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to add to the happiness and welfare of ever higher life. And yet I think democmen, or if it fails to add to the welfare racy already begins to see this dimly, if not and happiness of those men that most clearly. And I cannot but think that if need to have their happiness and welfare it fails to see this principle clearly it is developed, then, in so far, the Church is partly because we ministers have oura failure. Whether rightly or wrongly, selves failed to see it clearly, or to present this is a test which the democracy applies it so that others should clearly see it. to preacher, to priest, to Church, to Democracy believes in law; it believes religious institutions of every kind. So
So in government for the protection of person, long as we have a democratic America, of property, of the family, of reputation. so long it is certain we must have Churches Democracy has organized a strong governthat will serve the common people, or the ment; the old fears that the United States Churches will cease to be supported by would be but a rope of sand are no longer the common people. Democracy meas- entertained by any students of American ures its institutions by their relation to history. Democracy is as far removed human need. In the same way it meas- from anarchism as it is from socialism. ures industry. It tests every industrial But law must be either imposed and organization by the question: Is it making enforced by authority from without or good men and good women? It is democ- imposed and enforced by authority from racy which has insisted that the law shall within. If the law comes from without, interfere with industrial enterprises which and is enforced by a power from without, are not making good men and good women. the individual is, in so far, in subjection It is democracy which has insisted that to some one other than himself; if the law child labor shall cease, that woman labor comes from within, and is enforced by his shall be limited, and that hours of labor for reason and his conscience, the law thus all men shall be defined. It is democracy within the man is a self-enforcing law, and which protests against any system of labor when a man lives under a self-enforcing which requires a man to work twelve law he lives in liberty. Law according to hours out of the twenty-four, and seven the Christian conception, law according days out of the week. It is democracy to the Old Testament conception, law as which insists on shorter hours of labor more and more democracy is coming to and larger wages; not merely for the sake see it, is the law of man's own nature. It of the larger wages, not merely for the sake is not an edict issued by a king, nor a of the shorter hours, but for the sake of such statute framed by a God; it is the law of leisure as will make development of the man's own organism. The moral law is workingmen's life possible. This is the a part of his organism and a product of meaning of the blind, groping, ignorant, it. The laws of nature that bind men often impracticable, and sometimes revo- together in one great social organism are lutionary, demands of labor organizations. not made by man; they are made by the This is the spur that drives them on; this Creator of man; they are divine. And the moral force that compels them. It is yet they are not external to man; they true that wages are better than wages ever are not brought down to him at Mount were before; it is true that hours of Sinai; they are not brought down to him labor are less than they ever were before. in the Sermon on the Mount. Mount Sinai But it is also true that manhood is larger and the Sermon on the Mount do but inthan it ever was before; that it needs terpret them. This is the fundamental more relief from toil and more opportu- postulate of liberty: God appeals to the nity for the development of the higher life divine in man and finds in man himself than it ever did before. Democracy the power to enforce all righteous laws. measures industry by its fruits on char- Thus the foundation of liberty is the recogacter. It counts that a poor industrial nition-intelligently or unintelligentlysystem which grinds up men and women of a divinely organized law; not getting in order to make cheap goods.
its authority from any human will, but Democracy does not see so clearly the from a divine will, and from that will as it third principle which Christ inculcated, is manifested in the structure of the namely, that the secret of all life is God human soul, and finds its expression in dwelling in man and inspiring him to an the voice of the human reason and the human conscience. That God is in man, Why a brotherhood of man? I can unthat man is of kin to God, that law de- derstand why I am brother to a man rives its authority from the divine Law- who is congenial to me, who thinks as giver, and not from the human Czar, or I think and likes what I like; I can from Congress, or from a majority—this understand why I am brother to the man is the fundamental postulate of free insti- who belongs to the same State or the tutions, this is the basic fact of democracy. same nation and has the same political
Christ not only declared that he had interests that I have; I can understand come to give human happiness to the even why I am brother to the man who is world, and come to give it by the neighbor to me and with whom I come development of individual character, in perpetual contact. But why am I and come to develop that individual brother to all men ? Why am I brother character by bringing men to a conscious- to the man on the other side of the globe ? ness of the divine that was within them, Why am I brother to the man against but he taught them that when thus whom I brush in the street-car, whom I they were developed and came to the shall never see again? What basis is consciousness of this divine within them there for saying that I am brother to all they would be brought together into a men? Because deeper than consanguingreat natural organism. And he gave us ity, deeper than race relationship, deeper a type and illustration which we should than a common language is this sublime have perpetually before us, which should fact: that we, all of us, rich and poor, give to us our conception of the type of black and white, American and Filipino, the organism and of the spirit which are children of God, made in his image, should animate it: “One is your Father or at least being made in his image. This in heaven, and all ye are brethren." The it is, and only this, that makes us brothfamily is the type of social organism. ers. It is as infidel to deny the brotherThe end of Christianity is a family or hood of man as it is to deny the existence brotherhood of man.
of God, and it is as inconsistent with any The family is the first and oldest of large human progress to deny the Fatherorganizations and the parent of all other hood of God as it is to deny the brotherorganizations. Out of the patriarchal hood of man. Atheism never can be family grew the patriarchal church; out made to consort with democracy. of the patriarchal church the patriarchal The second fact to be noticed is that government. Governments are but col- the laws which govern the family in their lections of families; the church is but a inter-relationship to one another are the combination of households. As the fam- laws which are to be projected into ily is the first, and as the family is the society and to govern men in their relaparent, so the family is the type. “Our tions with one another. Mark the conFather" is more than an acknowledgment trast between the laws which we recognize of our relation to God, it is an acknowl- as laws of the family and those which we edgment of our relation to one another; generally have assumed to be the laws of and this relation which we bear to one the social organism. For example: “ Hire another is the relation of brothers in a labor in the cheapest market and sell it family, as the relation which we bear to in the highest market;" this is the silverGod is the relation of children to a father. plated rule of industry; this is the basis
The first fact to be noticed is that in on which it is supposed a harmonious the family the ground of fellowship is in social organism can be erected. Now the parents. These are brethren, not apply it to the family: Seek the wife who because they think alike, not because they will render you the greatest service and have similar temperaments, not because ask you for the least money; seek the they are naturally congenial to one an- husband who will pay the biggest pinother, but because they are children of money and ask of you the least servthe same father and mother. Loyalty to ice! What kind of a family will that give? the father and mother makes the family Take another aphorism of science applied one. So loyalty to God makes the hu- to the social order---“ struggle for existman race one; this is the first and fun- ence, survival of the fittest.” Is this the damental fact. A brotherhood of man. rule of the family? The baby is laid in the mother's arms, the unfittest infant on with something of the wisdom acquired the face of the globe to survive, for there is by our forefathers; and the preacher gives no other infant that has not more capacity the life and love of God to men to inspire to take care of himself than the human them in all their labor. Life is organized infant. At once we all begin to study how for service, and the goal of democracy this unfittest can survive. The boy must is the realization of that ideal in which take off his noisy shoes when he enters the every man shall “ look not only upon his house, that he may not disturb this unfit- own things, but also on the things of his test; the husband must be careful not to brother ;" in which every man shall entalk too loud in the adjoining room lest he deavor to help the weaker man through awake the unfittest; he must get up in the the hard places of life; in which every middle of the night and walk with the man shall recognize that his place in life, unfittest, that the unfittest may be com- wherever it may be, is a place for the forted and go to sleep. There is no service service of others, not for self-service. that we must not render for the little king, Such seem to me to be the fundamental who is king because he is dependent, and principles of democracy: universal happionly as we love him, and care for him, and ness, founded on the development of give ourselves in unrequited service to character, inspired by the indwelling of him, will he survive. If we were to take God, leading to the unification of the these two principles of the home and carry human race in one brotherhood, bound them out into our industries, if the problem together by love, manifesting itself in of the capitalist was, how large wages he mutual service. could give and still keep his business going, and of the laborer, how much work In bringing this series of articles to a he could give and still maintain the time close, I sum up their results in a closing necessary for his own highest manhood ; if paragraph. The conflict of the centuries the problem in our life was to help “bear is one between the doctrine of pagan one another's burdens, and so fulfill the imperialism, that life and the world are law of Christ,” which is also the law of made for the few, whom the many are to democracy; if we really believed that he serve, and that of the Hebraic democwho would be greatest among us should be racy, that life and the world are made the servant of all, can any one doubt that for the many, and the great are to be their the social problem which perplexes us servants. This doctrine involves in poliwould be solved ?
tics, All just government is for the benefit Life is divinely organized for mutual of the governed ; in political economy, service. The farmer gathers the raw mate- The common wealth is for the benefit of rial from the earth; the manufacturer con- the common people; in education, A fair verts it into objects which are useful to opportunity for individual development human life-the grain into flour, the wool should be offered to every individual; in into clothing; the railroad man takes this religion, It is the right of every soul to material, which is of no use where it is, learn for itself what it can of the Infinite, and carries it across the continent to those and to tell what it thinks it has learned. regions where it is needed, from the over- Of the Hebraic democracy the United fed West to the underfed cities of the States affords the best modern example; Atlantic border; the middleman takes in the faithful application of these simple what is transported and carries it to your principles it will find the solution of its house and to mine; the banker regulates problems, both domestic and foreign. Its the money through which all this system perils are great, but the grounds for hopeof interchange is carried on; the lawyer fulness as to the final issue are greater. determines for us what are the principles That issue, if it be successfully achieved, of justice by which we are to be gov- involves the material welfare of all the erned in our dealings one with another; people, based on their intellectual and the doctor cures us when we are sick, spiritual development; the freedom of the or, if we are wise and he is wise also, community, based on the recognition of a keeps us from getting sick; the teacher divine law enforced by reason and congathers out from all the experience of the science; and a brotherhood of humanity, past that which shall launch us into life based on mutuality of service.
By Arthur Lynch ECENTLY I made one of a party of “ Very well! I will go home and write journalists who, in the course of the thing myself !”
conversation, discussed the rela- And he did. tive merits of French, English, and Ameri- The vast and enterprising paper in can newspapers. It was a case of tot question reproduced his prose with enorhomines, tot sententia, but the opinion that mous and Hamboyant head-lines. I may attracted most attention, possibly on say that my confrère was totally unacaccount of its epigrammatic form, was that quainted with Delcassé, and that he hardly of a grizzled veteran who had equal famil- knew the A B C of that very intricate iarity with English and French journalism. and difficult study, French politics. Of
“ The French papers," said he,“ are the what real interest to the American public, least informed and the best written; the therefore, could his lucubrations have English the worst written and the best been, and even if, to make an absurd informed.”
supposition, the "interview" had been “ And the American?” demanded a authentic, of what possible value could have representative of the United States. been the statements of such vague plati
“ The American journals," responded tudes as an irresponsible reporter jotted the sage, “oscillate between the two down with a half-hour's study of the subject? extremes.”
I believe I can speak with a certain And forthwith he produced from his impartiality of journalism in France, Engovercoa: pocket one of the greatest of the land, and America, for I have been a New York journals, and, amid roars of regular contributor to the press of these laughter, read to us the account cabled three countries, and I have at various from Paris of a cab-horse who knew his times represented their leading papers as way about the Ville Lumière so well that it special correspondent. was only necessary to whisper in his ear, It is customary in English-speaking “Gare St. Lazare,” or “ Moulin Rouge,” in countries to laugh at the somewhat “picorder that the animal should transport his ayune ” character and the lack of accufare to the required destination and by the racy of the French papers, especially in shortest route!
reference to foreign affairs. There is, of The learned cab-horse is only a striking course, much truth in these disparaging example of the ridiculous matter which criticisms, and the matter is so important finds its way into the greatest and most that lack of a well-instructed and interested enterprising journals in the States. public opinion forms one of the factors Among hundreds of incidents which I which have contributed to the decadence could cite I select that of a Paris corre of France. French journalists as a rule spondent of my acquaintance, who, at a know no other language than their own, moment of considerable political tension, and few of them have traveled abroad. received a cable from his editor in New It is not surprising, therefore, that the York: “Interview Delcassé on situa- “ directors" of foreign affairs, even in tion."
their principal journals, display a farHe showed me the telegram, and the reaching incompetence. I have often following conversation ensued :
wondered how newspapers which speak “Do you think I could get the inter- of Sir Balfour, and of the treaty of M. view from Delcassé ?”
Clayton-Bulwer, find it necessary to deal "No."
with these subjects at all. Those who “Could you get an interview from Del- are in the least degree interested in the cassé ?
subject one would suppose would know "No."
that Clayton and Bulwer were two men; "Could any one in Paris get an inter- and why waste copy in a limited space on view from Delcassé just now?”
matters which have no interest? "No."
On one occasion I gave the director of foreign affairs of one of the "boulevard " exposition of current topics, that sense papers a few notes on the American Presi- which is conveyed to the reader of getting dential election. The notes were repro- down to the “bed-rock" of things, if only duced fairly exactly, but at the end of the for the purpose occasionally of misreprearticle the director in question added a sentation—all this applies much more little of his own, concluding with the state exclusively to American home affairs than ment that the victory of McKinley seemed to those which deal with other parts of probable, unless at the last hour some the world, even in cases where American “dark horse" appeared and beat both interests are large. In London certainly party candidates! The unfortunate direc- there are some talented correspondents of tor had learned the words “dark horse” American papers, but the majority of these only the previous day, and was burning either know only very superficially the with anxiety to show his knowledge of politics of the country-and, after all, American slang.
properly understood, the politics are the But there are “buts.” The Frenchman business operations of the country-or has a different conception of the function else they become identified with the aims of a newspaper from that of an Englishman of a particular party. or American. There are several dailies In Paris I think that not ten per cent. which rank as important in Paris which of American correspondents possess the are bought mainly on account of the arti- very first essential qualification, viz., a cles of their editors. Such are the “In- sufficient knowledge of the French lantransigeant” of Henri Rochefort, the guage. It is true that in that respect the “ Libre Parole of Drumont, and the example is set in still higher quarters, for “ Autorité" of Paul de Cassagnac. there have been American Ambassadors There are few or none which are bought in Paris who were as ignorant of the lanfor the sake of the news, as the word guage of Talleyrand as most French stateswould be understood in New York. With men of the vernacular of Walt Whitman. regard to news, moreover, it should be I remember hearing a distinguished remarked that Paris looms so big to the American official in Paris once say: “ They Parisian in the perspective of things that generally send Ambassadors here to learn a piece of gossip or an “echo” of Paris, French, and when they have acquired one of the most important of the French a smattering they are taken away.” papers bears the name "L'Echo de Paris" The remark illustrates the difficulty—is of more importance than vast move- almost invariably underrated-of “posments in foreign countries.
sessing" French, as they say here, so as On the other hand, there is no city in to maintain a conversation in French the world so well supplied with publica- company without fatigue to the listener. tions having a more or less specialized I have known journalists, even among or what might be called a technical char- those who have resided a few years in acter, not only in regard to science and Paris, who speak a kind of language which industry, but also in all political, diplo- “ scorches" the ears of the Parisians. matic, colonial, sociological, theatrical, This is not a trivial matter, for the lanartistic, and educational questions.
guage is the only “open sesame " to a The newspaper therefore merely skims knowledge of French life. the surface, becomes the representative Consequently most of the correspondParisian conversation, and gives mere ents contrive to give to their journals a references to subjects of deeper study. presentation of French politics, society, The Parisian system of things therefore and of movements and events generally indicates, with regard to a certain aspect in France certainly not less absurd than of the matter, a higher stage of evolu- the laughable blunders of French writers tion than that of other countries; for who attempt to describe American affairs. the degree of evolution is indicated by But when a big “boom" in France, the differentiations and specialization of such as the Dreyfus affair, occupies the functions.
world's attention, it is then that the great The American newspapers have often American journals vie with each other in excited my admiration by the energy and presenting to their readers the most outability they display. But the intelligent rageous caricatures of the French people;