but their traditions are

The stateliest, statelier yet than prophet-bard perpetuated in living ideals. So with the contributions to national life of two cen

O mighty Mother, proudly set turies of Yale. Its traditions have grown

Beside the far, inreaching sea,

None shall the trophied Past forget into ideals. To certain of these Yale has Or doubt thy splendor yet to be!

hath sung

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