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coffers, and the public funds and the national currency were placed upon a firm basis. The great national domain extending from the Alleghanies to the Mississippi was thrown open to immigration, and a resistless and incessant tide of life began to flow through every mountain pass and along every river bed, eager to possess and subdue the forest and the wilderness, and convert them into one great garden of plenty.

I doubt whether in such narrow limits of time, a change in the form of Government and the adoption of a new system of Administration ever wrought such magical effects. A wholly new people entered upon the great and untried experiment of Self Government, with the most buoyant hopes and sanguine expectations.

An opportunity soon came for testing the power of the new Government against domestic turbulence and disorder, and of trying the working order of the new machinery in critical emergencies. The breaking out of the French Revolution created, as might have been expected, a tremendous sensation and universal enthusiasm throughout the United States, in which doubtless Washington and Hamilton at first sympathized, welcoming the hope of constitutional liberty arising upon the ruins of despotism. But when the true nature and inevitable tendency of that awful conflict revealed itself; "when," as Mr. Lodge finely says, "reform became revolution, revolution anarchy, and redress revenge- when hotblooded killings in the streets changed to cold

blooded massacre and cowardly murder in the palace and the prison, culminating at last in the execution of the King and the daily slaughter of the guillotine - then public opinion in America shifted," and the conservative elements of society, headed by Washington and Hamilton, raised formidable and successful barriers against the tide of Jacobin sentiment, which even the Atlantic was not wide enough to keep out of the land.

When the news arrived of the outbreak of war between England and France, the President, on a careful study of the situation, declared for absolute and strict neutrality between the contending Powers, and determined that our previous relations of alliance and friendship with France should not entangle us in any way in the seething turmoil of French madness. He issued his famous proclamation of neutrality, treating both parties to the war on terms of strict and impartial equality, which established for the future our uniform relation to all foreign wars.

This proclamation of neutrality was, under the circumstances, a magnificent exhibition by Washington of those great qualities of wisdom, firmness and integrity of mind for which he was so remarkable. The drift of popular feeling in America was strongly on the side of France. We were bound to her by ties of gratitude for the timely, efficient, and generous aid she had then so recently given us in the very crisis of our fate, and which had enabled us so soon to secure our independence. We were also bound by the terms

of the defensive Treaty of Alliance, which Franklin had won so much fame by negotiating. On the other hand there still lingered in the hearts of the people much of that bitterness of feeling against England, which the recent contest had necessarily excited, and which new causes of difference arising since the war had not permitted to subside. After patiently hearing all sides, Washington concluded that our National interests and National honor alike required us to abstain from all part in the war, and the Proclamation went forth in the most emphatic terms.

When a representative of the Convention ar- GENET rived as Minister from the French Republic, and endeavored by all sorts of intrigue and plot to embroil us when Jacobin clubs were established, and a great party was formed in support of so-called French principles, Washington enforced to the utmost of his ability the doctrine of the proclamation, counteracting and defeating all the dangerous efforts of this turbulent emissary and his American supporters, and finally insisted peremptorily upon his recall. The performances of this emissary of the French Revolutionary Government, from the day he landed on our shores until his recall, were most remarkable. Landing at Charleston on the very day of the issue of the proclamation, he persistently defied its provisions. He issued commissions and fitted out privateers to prey upon British commerce, appointed consuls and instructed them to act as prize courts on our neutral territory, and made triumphal processions

through the States. He made our soil the base of warlike operations, and did his best to drag us into the war, and, as a last act of temerity, he had the assurance to appeal from the President to the People, whom he had done his best to convert into French Propagandists. During this stirring period Hamilton, in the Cabinet and the press, rallied mightily to the support of his chief, and impressed himself and his ideas most indelibly, not only upon the great Federalist party, of which he was the acknowledged chief, but upon the future policy of the country for generations.

Another occasion arose to test the firmness and efficiency of the new Government. When the growing necessities of the organized service called for enlarged taxation, and an increased excise was imposed by Congress upon distilled spirits, what was known as the " Whiskey Rebellion " broke out in the mountains of Pennsylvania, in armed resistance to the process and officers of the United States and a wide-spread indulgence in disorder and outrage. Great forces of armed men in open defiance of the law occupied broad tracts of country, and the practical question arose, whether we had a government capable of dealing with such a crisis or not. This was the first time that the new Government had had to resort to force against popular violence, and it was now to be determined whether it had the power and the nerve to enforce obedience to its own laws.

Washington, firmly supported by his stalwart Secretary, who liked nothing better than a fight,

soon called an army of fifteen thousand men into the field which marched under the general direction of Hamilton, into the disturbed districts, put a speedy end to what threatened to be an obstinate revolution, and set an example of how the Federal Government could and should deal with insurrection. All this was in striking contrast to what had happened in Massachusetts just before the Federal Convention met, when a debtors' rebellion had taken possession of the State and closed all the Courts of Justice, and the Government of the Confederation had not been able to lift a finger to aid the State in its suppression.

I shall not ask you to follow Hamilton through the ten years that remained to him after his retirement from public life, which was compelled by the necessity of providing for a large and growing family. His ardent interest and inspiring influence in public affairs never slackened. Although no longer in the Cabinet, he was frequently called upon by Washington for advice and assistance, and freely gave his opinion and counsel on important public questions. He was the acknowledged head of the historic Federal Party, to whose continual conflicts, alike in victory and defeat, his fiery zeal and passionate nature lent always a glowing heat. Apart from these excursions into politics, his later years were spent in the enjoyment of a most felicitous domestic life, and in the honorable pursuit in a large way of the profession which he loved and ennobled, and in which he was easily foremost.

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