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" It's very dangerous," he explained to But Ranald stood still, looking silently Mrs. Murray; "the wind blows out the at the minister's wife. Then, as all eyes flames.”

turned towards her, she said in a gentle, As he spoke he handed Maimie his sweet voice, “I think we ought to give toasting stick and retired to the other side thanks to our Father in Heaven for all of the fire, and began to attend to the this beauty about us and for all our joy." boiling sap.

At once Ranald took off his hat, and " He needn't be such a bear," pouted as the boys followed his example Mrs. Maimie.

Murray bowed her head and in a few, ** My dear,” replied her aunt, “what simple words lifted up the hearts of all Ranald says is quite true. You cannot with her own in thanksgiving for the be too careful in moving about the fire." beauty of the woods and sky above them

“Well, he needn't be so cross about it,” and all the many gifts that came to fill said Maimie. She had never been ordered their lives with joy. about before in her life, and she did not It was not the first time that Ranald enjoy the experience, and all the more at had heard her voice in prayer, but somethe hands of an uncouth country boy. how it sounded different in the open air She watched Ranald attending to the fire under the trees and in the midst of all the and the kettles, however, with a new jollity of the sugaring-off. With all other respect. He certainly had no fear of the people that Ranald knew religion seemed fire, but moved about it and handled it to be something apart from common days, with the utmost sang froid. He had a common people, and common things, and certain grace, too, in his movements that seemed, besides, a solemn and terrible caught her eye, and she wished he would experience; but with the minister's wife come nearer so that she could speak to him. religion was a part of her every-day living, She had considerable confidence in her and seemed to be as easily associated with powers of attraction. As if to answer her

As if to answer her her pleasure as with anything else about wish, Ranald came straight to where her her. It was so easy, so simple, so natural, aunt and she were standing.

that Ranald could not help wondering if, “I think it will be time for tea now,” after all, it was the right kind. It was so he said, with a sudden return of his awk- unlike the religion of the elders and all ward manner, that made Maimie wonder the good people in the congregation. It why she had ever been afraid of him. was a great puzzle to Ranald, as to many “I will tell Don,” he added, striding off others, both before and since his time. toward the group of boys and girls, still After tea was over the great business busy with their games under the trees. of the evening came on. Ranald anSoon Don's shout was heard :

nounced that the taffy was ready, and · Tea, ladies and gentlemen ; take your Don, as master of ceremonies, immediately seats at the tables." And speedily there cried out: was a rush and scramble, and in a few “ The gentlemen will provide the ladies moments the great heaps of green balsam with plates.” boughs arranged around the fire were full “ Plates !" echoed the boys, with a laugh of boys and girls pulling, pinching, and of derision. tumbling over one another in wild glee. “ Plates," repeated Don, stepping back

The toast stood in brown heaps on birch to a great snowbank, near a balsam clump, bark plates beside the fire, the baskets and returning with a piece of “crust." were carried out of the shanty bulging with At once there was a scurry to the snowcakes, the tea was bubbling in the big tin bank, and soon every one had a “snow tea-pail, and everything was ready for the plate" ready. Then Ranald and Don feast. But Ranald had caught Mrs. slid the little kettle along the pole off the Murray's eye, and, at a sign from her, fire, and with tin dippers began to pour stood waiting with the tea-pail in his hand. the hot syrup upon the “snow plates,"

Come on with the tea, Ranald,” cried where it immediately hardened into taffy. Don, seizing a plate of toast.

Then the pulling began. What fun there Wait a minute, Don,” said Ranald in was, what larks, what shrieks, what rompa low tone.

ing and tumbling, till all were heartily " What's the matter?”

tired, both of the taffy and the fun.

every side.

Then followed the sugar-molding. The putting her arms round about her niece, little kettle was set back on the fire and and holding her tight, cried : kept carefully stirred, while tin dishes of " Thank God, my darling, for his great all sorts, shapes, and sizes--milk-pans, kindness to you and to us all. Thank pattie-pans, mugs, and cups—well greased God I thank God I” with pork rind, were set out in order, im- Her voice broke, but in a moment rebedded in snow.

covering herself, she went on, “And RanThe last act of all was the making of ald, tool noble fellow !" “ hens' nests.” A dozen or so of hens' Ranald was standing at the back of the eggs, blown empty, and three goose eggs crowd, looking pale, disturbed, and awkfor the grown-ups, were set in snow nests, ward. Mrs. Murray, knowing how hateful and carefully filled from the little kettle. to him would be any demonstrations of In a few minutes the nests were filled with feeling, went to him, and quietly held out sugar eggs, and the sugaring-off was over. her hand, saying:

There remained still a goose egg pro- “It was bravely done, Ranald. From vided against any mishap.

my heart, I thank you." “Who wants the goose egg?” cried For a moment or two she looked steadDon, holding it up.

fastly into his face with the tears streaming “Me, me, me!" coaxed the girls on down her cheeks. Then putting her hands

upon his shoulders, she said softly : “ Will you give it to me, Don, for the “For her dear dead mother's sake, I minister ?” said Mrs. Murray.

thank you." “Oh, yes !” cried Maimie, " and let me Then Maimie, who had been standing fill it."

in a kind of stupor all this while, seemed As she spoke, she seized the dipper, suddenly to awake, and running toward and ran for the kettle.

Ranald she put out both hands, crying : “Look out for that fire,” cried Don, “Oh, Ranald, I can never thank you dropping the egg into its snow-bed. He

He enough." was too late. A little tongue of flame He took her hands in an agony of emleaped out from under the kettle, nipped barrassment, not knowing what to do or hold of her frock, and in a moment she


Then Maimie suddenly dropped his was in a blaze. With a wild scream she hands, and, throwing her arms about his sprang back and turned to fly, but before neck, kissed him, and ran back to her she had gone more than a single step aunt's side. Ranald, dashing the crowd right and left, “I thought you didn't play forfeits, had seized and flung her headlong into Maimie,” said Don in a grieved voice. the snow, beating out the flames with his And every one was glad to laugh. bare hands. In a moment all danger Then the minister's wife, looking round was over, and Ranald lifted her up. Still upon them all, said: screaming, she clung to him, while the Dear children, God has been very women all ran to her. Her aunt reached good to us, and I think we ought to give her first.

him thanks." “Hush, Maimie; hush, dear. You are And standing there by the fire, they quite safe now. Let me see your face. bowed their heads in a new thanksgiving There now, be quiet, child. The danger to Him whose keeping never fails by day is all over.”

or night. And then with hearts and Still Maimie kept screaming. She was voices subdued and with quiet "goodthoroughly terrified.

nights," they went their ways home. “ Listen to me,” her aunt said, in an But as the Cameron sleigh drove off even, firm voice. “Do not be foolish, with its load, Maimie looked back, and Let me look at you."

seeing Ranald standing by the fire she The quiet, firm voice soothed her, and whispered to her aunt: Maimie's screams ceased. Her aunt ex- "Oh, auntie! Isn't he just splendid ?” amined her face, neck, and arms for any But her aunt made no reply, seeing a signs of fire, but could find none. She new danger for them both, greater than was hardly touched, so swift had been that they had escaped. her rescue. Then Mrs. Murray, suddenly






The Rights of Man
A Study in Twentieth Century Problems

By Lyman Abbott
Chapter XV.-The Goal of De- are the meek; blessed are the merciful

blessed are the pure in heart; blessed mocracy

are the peacemakers.” The cause of HAVE assumed in these papers that blessedness was the theme of the second the Hebraic Commonwealth was a great sermon. That the secret of happi

democracy; I assume in this paper ness is the perfection of character; how that Jesus Christ built upon the Hebrew that character is to be perfected ; how theocracy as a foundation ; that he came, true character differs from that produced not merely to save individuals from a lost by scrupulous obedience to the letter of world, but to save the world itself by a law--this formed the theme of the founding here a new social order; and second great sermon. In this Sermon on that in the principles of that order, as the Mount, at the close, Jesus indicated inculcated by him, the goal of democracy that life or character was in some sense a is to be sought for. The limitations of gift from heaven : “ Whosoever will, ask space do not allow me to argue these and it shall be given you; seek and ye propositions: I therefore assume them. shall find; knock and it shall be opened What were these principles which he unto you.” Thus he led on to the third inculcated ? Most of Christ's instruction great sermon, which is on the Bread of was conversational, colloquial, the talking Life. And in this third great sermon of a single man to groups of men. But Jesus declared the secret of character to he did, in the course of his life, preach be a divine life; God coming down from three or four great sermons, and these heaven to dwell among men and give three or four great sermons we have a them life; that God is in his world, that right to look to as containing, in them- God is of kin to man and man is of like selves, the suggestions at least of his nature with God, so that the two can general teaching,

come together, and one can dwell in the The first of these sermons was one other, and that the life of man depends which he preached in Nazareth shortly on his becoming a participator in the life of after his baptism. The account of it is God--this was the third great discourse given in the fourth chapter of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. of Luke. He went into the synagogue ; The fourth sermon was addressed prithe Book of Isaiah was laid before him; marily to his disciples. In this sermon he read the words of the prophet : “ The he set his own principles in clear antagospirit of the Lord God is upon me, nism to those of Phariseeism, and intibecause he hath anointed me to preach mated some general laws of the new the gospel to the poor ; he hath sent me social order. They are all comprised in to heal the broken-hearted, to preach one metaphor : “ All ye are brethren," he deliverance to the captives and recovering said ; " call no man your father upon the of sight to the blind, to set at liberty earth, for one is your Father, which is in them that are bruised, to preach the heaven.” And what he meant by “ all acceptable year of the Lord.” And then ye are brethren ” he further explained by he said, “ This is what I have come to saying, “ He that is greatest among you, accomplish.” This was the first great let him be the servant of all.” Mutual sermon of Christ; the object of Christ brotherhood means mutual service. was to produce happiness on the earth. I am far from saying that these four The second sermon-the Sermon on the points which I have presented to you Mount--began where the first sermon cover the whole of Christ's teaching : I ended. It began with the Beatitudes: will not even affirm that they cover the “ Blessed are the poor in spirit; blessed most important points of Christ's teaching, though I think they do. But we have sarily autocratic in its character. Thus a right to take four great discourses like democracy is inherently, vitally, essenthese of a great teacher to ascertain what tially opposed to the spirit of war, and if are the fundamental principles which he it accepts war it accepts it only as a dire has come to inculcate. And we have a and unavoidable necessity, to be escaped special right to do that when they answer from as soon as may be with honor. It the four questions which any man natu- is for this reason that democracy has rally asks of a reformer. Those questions found its way to contrivances which lessen are these : First, What do you propose the danger of war. It is for this reason to do? Secondly, How do you propose that the most democratic country, Amerto do it? Thirdly, What is the secret of ica, contrived that federation of States the power by which you propose to do it? and invented that Supreme Court of the Fourthly, What will be the final result United States which has served as an when your work is done? These are the arbitrator between different communities, four great questions we have a right to and has substituted reason for force as ask of any moral reformer. To these the means of settling interstate controquestions the discourses of Christ make versies. It is for this reason that in answer: I propose to make the world a Europe the uprising of democracy has happy world; I propose to do it by chang- preceded the creation and development ing the character of the men dwelling in of international law, and preceded the the earth; and I trust to the power of organization of courts of arbitration and God dwelling in the individual man to that final consummation of the courts of accomplish this transformation of society; arbitration—the creation of the court of the end will be a family or brotherhood arbitration at The Hague. Democracy of man. These principles of Christ con- is not only opposed to war, but democracy stitute the goal of democracy.

has invented or discovered the methods In the first place, the aim of democracy by which controversies between comis the extension and diffusion of happi- munities can be adjusted more rationally, ness; it purposes to make happiness uni- more peacefully, and more in accordance versal.

with human happiness than by military There are four great material enemies force. to human happiness: they are war, pov- The second great enemy of human erty, pestilence, and famine. Democracy happiness is poverty. Democracy does is unalterably opposed to war; the mili- not believe that poverty is a necessity. tary spirit and the democratic spirit are The fundamental tenet of democracy is essentially antagonistic to each other. that there is wealth enough in the world Wars may be sometimes necessary—I be- to make all men happy. This was cerlieve that wars are sometimes necessary- tainly the tenet of Jesus Christ : “In my but if so they are a necessary evil. The Father's house," he said, through one of spirit that regards war as an advantage, the characters whom he portrayed, “is that desires war for its own sake, that bread enough, and to spare.” The world exalts and glorifies militarism, is in direct is the Father's house, and there is bread contradiction to the spirit of democracy. enough in the Father's house for all the For war can only be carried on success- Father's children. If any go hungry it is fully under an autocracy. A nation which either their own fault or else it is the fault is armed and equipped for war is of ne- of a vicious social organization. “Come,” cessity under a commanding general, and said Christ, is another parable, " for all a commanding general must be an auto- things are now ready: go out into the streets crat. War cannot be carried on by a and lanes of the city and bring in hither committee; the experiment has been tried the poor and the maimed and the halt and more than once, and always with failure. the blind.” And the servant did so and An army cannot by universal suffrage returned with the statement, “ Still there determine what shall be the movement is room." He repeats the lesson in more against the enemy tomorrow morning. than one parable. We have given to An army is necessarily an autocratic these parables a spiritual interpretation, organization, and an armed nation- and doubtless they deserve a spiritual nation which is an armed camp—is neces- interpretation, but they deserve the other

interpretation also. On their face they racy puts the individual first, the organicarry with them this great economic truth, zation second. Socialism expects to that there is in the world ordered by the develop the individual, but chiefly through Father enough for all his children, so that a change in the organization ; democracy none need go in want save through either expects to develop society, but chiefly their own fault or the fault of a vicious through the development of the individual. social organization.

Thus, these two working to the same ends Granted these two principles-granted work by diametrically opposed methods. that war can be avoided and pauperism The end of democracy is, first, protection can be avoided-and the other two great of the rights of the individual, then develevils disappear themselves, for pestilence opment of the character of the individual,

, and famine are the children of war and and then teaching of the individuals how pauperism. Christ's parables are full of to co-work together to a common end. joyousness; dancing, singing, festivity, It is because democracy lays this stress happiness ripple over the surface of his on individual character that it lays stress instructions, and they are phases of happi- on the institutions which develop individness not for the few but for the all. ual character. It is for this reason that Democracy has already made some approx- so soon as a State becomes democratic it imation to this broad diffusion of wealth establishes a school system for the eduand happiness. We have not in America cation of the individual. For the same as many splendid palaces as in the Old reason it develops individualism in relig. World, but we have many more comfort- ion. With imperialism goes naturally one able homes. We have not in America Church, one creed, one ritual, one ecclethe great and lordly parks, but, save in siastical order; with democracy there goes our great cities and a few of our factory naturally a variety of Churches, of creeds, towns, we have a little plot of ground of rituals, of ecclesiastical organizations, around the home of each individual tenant. because democracy insists on the develop

The second principle for which democ- ment of the individual, and therefore on racy stands is the development of char- the right of the individual to frame his acter. It seeks this universal happiness own creed, to worship according to his by the development of the individual. In own ritual, to organize his own Church. this respect democracy differs radically The innumerable variety of sects into from socialism. Socialism, Christianity, which the Church in America is divided democracy, all seek the same end—such a is no accident; it is the inevitable result reorganization of society as will make of the individualism which it is the object, human happiness universal. But social- deliberate or unconscious, of democracy ism begins by seeking to change the organ- to promote. Democracy believes that it ization, Christianity begins by seeking to is better to have great men and little change the individual. Socialism aims Churches than a great Church and little first at changing the social order, and men. through the social order improving the For this reason democracy tests everyindividual; Christianity (and democracy thing by its relation to character-not catching the spirit of Christianity) seeks to always consciously, not always wisely, but improve the individual first, and to change intuitively and instinctively.

intuitively and instinctively. It is thus the social order through the improve- to-day testing the Churches in America. ment of the individual. Thus socialism The workingmen are asking, Will the would make the State the owner of all Church help us? Will it make us better wealth ; democracy would make the State men? Will it make us happier men ? the protector of individual wealth. Will it enlarge and enrich our life? I do Socialism would have the State carry on not think they find altogether the right all the industries and would make every answer to their question, but I justify them individual the servant of the State, doing absolutely in asking it. The function of the State's bidding; democracy would the Church is not to be an organization make the State a protector of individual by which men can add to the glory of industries and the State the servant of the God; it is an organization by which the individual. Socialism puts the organiza- glory of God can add to the happiness and tion first, the individual second ; democ welfare of men. And if the Church fails

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