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pagan grandmother who, standing without the field matrons are paid to do, and if the camp, mourns the school-child as she they did it, we should have no such would the dead. You know it is true that, trouble.” to her and to the old life of which she is a That is not always so. There are mapart, the child is dead, and your heart trons who work, and missionaries who do goes out to the sorrowful old woman and nothing but preach. I knew one who the young couple whose parental author- did nothing else for eight years, but, as ity lasts but a brief six years.
Kipling says, that is another story. This, This is the hour when you would gladly however, is certain : where there is a good tear down the school-houses and wash field matron the people thrive, and where your hands of the tragedy of education. there is a successful mission the preacher
After such an experience you begin to six days of the week lives in kindly service, understand the need of field matrons to preaching the Gospel on the seventh. live with and educate these women whose Take, for example, the big Dakota old occupations are gone and from whose reservation where I lived that summer. arms even the babies are taken.
Roughly speaking, the field was four thouSuch a woman is the missionary of sand square miles, with an Indian for civilization, and the final success of all every mile. The people are the Sioux of Indian education, the establishing of Gall's, Sitting Bull's, and Rain-in-the self-supporting homes, is largely in her Face's bands. We hear often of these hands.
men, but rarely of their women, who are There was no such helper in the first to-day trying to build homes out of the Sioux villages I ever visited. One of the fragments of the shattered past. Across young men whom I had taught in the the way from us lived a woman who had East brought his wife and baby to see me-- brought her little children alone through a nice, tidy girl and a poor little dying an enemy's country to the protection of child. It was a common story; the moth- our flag; on the other side of us lived a er's milk had failed and the year-old baby young wife who carries a bullet in her was being raised on clear coffee and body from the battle of Wounded Knee. crackers.
Mrs. "Chasing Eagle," who sells us milk, The young father was progressive, had “He-Returns-Victorious," who drives for cattle and a fair education, and I appealed us, carry bitter memories of our troops to him to bring in a cow and milk it for
Another family tell us how the baby ; but when I saw four igno- the mother crept back at night to bury rant, kindly women sitting on the ground her husband the battlefield; still about the camp fire, I understood that a another mourns a daughter who drowned man's word would have little influence herself rather than come on the reservawith five women who thought animal tion. Yet to us white women they are the milk unclean. If there had been any one kindest of neighbors. in that village to win the confidence of They are strong women who once faced the women, the child would have lived; life bravely, made their huts and clothes, as it was, it starved.
planted corn, jerked meat, and looked Another day, driving with the Agent well to their families, but the life they across the reservation, miles from any vil- understood went with the old days, the lage, we were stopped by two Indians, evi- “ white man's way" is perplexing, and, dently in great trouble. I could not under- as they say, “How can we learn except stand the father's broken story, but the some one take pity on us?” woman slipped an unconscious child from There are whole districts where no her blanket and held it up to me. They help has ever been given, and where de had left their village looking for help, but spair and disease have been added to we could do nothing, and at last were pagan savagery; but I lived with the forced to leave them alone there in their missionary whose work the Agent so comtrouble.
mended, and who “ took pity on " these We drove in silence for a time, and people when, defeated and discouraged, then the Agent broke out with : “ The they surrendered with Sitting Bull. From best work on this reservation is done him I learned that the field matron must by the missionaries, but it is the work be doctor, nurse, cook, farmer, teacher,
seamstress, and general counselor for an object-lesson as to how to uo it, and the camp.
a labor market for all who will use the The Government tried to civilize these hoe. The Sioux have large fields of corn people by issuing wagons, and they used and squashes, but they have always trusted them to feed the ponies from ; stoves, and them to nature, and think fertilizers disthey knocked off the top and used it over gusting and hoeing useless. This garden, the camp-fire; cows, and the Indian saw where the man earns a few cents and in them what he had in the buffalo- studies a new situation, is an experiment meat, and ate them up. They tried to in more ways than one. “See,” called a substitute oxen for ponies, and, having happy-faced woman, running to meet us taught Song-Soldier the mystery of gee, and holding up some carrots, “ see what haw, and whoa, he was started as an I grew: now what shall I do with them ?" object-lesson from the agency door in a The cooking-lesson was given out there cart drawn by a yoke of oxen. He used in the sun, and we drove on to pronounce his whip, the cattle traveled, his admiring on the symptoms of a batch of dough at friends shouted, and the team ran! Then another house, to taste and praise some the warrior tried to stop them, but the fine white bread at Cross Bear's, to give right word was gone; in vain he shouted— a lesson in nursing to an old woman who the charm would not work; so, drawing was caring for a sick daughter and feedhis Winchester, he fired, dropped first ing the baby choke-cherries, and so fifteen the nigh and then the off ox, and feasted miles home again. In other parts of the his friends that night. The puzzled offi- reservation medicine-men and red flannel cials made laws against killing cattle, but prayers are common, but by prompt and herds that you cannot eat and milk that patient care of the sick this woman has you would not drink will not, when tried banished them from her district. in the balance, equal one tender, juicy Next after something to eat the Indian calf, so the new-born calves invariably will work hardest for something beautiful. met with some accident and died.
Old Bear became so enamored of our Meanwhile the missionary kept her fence that he devoted his time to building own cow and used the milk for the sick fence within fence about his whole placebabies of the village. One neighbor had his house, his pig-pen, his hay, until his lost six children in succession, and when grounds looked like a Chinese puzzle. the seventh was born the missionary prom- Mrs. Brownman, praised for fitting up her ised that, if she could care for it, it would bedroom in imitation of one seen at the live, and it did. To-day it is a saying mission, proceeded to make her tiny baby that Christian Indians raise their children, a green plush dress, which was not so but it is also a fashion to keep a cow for commendable. each baby.
But right here the wisdom of the field To interest the men in their herds this matron comes in play in recognizing and missionary set up a blackboard and showed following the lead of these quaint signs in how many cattle they would have in three teaching Bear the economy, not extravayears if their calves lived. They enjoyed gance, of fencing, or in giving out flowertheir arithmetic, and experimented to see seeds instead of lectures to the man who if it were true. Sometimes an old man loafs over our flower-bed. would come thirty miles to be told how But the touchstone that tries her work many cattle he would have a dozen years is the return of the children from school. from date. To-day the long stacks of There has been a great deal that is false hay by every house show that the peo- and cruel said about the old people and ple not only spare their cattle but feed their educated children. It is the same them.
problem as that of the young collegian As the first appeal to man is through and the farmer father. They love each the stomach, so the first reward for labor other and they misunderstand each other. should be food; and cabbages and pot. The young man is ashamed of some harmtoes are more civilizing than dollars and less bit of the old life; civilization in his cents. The missionary keeps a garden eyes may be a matter of a white collar. which is a humble experiment station to He at once works for his people by maksee what vegetables can be grown there, ing home a reformatory for minor morals. The old people are disgusted and the boy school pictures there, and kept it as a discouraged.
shrine of civilization. His mother could But if the education and progress has not speak a word of English, but she not 'all been on one side, if the home has needed none to understand her boy's iniproved and the parents understand pride in her as he showed her work to his something of the new life the child has teacher. been trained in, the case is altered. The It is poor Christianity to neglect these boy is proud of the improvements, and old people, but it is worse economy to the parents are vastly amused with his ignore love of home, the natural incentive knowledge. Mrs. Little-Eagle entertained to labor and inoral restraint, in educating all her neighbors with the information she the young barbarian. It is the old father gathered from her son, and how she “ was and the little child who develop in the greatly afraid in the night because the young Indian self-sacrificing labor, the world turned over.” Another school-boy final grace of civilization; and the teacher came with his mother and a piece of calico in this should be the field matronand asked to have it cut so that he could should be, and in rare instances is; but make her a dress.
usually we are amply satisfied if some At another time an old student urged official's wife with a kindly heart doles out me to come and see them, and took me charity to the sick, and draws a few extra with pride into the room his father and hundreds as an addition to her husband's mother had prepared for his home-com- salary. When we comprehend the econing. It was painted in bright blue and omy and honesty of filling the office of white, had a white bed, curtains, and even Field Matron and Farmer with expert a looking-glass and dressing-stand-all officials, and of carrying on the training the work of his mother's skillful fingers of a people as intelligently as a mission and her idea of what a civilized son would or a college settlement is run, the days of need. In his eyes it was too good to use, barbarism and reservation life will be but he had arranged all his books and numbered.
Haeckel's "The Riddle of the Universe” 60
1 WHERE are three distinct ways in the form and direction of organic life. T which this book ought to be so long as he holds himself to the exami
judged: from the points of view nation of morphologic or embryonic conof the biologist, the cosmic philosopher, ditions, he would be left severely alone. and the religious teacher; for all these Uninitiated students cannot understand positions does its author assume to fill. and have little interest in the habits of an As for the last, his attempts to discredit unfamiliar species. But when he abanthe Christian faith and organize a religious dons the precincts of his narrower sphere, creed upon the basis of monism are and, entering the wider domain of philosfraught with such sorry and ill-starred ophy, constructs a dogma whose purpose failure that, out of deference to his sensi- is to explain the origin and progress of bilities, we shall omit all criticism of this life, then he must expect to have his part of his work.
methods and conclusions summarily chalProfessor Haeckel's special department lenged, and he must show good cause for of study is biology, but, if we understand his right to speak. him rightly, it is not as a purveyor of Chapter XII. is, without doubt, the biological facts that he courts attention. citadel of this book. If his readers grant It is certainly the position that will least what Dr. Haeckel here affirms, the remaincommand attention from the general pub- der of his contention follows as a matter of lic or the world of scholars. Biology is
His search is for the universal an instrument for the collection, certifica- law of substance. He approaches the tion, and arrangement of data touching goal by describing the earlier meditations
in the department of physics. There are I The Riddic of the Universe. By Ernst Haeckel. Harper & Brothers, New York.
two accepted principles well rooted in the
language of science: that matter is inde cannot be weighed, but only that we have structible and that the amount of energy no means of acquiring experience of its at work in infinite space is unchangeable. weight. He considers it to be in eternal These he would reduce to one and the motion, though how he can come to acsame principle, since matter and motion quaintance with it profound enough to are but expressions of the same sub- make so broad a declaration, he fails to stance, No one can take exception to show. this argument: it is an item of common Upon reading this argument for the knowledge that solid changes to liquid, unity of substance, we constantly feel that and liquid to gas, while heat and light, our guide is threading ways quite new and force and chemical affinity, are modes of unfamiliar to him ; that he is speculating the same motion. He proposes to call heavily, wildly, feverishly, on a market this coagulated principle the law of sub- whose quotations are ticked off by an unstance, and will contend that by it all seen hand and present themselves to bim the phenomena of the universe are to be in symbols which he cannot interpret. It judged. Furthermore, in his view, thought is exceedingly dangerous for any student is as much a mode of motion as is heat or who has dealt wholly with the facts of chemical affinity, and must, consequently, organic life to pass suddenly into the be subject to the same invariable law. sphere where objects are not tangible It is at this point that our opinions begin and facts cannot be reduced to mathematito diverge.
cal formulæ. The strand of philosophic He examines, next, the different ac- thought is strewn with the wreckage of counts which thinkers have given of this intellects which have presumed to include law. Three elements emerge from his the world in their course. crucible as fixed: that all substance is Perhaps the most striking feature of endowed with sensation and will, and is this book is its endless series of hypothself-moved ; that there is no such thing eses. Dr. Haeckel has been called a as empty space; and that action at a dis- “ bold theorist," and well deserves the tance through perfectly empty space is title. We should not care to deny the unthinkable. Manifestly, the first of validity of the scientific imaginationthese gems loses its sparkle so soon as “natural faith," as he styles it; but we we ask for his definition of the terms are wont, we unsophisticated, workaday involved. If we bring down our ideas of students, to look upon science as a reposi“sensation ” and “will ” low enough, we tory of ascertained facts, and not a body shall have little difficulty in putting the of hypotheses waiting to be pricked as same value upon the words that Dr. empty bubbles. Theory is a just and Haeckel does. If, however, we prefer to effective instrument of investigation. It endow them with the noble qualities becomes, however, a safe and convincing which glisten from them when they are men- disputant in the courts of science only tioned in connection with the human when it can distinguish between fictitious mind, then we must either abdicate our and actual law, and is willing to withdraw power to compare and judge, or we must its own supposition, rather than imperil refuse to apply them to the case in point. the standing of the sovereign it serves.
Again, to carry out the law of sub- Let us illustrate his peremptory method. stance one must learn something about It appears in crass form as he writes the the mysterious medium which fills in the chapter on “. Psychic Gradations." Here spaces between suns and constellations he ascribes the function of memory to and weaves them all into the limitless the lowest of organized substances, the system of nature. What is ether-styled protists, and sees in it the same conscious by the older science " imponderable mat- energy as in man. Again, in speaking of ter"? It cannot, he says, be atomistic, the derivatior of the snul, he argues for but must be continuous. Thus one of the the presence of a soul-movement in plants, first rules of modern chemistry is rudely the same in quality and purpose as in man. shattered, and no substitute is provided. His star examples are the sensitive plant He calls it dynamic, but gives no reason and the fly-trap, both of which seem to for using such a dignified and signiticant resent interference, and express such word. He is not willing to say that it resentment in “psychic action." In the same chapter he carries this force forward unremovable thought, given by no devel . through the different grades of organized opment, and by no bequest of our anceslife, and crowns its development in the tors. It controls our dispositions, our beautiful soul of man. Here he makes expectations, and our moral affections. light of the difficulty which has burdened Certitude to the outward reality it cannot the most logical minds for a century past; give, but a proud, indomitable confidence for he proclaims that there is less real in its truth it can and will inculcate. It difference between the anthropoid ape and is upon this that all theists are wont to man than there would be between the rest their case. cultured Goethe and the uncouth Pata- But Dr. Haeckel holds strongly to the gonian savage!
opposing doctrine, which he entitles For the theist the argument of this vol. “thanatism," and he marshals six biologiume will hinge upon the idea of the human cal “facts" (page 204) to prove his posisoul. Is this thinking self within us a tion. He proceeds to show that the brain thing apart from its surroundings, alive of man differs in no respect from the brain with the spiritual energy of another world, of the animal ; that the elementary organs or is it an offshoot of the body's life, the of the soul are the wonderfully reticulated refinement of the organic nervous system? nerve cells of the brain, and these decay ; If the soul be the precipitate of chemical that the functions of the soul are bound action—nothing more, nothing less—how, up with certain parts of the brain, and we are asked, can its substance survive that when the latter are diseased or dewhen its encasement and producer falls stroyed, the mental vigor is by so much away? The unitary law of substance reduced, or eliininated totally; that, like
, knows nothing of a power which can enter all organized matter, the soul develops the bodily temple, preside over its cere- from bodily infancy to the prime of power, monies, and evoke the hymn of praise to and then descends into the weakness of some unknown kindred spirit. The serv- old age; and that the human brain has ice of the soul is rendered to the body, been gradually derived from the brain of and not to some extrinsic being.
the mammal, it in turn from the next In response thereto, we inquire, What grade, until the lowest vertebrate is shall we do, then, with that vigorous, reached. brilliant idea, which refuses to be extin- Is his contention successful ? Has he guished or dimmed, viz., the soul's seuse emancipated the soul from the thrall of of its incipient immortality ? We care not idealism and enchained it forever in the by what name be designated-instinct, bonds of matter? The real problem intuition, fancy, conviction, notion—there before us respects not so much the conit is, and there it proposes to remain. To tinuance of the soul after death as the explain away this repugnant feature our genesis and present position of the soul author elaborately prepares himself, and as we know it. If thought be produced he begins by denying its universal pres- out of the brain's convolutions, then it is ence. Indeed, he is not satisfied until he useless to claim for it a distinct autonomy. has carried the investigation back to the To this conclusion our author has been province of primitive man, where, he driven by his unitary law of substance. alleges, not a vestige of our well-formulated He assumes that the substance described conception appears. To this we retort, by the law is cognized only by the five How does he know that primitive man bodily senses; how can there be, then, a wandered in the maze of a speechless new element, different from matter, more eternity? Is there any document, are durable than it, and apprehended by us there signs or customs, that point to such through different channels ? a conclusion?
His fallacy, it will appear, lies in taking But even if we did find a single tribe as an assumption the very point in dispute. that seemed to be without the thought, We are charmed as well as he by the does that rob the idea of its value for us, vision of a supreme unifying law in the or relieve us from the obligation of observ- disposition of the affairs of our universe. ing strictly its commands ? Like Kant, But instead of holding matter to be the we cannot prove the fact of immortality, cause of thought, we reverse the order, and but we know that it lies in our mind as an make all matter the sequence and out