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for "special" correspondents then take operation--I speak of war correspondence up the work of the stock performers. I generally. One of the most famous of

. have met in Paris a good many distin- all war correspondents was undoubtedly guished special correspondents, men who Edward O'Donovan, who perished with have earned reputation in other spheres, the army of Hicks Pasha in the Sudan. but who were as much misplaced in Paris O'Donovan was endowed with Celtic exas a boulevardier would be in the wilds of uberance, allied to a perfectly Oriental Kamchatka. In default of understand- richness of coloring, and he could pile ing, therefore, they invented.

up graphic details with a facility only posNo doubt their journals were quite sible to one who loved his art. The trapleased, for I know it is a well-accepted ditions of mendacity that O'Donovan maxim in the most progressive newspaper inaugurated have been well continued ; world that false news is better than no only the tone of romance and poetry and news. Most of the correspondents go so the genial atmosphere have disappeared. far as to act on the principle that false Mendacity has become" commercialized.” news is better than true news if the false The English newspapers are, I believe, news have the characteristics of sensation the chief offenders in this respect, espealism, of lurid display, of the “tang "socially the newer arrivals in the field, which delectable to the public.

pique themselves on what they call AmeriOne of the most successful newspaper can methods, and which secretly rejoice editors in London once told me that he in, while ostensibly rejecting, the title of believed in sending men to cities they "yellow journals." knew nothing about, because their impres- I myself have been special correspondsions were livelier and more interesting. ent to different English papers in various That is also doubtless the reason why a parts of the world, and I know from Frenchman's description, say, of a baseball experience so acquired that the vaunted match, makes such enjoyable reading. accuracy of the English press is not

I remember one of these lively impres- always in evidence. The staid English sionists, who came from New York to take papers have a more heavy and solemn mancharge of the local edition of a world- ner of printing inaccuracies. That is all. renowned paper, rushing to his office to However, my object in writing this artiorder an "extraordinary” in New York cle has been, not to arraign any particular one Sunday afternoon, on the ground that journal or journals, but to make a plea something like a new French Revolution for a greater seriousness of conception of had commenced. He had seen the Presi- the province of journalism in general. dent driving to his palace with a terrify. We are the historians of a living present, ing escort of cuirassiers armed with and there is no limit to the importance revolvers; and as he had never before which such a function might acquire. seen this imposing piece of pageantry that Occasionally it falls to the journalist's lot so delights our Gallic Republicans, he to assist in some degree in the march of became excited and “splurged” it across history itself. the Atlantic. This was “good” journal. Yet the leaven of a bad old time still ism, no doubt. But what would we think clings to the journalist's profession. of a Frenchman cabling to his newspaper Properly considered, such a remark as --supposing for a moment a French that cited above of the London editor, newspaper ever indulged in a cable—that who sent men as correspondents to cities President McKinley had decided to abol- of which they knew nothing, should be ish the army because he saw him receive considered as degrading to journalism. some officers in mufti ? The parallel is Is there any other profession in the world not overstrained.

in which so small a premium is placed on The most fertile field for ingenious re great abilities and honest work, and in porters is undoubtedly a war campaign. which there are such facilities for scamped I do not speak particularly of the South work, shoddy work, “ bluff," flash, and African war---for it is becoming increas- meretricious werk? ingly evident that long before the war, as In my remarks I have referred mainly during its continuance, a well-organized to the demerits of the system, but while I system of falsification of news was in am quite alive to the great progress of journalism and to the great merits of its lack of real ability and knowledge of the standard exemplars, I am inclined to be springs of human action and human emo lieve also that I have touched on its faults tions on the part of the expositor. And, with too light a hand.

accordingly, it behooves journalists, as a I cannot believe even that the ignorant body, to pay greater respect to the more public prefer garish nonsense to the vivid serious bases of their profession, and on reality of things. If truth is less attrac- all occasions to work together to elevate tive than fiction it is mainly due to the the status of journalism.

Adolf Harnack as a Theological Teacher'

By the Rev. Williams Adams Brown, M.A.,

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Professor of Systematic Theology in Union Theological Seminary, New York City. N the winter of 1899–1900 a remark- which its author already deservedly holds able course of lectures was delivered among English and American students. at the University of Berlin. The

It seems a fitting time, therefore, to theme was the question, old yet ever new, inquire what is the secret of his influence, What is Christianity ? The audience and what the message which he has for consisted of some six hundred students the men of our generation. drawn from all the departments of the All students of Harnack are agreed as University. The lecturer was Professor to his power as a teacher. No one who Harnack, whose brilliant work in his has ever sat in the old lecture-room in chosen field had already drawn to his Berlin, waiting for the first appearance class-room many hearers of a kind not of the man of whom he had heard so often found in attendance upon theolog- much, can forget the thrill that went ical lectures, especially in Germany. through him as he saw the door open

The lectures were received with such and the slight, nervous figure move marked favor by those who heard them, rapidly toward the high desk. With the that although they had originally been first Meine Herren, uttered before he is prepared without any thought of publica- fairly on the platform, the spell is upon tion, their author could not refuse the one, and for an hour that seems all too request to give them wider publicity. short one wanders in an enchantment A stenographic report taken without his through regions that till now had been knowledge by one of his students made it barren and lifeless. There is a Heft possible to preserve to a remarkable upon the Professor's desk, but it is degree the warmth and freshness of the apparently forgotten-would that one original. In reading the printed page one could forget one's own as one toils with still feels the freedom and intimacy made the notes in the vain effort to catch every possible by informal address. In word! Looking straight into the eyes of other of his publications does Professor his hearers, one leg crossed over the Harnack come so close to his readers, or edge of the desk as he leans forward as so completely uncover the inner springs though to diminish the distance between from which his unexampled influence is him and them, the speaker pours forth a fed. No book of our generation has had torrent of impetuous speech, in which a warmer welcome in Germany, nor can it every sentence is an idea and every idea be doubted that the recent appearance a picture. At eight o'clock in winter of an authorized translation will tend mornings, at seven in summer, the big still further to increase the reputation lecture-room gathers its throng of eager

listeners, and holds them throughout the Das Wesen des Christenthums. Sechzehn Vorlesungen vor Studierenden aller Facultaten im Wintersemester

long semester to the end. 1899-19%) an der Universität Berlin gehalten von Adolf What is it which brings such a company Harnack. Leipzig, J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. What is Christianity? Sixteen Lectures delivered in together? There is learning, of course the University of Berlin during the Winter Term 1899-1900), by Adolf Harnack. Translated into English

a prodigious learning. That goes withby Thomas Bailey Saunders. Williams & Norgate, out saying. To one who reads the list of London, Edinburgh, and Oxford. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York,

Harnack's printed works, and remembers


that he has but just passed his fiftieth the patience to try to understand him; no birthday, the record of his literary activity page of history so dull that it is not worth is astonishing. The Dog mengeschichte was his while to try to unravel its secrets. finished before he was thirty-seven. Of The theme of the Dogmengeschichte, it is the monumental “ History of Early Chris- well known, is the fact that dogma in the tian Literature,” two large parts have narrower ecclesiastical sense of the word already appeared. To record the special has had its day. Yet it is safe to say that monographs of which he is the author, there is no book which gives the reader the books which he has edited, and the such insight into the real meaning of the scholarly enterprises with which he has process of which the great Christian dogbeen associated, would be to weary the mas are the outcome, or such sympathy reader without profit. In all his work with the feelings and the motives of the one feels that mastery of detail which is men who have labored in their definition the mark of the great scholar, and which and defense. How marvelously in his gives authority to his teaching.

study of Augustine does he enter into the But it is not his learning alone which conflicting motives by which this great gives Harnack his power over his students. man was swayed! The Augustine of HarIt is rather what we may call his insight-- nack is neither the Protestant Augustine his keen perception of the living issues with his predestination and original sin, which give vitality and worth to even the nor the Catholic Augustine of the Donatist driest page of human history. He has a controversies. It is the real Augustine, fine sense of proportion. He sees the who unites within himself both the Cathgreat things great, and the small things olic and the Protestant; to whom both small, and it is his constant effort to put Catholic and Protestant appeal with equal them in their true relations. “ History," right; who, out of the experiences of a he once said to his students, “is full of life of unusual variety and complexity, has ghosts-issues that are dead, but whose gained sympathy with and understanding shadowy forms are still moved about by for aspects of life which to us seem irreconthose whose interest it is to persuade men cilable. Or, to take another illustration, that they are still alive. The true his- how under his inspiring guidance does torian must learn to distinguish between the scholastic philosophy lose its deadness the living and the dead, and give his and dryness, until we feel again the living strength to the description of the former.” issues which all the distinctions of the He records that he may interpret, and he schools have not been able utterly to efface! will be able to fasten the attention of his Of more personal characteristics we students to the record just in the measure may mention his engaging frankness. that he makes them feel that interpretation Unlike certain German Professors, Haris worth while. No doubt this attitude nack is never ashamed to confess his has its dangers. The man who is always ignorance. On one occasion, he had been looking for meanings may easily find them lecturing upon the Johannine problem, when they are not there. Harnack is not and propounding a certain theory which blind to this possibility. When one seeks involved the co-operation of two Johns, to determine what is essential in a com- one the Apostle, the source of the tradition, plex historical phenomenon like Chris- the other the disciple, the author of the tianity, mistakes cannot be wholly avoided. Gospel as we know it. After setting forth But that is no reason for refusing to make in great detail his reasons for adopting the attempt. "As mere archæology, all this theory, he suddenly stopped, leaned history is dumb."

forward, and remarked confidentially, With insight goes sympathy. Harnack

Harnack “Gentlemen, perhaps some of you are has his heroes. Who that has ever heard unwilling to believe that this is the true can forget his description of Athanasius, explanation. I will let you into a secret. of Augustine, of Luther? For Cromwell, I do not more than half believe it myself." too, he has unbounded admiration, and Add to all this the possession of a Gerfor our own Washington. But it is not man style of singular directness, simplicity, only the great men and the heroic char- and beauty, the ability to speak clearly acters that engage his interest. No per- and readily without notes, and above all sonality is so unattractive that he has not a vitality and personal magnetism which are irresistible, and you have some con- of religious or social reform, or the newest ception of the qualities which give Har- phase of Roman Catholic politics, or the nack his power as a lecturer.

last move made by the Social Democrats; To measure the influence of a German to each he brings the same enthusiasm, Professor you must see him not only in and on each he has something fresh to his lecture-room, but in his seminar, where contribute. One wonders that a man of he meets a selected group of the more such breadth of sympathy should never advanced students for critical investiga- have crossed the ocean in order to study tion and training in methods of original for himself, at first hand, the later chapters research. Here Harnack goes a way of in the history of Christianity. One wonhis own.

Instead of having one of his ders—until one remembers the magnitude students read a paper, or, as leader, con- of the tasks to which he is already duct the discussion, he keeps control of committed—and then one understands. matters in his own hands. Papers are That his refusal to be tempted away from written, of course, and critical work ex- Germany is not due to any lack of interest acted of the men. But the time allotted in what goes on in the outside world, no to this part of the work in class is rela- one who has observed the eagerness with tively small. The paper is submitted which he welcomes information concernprivately, and presented to the class only ing recent developments in the religious in the form of a brief abstract given by life of England and America can doubt. the Professor, and accompanied by such Thus far we have spoken of Harnack words of comment or criticism as he thinks chiefly as a teacher of theological students. worth while. This done, the rest of the It would, however, be a great mistake to time is occupied by Harnack himself. think of him as confined to his work as a He teaches by example, as a demonstrator Professor. His public is a far wider one at a clinic, showing his students by actual than that of the university, and no interest experiment how a theme should be ap in questions of scholarly detail blinds his proached, and each knotty point which it eyes to the responsibility which every true suggests unraveled. It is on such occa- man feels to the life of his times. In the sions that his originality and insight preface to the recently published translabecome most apparent. Rare, indeed, is tion to his lectures on “What is Christithe subject which does not suggest a dozen anity?” occurs this significant sentence : others still uninvestigated, and the student, " Whether there is as great a need in Eng. already oppressed at the multitude of land as in Germany for a short and plain books which have been written, finds his statement of the Gospel and its history, I amazement growing at the number of do not know. But this I know: the theoimportant problems which still remain logians of every country only half disunsolved.

charge their duties if they think it enough But it is in the social gatherings held to treat of the Gospel in the recondite ụnder his own roof that one comes closest language of learning and bury it in scholto the man. Here the formal restraints arly folios.” Certainly no one can accuse imposed by lecture or seminar are thrown Harnack of this failing. He has the art aside, and teacher and students meet in of expressing the great truths of religion a new relation.

A modest refreshment with a simplicity and directness which for the outer man prepares the way for many a preachero might envy, and many the banquet of the spirit. It must be an address upon practical themes attests confessed that the conversation is largely the generosity with which he is ready to a monologue. Harnack is so good a put his services at the disposal of any talker that one cannot have too much of good cause which commands his interest. him, and an occasional question from one Whether it be a practical talk on right of his listeners alone breaks a flow of living for a Y. M. C. A., or an address on speech that seems inexhaustible. It makes foreign missions, or a paper before some no difference what is the subject under pastors' conference upon a theme of presdiscussion; whether it be a newly dis- ent day interest, he is equally at home. covered manuscript, big with possibilities, No one can measure the influence of the of which the Professor has received early man who has not read, or better heard, information, or some practical movement some of these informal addresses, in which


the fundamental conviction of his life kingdom, and a joyful certainty in the comes to clear expression.

possession of eternal goods and in confiIf it be asked what this conviction is dence of protection from evil.” It is all the answer can be given in a sentence. this, not merely as theory but as experiIt is the abiding significance of Christ as ence, realizing itself first of all in the life the center of human history, and the of Jesus and afterwards in all those who Saviour and Master needed for our day. through him have been brought to know Do you wish to know what is essential themselves as at once sons of God and Christianity, asks Harnack. The answer servants of their fellow-men. What is very simple. It is Jesus Christ and his the world needs to-day is to substitute Gospel. Christ is the creator of Chris- for the dogmas of a narrow orthodoxy and tianity, and to understand Christianity the negations of a materialistic philosophy

a means to know Christ. For this insight wrongfully arrogating to itself the name no lengthy studies are necessary; no pro- of science a new insight into the inexfound researches in comparative religion; haustible riches and beauty of Jesus

no deep delving into the mysteries of Christ. • philosophy, not even a knowledge of con- Harnack's latest work, in the beauty

temporary history, however welcome the of its diction, the warmth of its feeling, help which that may bring. The Gospel and the intensity of its personal convicof Jesus is at so simple and tion, has been not inaptly compared to the so original that even without elaborate theological classic of a century ago-instructions the plain man may find his Schleiermacher's “ Discourses on Religway to it. Whoever has an open eye ion.” Surely it is matter for no small thankfor what is living and a true feeling for fulness that in these days of theological what is really great cannot fail to see it, indifference and coldness there should be and to distinguish it from its contem- found in the chair of the leading German porary dress. The Gospel of Jesus? It university a man of the highest scientific is “eternal life in the midst of time, in standing, able to give utterance, in a the strength and before the eyes of God." manner at once so worthy and so perIt is “divine sonship spread out over the suasive, to the fundamental conviction of whole of life, an inner harmony with God's the Christian life.


Books of the Week This report of current literature is supplemented by fuller reviews of such books as in the judgment of the editors are of special importance to our readers. Any of these books will be sent by the publishers of The Outlook, postpaid, to any address on receipt of the published price. Apostles of the Lord: Being Six Lectures on presenting a copy of the canonical Book of

Pastoral Theology, Delivered in thc Divinity Proverbs to every young man entering their
School, Cambridge, Lent Term, 1901. By W.C.
E. Newbult, MA Longmans, Green & Co., New

employ: Bishop Spalding's - Aphorisms and York. 5x73, in. 215 pages. $1.40.

Reilections " is good for similar use. A good While written especially for young ministers book, too, it is for any one to have on his of the Anglican Church, and from the Anglican table convenient for the vacant moment that point of view regarding the relations between is enough for an aphorism in a line or a retlecChurch and State, this volume of instructions tion in a paragraph. Certainly it is not a concerning pastoral work and the cultivation book to read by chapters, but rather by senof personal character is valuable for any one tences, a few at a time. The collection gives engaged in the Christian ministry. Based on evidence of wide acquaintance with the treasour Lord's instructions to his Apostles in ures of thought and experience. The general Matthew x., it is characterized by a felicitous idea is, that things are to us what we make and suggestive use of Scripture, by a spirit them to be, and that the best satisfactions both devout and strenuous, and by inclusive come not from circumstances but from selfattention to the multifarious questions and culture. situations bearing either on official duty or on personal culture and conduct.

Egyptian Ring (The). By Nellie T. Sawyer.

The Abbey Press, New York, 5x8 in. lus pages. Aphorisms and Reflections: Conduct, Culture,

5. and Religion. By J. L. Spalding. A. C. McClurg Elements of Plane Geometry. By Alan San. & Co. Chicago. 417x7 in. 292 pages. &c.

ders. Ilustrated. The American Book Co. New A certain business firm made a practice of York. 5x717 in. 247 pages. 75.

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