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the judicial power has been the force of gravitation which has kept each member of our federal system in its proper orbit, and maintained the essential harmony of the whole.

The closing scene in the Federal Convention, which made the Court in a way the guardian of the Constitution, will be ever memorable. After months of discussion, sometimes violent, more than once approaching the very brink of dissolution, in hopeless despair of coming to any agreement, at last the grand triumph of compromise and mutual concession was accomplished, and the members met to affix their names to the instrument. Hamilton, one of the youngest, acted as scribe, and after Washington had signed first as "President and Deputy from Virginia," inscribed on the great sheet of parchment the name of each State, as the delegates came forward in geographical order to add their names. When all had signed, Franklin, the oldest and most famous of them all, pointing to the sun emblazoned behind the chair in which Washington had presided through the whole struggle, said to those about him: " In the vicissitudes of hope and fear, I was not able to tell whether it was rising or setting. Now, I know that it is the rising sun." After more than a century's trial of their work, the sun which Franklin saw is not yet near the zenith. Much has been done, but vastly more remains to be accomplished, and it is still morning with our young Republic.



Inaugural Address, August 1st, 1903, at the opening of the summer meeting at Oxford.


N responding to the flattering invitation of the Vice-Chancellor to open this Course of Summer Lectures by an Inaugural Address, it was with no presumption on my part that I could say anything that would instruct the instructors, or educate the educators. He would be a vain man indeed who would dare to come to Oxford with any such idea as that. The only service that I can render is to open the way for those public spirited and self-denying teachers, who for the coming month will guide your studies by unfolding the rich stores of their ample learning.

In casting about for a subject if I required a subject for this occasion - I appealed to the tried experience of the Secretary, who kindly suggested that as the principal course of the season was to be upon the Middle Ages, I should take that vast subject for my theme. But America has no place in the Middle Ages. I see by the programme that the year 1485 is assigned as the terminus of that period of modified darkness, but surely there must be a mistake of seven years, for Columbus did not discover America till 1492. Then it was that there was a new creation - a new adjustment of

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