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for the vapor bath. Keep his skin acting freely lobelia leaves, powdered stramonium leaves, and insist on his drinking large amounts of powdered nitrate of potash, and powdered water. See that the urin is never permitted to black tea leaves, made into a powder, and a become acid.—Ed.]

half teaspoonful burned under an inverted fun

nel and the fumes deeply inhaled, will give reThe Urin of Pregnant Women.

lief during the paroxysm. This powder is Editor MEDICAL WORLD:-I noticed some time ago,

similar to a nostrum of great popularity among in some journal, an article on early diagnosis of preg- asthmatics, and sold at $1.00 per box. Pronancy by an examination of the urin. Will you please

tect him in as far as possible from cold drafts tell me if it was in THE WORLD? and if so, what number?

D. F. Rice. and sudden atmospheric changes. Have him St. Louis, Mo.

wear light woolen underclothing at all seasons [You did not see anything in The World of the year; or if he will not submit to this, at from the editorial pen regarding the early least insist on a light woolen shirt. Keep the diagnosis of pregnancy from an examination skin, bowels, and kidneys acting freely. Do of the urin, but it is possible some subscriber not allow him to eat more than the system might have mentioned it. This erroneous idea really demands. Keep the air in his sleeping bobs up every few years and runs the apartments warm, and it is generally preferable rounds of a certain class of medical journals to make it moist by steam which may be imthat fill their columns by clipping from neigh- pregnated with balsams, or spirit of turpentine. bors quite as ignorant as themselves. When Institute appropriate treatment for the cardiac the urin of pregnant women (and of other condition. This, in itself, will frequently women, frequently, for that matter) is allowed cure asthma of which any other exciting cause to stand for a time in a vessel, a pellicle is can not be ascertained. Always remember formed on the surface. This was formerly that the proper treatment of asthma, even when called the "kyesteinic pellicle," and was sup- actual emphysematous changes are well adposed to be diagnostic. It is no longer con- vanced, is instituted by endeavoring to ascersidered as of any diagnostic significance what- tain the exciting cause. Too many practicians ever. The urin of pregnant women increases approach asthma as a disease; it is always a in quantity, and becomes more watery, the symptom.—ED.] specific gravity often approaching 1,014, yet the quantity of urea and other solids excreted

An Old Lady's Ills. remains at the normal point. During the last

Editor MedicAL WORLD :-A lady, not married, 78 three months of gestation the urin of pregnant years old. I was called to her about 18 months ago. women contains twice or three times the nor

At that time found her suffering from what she called

"flashing” (a spasmodic contraction of muscles, mal amount of urobilin-showing the greatly mostly of face). Here is a description written out by increast work thrown upon the kidneys. There

her :

"A pulsation all thru me; when I lie down it is is no diagnostic change in the urin of the

This flashing in my head is mostly on the left pregnant woman.-Ed.]

side. When not flashings have a burning, cutting feeling nearly all the time, also a constant numb, dead

feeling in the bones ; in head, neuralgia or rheumatism Asthma.

in left side, and right too at times. The pain is very Editor MEDICAL WORLD:-Man about 55 years of

sharp; darts and Hashes about. The burning, gripage suffers greatly from asthma. His father who died

ping sensation similar to the feeling in my head is all during a paroxysm of the disease (probably from over my body in places, but not so bad. I feel it in my cardiac dilation from what I can learn from the symp

feet (more so than elsewhere except face and head) toms) had it for years, and the brother of this man also

especially in heels. I have a numb pain in my left has it. The paroxysm comes on at night shortly after

side. It extends to my stomach, across my kidneys, dark and continues until daylight, during which the

on the left side. Have pains like rheumatism, at times patient suffers extreme agony and sometimes pain.

all over my body. It itches awful, especially my The paroxysms are more frequent in fall and winter.

hands and arms; at the same time have a breaking His chest is somewhat emphysematous, and heart

out; it almost sets me crazy. Also suffer with a burnsounds are accentuated and probably heart is some

ing in my feet, and suddenly they are icy cold." larger than normal. Arterio-sclerosis present. Kid

Wayside, Md.

T. L. HIGDON. neys normal as near as can be ascertained. What [The pain is probably rheumatic in characwill lessen the frequency of the paroxysms? Have tried heart stimulants, syrup hydriodic acid, etc., with

ter, and the eruption likewise a manifestation little benefit.

E. T. KREBS. of the uric acid diathesis. There is probably Bridgeport, Cal.

a nervous element in the case, and it is likely [Where they are nicely tolerated, large doses that the nerves themselves are affected. In of the less irritating bromids, combined with such cases there is no practical benefit to be iodid of potassium, help to retard the parox- derived from attempting to make a differentiaysms in nearly all cases of asthma. Such is the tion between rheumatism and neuralgia. At composition of one of the most popular in- her age, a complete cure of what is probably a ternal remedies among the nostrums. The chronic tendency is hardly to be expected; manufacturers ask $3 per bottle, and get it, too. yet great relief will be experienced by a proA combination of equal parts of powdered longed course of the following treatment.


Maintain complete control of the nervous sys- Success in this case would mean much to you tem by camphor monobromate; this will re- in the way of prestige, and if this man has quire five grains every four hours for a time, “suffered 'many things of many doctors," he when the dose may be reduced, or it may be would probably be satisfied to pay generously given intermitently as required. Keep her for relief or cure. bowels acting freely, yet not to the point of Try adjusting a firm bandage of several purgation, with any of the salines, say Rochelle thicknesses of muslin so pinned as to fit the salt. Have her drink freely of water, and in- body closely from iliac crest to ribs, while in a corporate with it effervescent lithia salt in standing position, and then allow him to lie small doses, yet taken frequently enuf to keep down, and note effect. You are perfectly the system constantly saturated with the alka- competent to make a diagnosis in this case, line effect; the full amount taken in a day and were we in your shoes we would not rest should reach the maximum dosage. See that until we had succeeded. Study your case well the soap used in bathing is non-irritating. If and make your examinations thoro, and as the itching does not rapidly subside under this frequently as you think of something new to treatment, make her a liberal supply of solution look for. Do not make the mistake so many of hyposulfite of soda and direct that it be practicians make; i. e., making an examinasponged freely over all itching areas as fre- tion without having anything definit in view quently as necessary to allay the itching.--Ed.] as to what to look for. Look for something

definit, and make a diagnosis by exclusion. Obscure Trouble in Back.

We hope the suggestions may give you some Editor MedicAL WORLD :-Mr. G., farmer, aged 30, new thought, and believe when you succeed married, habits, appetite, and bowels O. K. History:

on this case that a carefully written report Some years ago an attack of blood poisoning, Can get no information regarding it, but it was while a

would be of interest to the family.--ED.] boy at home. About three years ago he began to be troubled with a severe aching in the lumbar region (bilateral), at times extending to occiput. Pain

Whooping Cough. comes on only when in recumbent position. In the MR. EDITOR :-Would be glad if you would give me morning on rising there is a stiffness and slight tender- the best treatment for whooping cough.

Va. ness of the muscles of the back, which wears off in an [Your query is of sufficient general interest hour or so. Gives little if any trouble during the day, except occasionally on receiving a jar or jolt. But dur

to warrant considerable space at this time, and ing the night the severity of the pain causes him to we therefore quote from Diseases of Infancy writhe, moan, and grind his teeth in agony till he is and Childhood, Koplik, publisht by Lea about three months ago; no tenderness along spine, Brothers, the complete treatment that author in muscles, or kidneys; no evidence of aneurysm gives for whooping cough. This author is a Pott's disease, or stone, except as above. Urin: Amount normal, but slightly clearer than normal; no

leader in this class of practise, and you can odor; reaction acid; sp. gr., 1,015; no albumin. consider the extract on pertussis as up to date Diuretics have raised the sp. gr. to normal.

and authoritativ.-Ed.] Patient has tried patent medicins, been the rounds of the doctors here, tried the osteopaths, all with little, if

The patient should be isolated, and should sleep in any help. I have tried lithium citrate, the salicylates, a large, well ventilated room. During the day the diuretics, saw palmetto compound, tonics, various sleeping-room may be filled for an hour with the vapor liniments, with slight temporary relief. W. B.

of formalin (set free by means of a small formalin Iowa.

lamp). The object is to destroy suspended germs.

(We presume that the author means that the patient [Doctor, you need waste no time or money shall be removed to an adjoining room during the on liniments in such cases. That is the first fumigation.--Ed.] If two communicating rooms are treatment instituted by the patient before con

available they may be occupied alternately every

twenty-four hours, the unoccupied room being fully sulting a physician, and it is usually pretty ventilated in the interval. In this way reinlection thoroly done, too.

may be avoided. In spring and summer, if the We believe you will find the trouble in the

weather is favorable, the children should be constantly

in the open air during the day. In large cities the kidney. Read up carefully

on Aoating kidney, mother is directed to take the children into the park. and then examin again. The position domi. When in the open air the paroxysms are notably lessnating the appearance of the pain could hardly Sea air seems to aggravate some cases and benefit be accounted for in any other way. You may others. Pine woods and moderately high altitudes possibly have stone in the kidney or in the

are probably the most beneficial, for the patients are

not exposed to the unfavorable climatic conditions ureter, but a good X ray examination at the peculiar to the sea coast. hands of an expert radiographer will probably Medicinal treatment consists of inhalations, topical settle that matter of doubt; do not base a con

applications, and internal remedies. Simply to enu.

merate all the remedies which have been proposed clusion on such an examination conducted by and used in pertussis would take up the space of a yourself, or by any other person except one monograph. Inhalation of ozone has been advocated who has had extended experience in such by Caile The remedy is expensiv and the apparatus work. Examin the urin repeatedly and care- percent nítrous oxid and 80 percent oxygen is benefully. If you do not have a microscope and

ficial in cases in which the heart is weak. The inhala

tions are given with a cone for ten minutes twice centrifuge, it would be advisable to get them.

daily. Insufflation of quinin or other drugs has not



proved beneficial. The practise seemed to intensify CURRENT MEDICAL THOUGHT the paroxysms. Prior, Coggeshall, and others have proposed the application of solutions of cocain, 4, percent to 10 percent, to the nares and throat. Í have

Epsom Salts for Obesity. had no experience with this method, nor with the local A recent writer gives his experience with the application of antitussin. [It would seem that in the hands of intelligent nurses or mothers, the weaker

strong solution of epsom salts, locally applied, cocain applications might be made safely and do great in the treatment of scar tissue. He uses a i to good.-ED.] If the cough is very troublesome, I first 16 solution. He also recommends the drug in endeavor to control it with full doses of antipyrin combined with tincture of digitalis. The digitalis, in doses treatment of obesity; in such treatment he of a drop or two several times a day, supports the sponges the body twice a day with above heart, as is shown by the rapid disappearance of the edema and cyanosis after its administration. Antipyremedy, and gives a dram internally three times rin is given in doses of i grain for every year of age

a day. According to his experience, obesity up to 5 grains every three hours. If the cough is not

yields rapidly. [External application could do perceptibly relieved by this remedy after forty-eight hours, I suspend its use and give codein in full doses

no harm and is well worth trying, as the idea every three hours. Codein is to be preferred to mor

is novel. We would fear that a dram of epsom phin, which is advocated by Henoch. If vomiting is salts, three times a day, would unduly purge severe, the food is given in very small quantities in Auid form every few hours. By this method food is most patients.--Ed.] retained and absorbed, whereas a full meal is invariably rejected. The use of belladonna has not imprest

Sodium Sulfate for Dysentery. me favorably. In several cases it seemed to aggravate the cough by drying the laryngeal mucus membrane. Buchannan, Gould's Year Book of Medicin, Bromoform I consider dangerous and of questionable utility..

1901, reports on the use of sodium sulfatel in Quinin in full doses three or four times daily is a

acute dysentery. He has used it with satisfacfavorit remedy with many pediatrists. Vaccination tion in +53 cases. He prescribes 4 drams of the and the injection of diphtheria serum have been pro following mixture three or four times each day posed to abort the disease. I have had no experience with the serum treatment. In a word, the treatment until the stools are bright yellow and show no of pertussis consists in applying the rules of hygiene, trace of blood or mucus : in mitigating the cough with antipyrin or preferably codein, and in supporting the heart with digitalis.

Sodium sulfate The complications should be treated after the modern

Fennel water.

. 4 oz. method of bronchitis, pneumonia, and pleurisy.

Cheyne-Stokes' Respiration. Editor MEDICAL WORLD:- I noticed that some one Cheyne-Stokes' respiration is commonly conwants a scrap-book for his medical reading. I have one that I bought of Joel A. Miner, Ann Arbor, Mich.,

sidered as an ominous sign, indicating immedisome years ago. I think he still makes it and other ate danger. Dr. C. O'Donovan recently blank books for the profession. A. F. RANDALL. Port Huron, Mich.

reports cases which might question this. He

has observed in one case nocturnal attacks Will some reader of THE MEDICAL WORLD furnish

thru a period of seven years; in another case me copies of June and July 1902? I need these two it was noted for four

years. Both patients finally copies to complete that particular volume. Orlando, Ky.

succumbed to Bright's disease. [It is evident J. HARRY HENDREN, M.D.

that Cheyne-Stokes' respiration may occur at Editor MEDICAL WORLD :-Would you kindly ask

any time in any attack of acute or chronic disthe readers of your excellent journal for any informa- ease. The competent and alert practician will tion they may give me regarding pregnancy and labor in the deformity known as bicornate uterus and simi

be able to scent danger long before the respiralar congenital conditions ? Any one calling my atten- tory centers fly such signals. While the danger tion to articles already written upon the subject, or is imminent, life may last for years; it is enuf reporting to me any experience they may have had personally, will confer a great favor which will be

to guide us in refusing to make any positiv appreciated.

FRANK H. WASHBURN. prognosis.-ED.) Jefferson, Mass.

Germs Not Killed by Low Temperatures. Doctor Draws His Dead Line. An interesting point in medical ethics was raised yesterday when

It would appear that whatever benefit liquid Dr. H. John Stewart, 2118 West Lake street, appealed to the air may be to medicin and surgery, it will not Superior Court for an injunction to restrain Dr. P. B. Whyte from practising medicin within a radius of two and one-half miles of

be along the lines of antisepsis. We quote Dr. Stewart's office.

from Gould's Year Book of Medicin, 1901, The plaintiff alleges that he employed Whyte as an assistant a year ago, with the understanding that the young man was not to Saunders & Co.: A. MacFadyen and S. engage in his profession in opposition to Stewart. This agreement, Dr. Stewart asserts, is being broken by Whyte,

Roland report their experiments concerning inasmuch as he has recently treated several patients of his former the influence of liquid air upon bacteria. They employer.-Chicago American, May 5, 1904. DEAR DR. TAYLOR :--This is the H. John Stewart

exposed a series of organisms for 20 hours to that hoaxt the medical press recently with duplicate liquid air, the temperature being from -183° C., articles on the Finsen light.

to-192° C., without observing any changes in Cordell, Okla.


the virulence of the organisms or in their mor

phology. The typhoid, colon, diphtheria, Try painting the eruption from poison oak or ivy with pure sweet spirit of nitre, renewing the applica. proteus vulgaris, lactic acid, anthrax ba'

cilli, spirillum of cholera, staphylococcus,

and other organisms were used. Later, exposure for seven days was carried out, the organisms being placed in small hermetically sealed tubes and completely immersed in liquid air. In spite of the enormous mechanical strain to which the organisms were thus subjected, and exposure to a temperature of -190° C. for seven days, no alteration was seen in their structure and there was no change in their virulence except that they grew a trifle more slowly." [It has long been known that typhoid and diphtheria could rest comfortably in a snow bank over winter and be ready for business in the spring, but one would have hoped such an extremely low temperature might have injured them. However, frost always puts a stop to a yellow fever epidemic! But how? We now know that it is by killing the mosquitoes, and not the germs. The infection is spread by the mosquitoes, and when they are killed, the spread of the infection is stopt.-ED.]

Ohio Examination Questions, Used at a Re

cent Examination. [Reported to Cincinnati Lancet-Clinic, by E. S. May, M.D.]

DISEASES OF CHILDREN. 1. Give etiology, symptoms and treatment of simple diarrhea. 2. Give etiology and treatment of enuresis. 3. Give definition, prophylaxis and treatment of cretinism. 4. Give synonyms, sympioms and treatment of spasmodic laryn.

gitis. 5. Give etiology, diagnosis and treatment of chorea.

DISEASES OF WOMEN. 1. Why is gonorrhea in women a grave disease? 2. Describe bi-manual examination. 3. Name some nervous complications in gynecology. 4. Give indications for curettage.

MATERIA MEDICA. ffein : mention salts; describe physiological action; give

uses and doses. 2. lodoform : mention indications, internally and externally. 3. Jaborandi : describe its physiological action; give uses and

doses. 4. Hydrastis : mention principal preparations; give uses and

doses. 5. Mercury chlorids : mention both preparations and give uses of

each, 6. Opium : its indications and in what formulae is it used. 7. Veratrum viride; physiological action, uses and doses. 8. Caustics : what are they, and for what purpose applied ? 9. Poultices : indications for them and how applied. to. Massage : mention different ways of applying and indications for its use.

PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS. 1. By what signs and symptoms would you make a diagnosis of

endocarditis? 2. What organs are located in the left hypochondrium? 3. Give signs of aneurysm of the transverse portion arch of aorta. 4. What conditions give rise to bronchial breathing? 5. Give differential diagnosis of alcoholic coma and that caused

by uremia. 6. What effects follow obstruction of the portal circulation, 7. Locate the lesion in hemiplegia, left side, with involvement of

the right side of the face. 8. Give the differential diagnosis of acute lobar pneumonia and

catarrhal pneumonia 9. Describe the crepitant rale. 16. Give the differential diagnosis of pleurisy and hydrothorax.

ANATOMY. 1. Where is Poupart's ligament and how is it formed? 2. Describe the aorta. 3. What are the peculiarities of the coronary arteries and the in

nominate artery ? 4. What kind of nerves are the vagi? Spinal accessory : what is

their origin and to what organs are they distributed? 5. Describe the origin, course and distribution of the lumbar

6. Describe the esophagus,
7. Describe the spleen.
s. Describe the knee-joint.

9. Name sutures of the skull and describe them.
10. Name the layers of the skin.

1. How is the probable date of labor reasonably determined ?

What margin of time should be allowed and why? 2. What sy a. ptoms during pregnancy indicate the approach of

convulsions ? 3. What is the significance of glycosuria occurring during preg.

nancy? 4. What are the effects of an acute zymotic disease, occurring

during pregnancy (a) on the mother, (6) on the child ! 5. Describe the uterus and adjacent parts just prior to labor. 6. Describe the fetal head at full term. 7. Define “axis of superior strait," “axis of inferior strait." 8. What are the forces employed in the delivery of the child at

full term ? 9. What is meant by “L, 0. A.," "L. 0. P.," "R, 0. A.,"

“R.O.P.!" 10. What are some of the difficulties which may be encountered in the delivery of twins?

PRACTISE OF Medicin. 1. Define primary anemia, and how is it distinguisht from that

known as secondary: 2. Give source and life history of the tenia solium, and some

measures of prophylaxis. 3. Describe briefly the phagocytic theory. 4. Give symptoms and treatment of acute ptomain poisoning. 5. In what manner does gastroduodenitis cause jaundice? 6. What do you understand by the terms infection and conta

gion ?
7. Upon what theory is the treatment by antitoxins based ?
8. Give signs and symptoms of myocarditis,
9. Give differential diagnosis of epilepsy and apoplexy.
10. Define asthma and name principal causes.

1. Give formula for strychnin, and source.
2. Define synthesis and give example.
3. Name alkalin elements.
4. Give symbols for gaseous elements.
5. Give test for HgCly.
6. Give test for AgNO3.
7. Describe H2SO4.
g. State the effect of alkalies on alkaloids in solutions,
9. Describe K. I.
10. Name four deliquescett salts.

1. Define and classify metabolism.
2. Of what value is a knowledge of physiological chemistry?
3. Name ductless glands and give supposed office as a whole.
4. What is the most important ingredient in urin and what does

it represent ? 5. Classify nervous functions. 6. Define reflex centers. 7. What is an automatic center? 8. What two theories are advanced as to the relation of ovula

tion to menstruation ? 9. Give the causes of abdominal pregnancy. 16. Describe the change from placental to pulmonary circulation.

SURGERY. 1. Diagnose intracapsular fracture of the neck of the femur. 2. Describe the operation for the radical cure of inguinal hernia. 3. Give diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhea. 4. Describe the operation of lithotomy by the perineal method. 5. Give differential diagnosis of chancre. 6. How would you treat a compound fracture of the leg? 7. Give the proper treatment of talipes equinus. 8. Describe operation for strabismus. 9. Describe Pott's fracture and give the treatment. 10. Describe operation for circumcision and indications for it,

Progress in Reciprocity. The third annual meeting of the American Confederation of Reciprocating Examining and Licensing Medical Boards was held in the Great Northern Hotel, Chicago, Tuesday, May 24. 1904. Members and ex-members of medical examining boards and educators in medicin were invited.

Membership: Any examining or licensing board of any state, territory, district or province in the United States, having a medical practise law requiring an examination before said board, and requiring thoro professional qualifications as a basis of legal authority to practise in said state, territory, district or province, shall be eligible to membership in this confederation, and may obtain membership by the signing of its authorized representativs to the constitution of the confederation.

Program: Invocation by Rev. Johnston Myers, pastor of Emanuel Church, Chicago. Address of welcome on part of medical profession of Chicago, Dr. George H. Simmons, Chicago, editor Journal American Medical Association. Response to address of welcome, Dr. Joseph M. Mathews, president Kentucky State Board of Health. Report of secretary. President's address. Address, “ How to Secure Uniform Medical Laws," Dr. Nicholas Senn, Chicago. Address, "Tests of Qualification Requisit to

Matriculation," Dr. Frank Billings, Chicago, president American of about $7 per capita in the circulating medium since Medical Association. Informal addresses on practical subjects

1896, and as our total population is now about eighty connected with interstate medical reciprocity and uniform qualifi. cations for state licenses. Miscellaneous business. Appointment

millions, a simple act of multiplication will give the of committees. Adjournment.

rest of the gain in circulating medium since 1896. Officers for 1904: President, W. A. Spurgeon, M.D., Muncie, Adding them together will give over three-quarters of a Indiana (member and ex-president Indiana State

Board of Medical billion of dollars gain in circulation-a very substantial Examination and Registration). Vice-presidents, H. Baxter, M.D., gain, the effect of which we have felt in the shape of Cleveland, Ohio (member Ohio State Board of Medical Registra

prosperity all over the country. There are other tion and Examination): John A. McKlveen, M.D., Chariton, Iowa (President lowa State Board of Medical Examiners). Secretary.

interesting and important factors, but I will not disTreasurer, B. D. Harison, M.D., Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan (Sec

cuss them now, because I wish to show that the chief retary Michigan State Board of Registration in Medicin).

contention of the side that stood for more moneyMembership: Wisconsin, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Iowa, Kan- more circulating medium, to raise prices, quicken sas, Illinois, Nebraska, Kentucky, Pennsylvania (Eclectic). trade and production, thus creating and disseminating

At the present time the following states are reciprocating, either prosperity-has been proven right. It lost the elecpartially or completely : Illinois,

Kentucky, New Jersey, Maine, Maryland, Indiana, Nebraska, Ohio, Wisconsin, lowa and Michi

tion, but its main principle has been vindicated, and

we are all enjoying the fruits thereof. gan.

The point I wish to make here is, that we thought

we settled this question the other way, but we didn't OUR MONTHLY TALK

,--thanks to Mr. McKinley's far-seeing wisdom after he got in, and to the national bankers' desire for ex

tended privileges, and to nature's kindness in unlockWe are now nearing our quadrennial volcanic political ing her stores of gold when most needed—tho a few disturbance, which we call a presidential election. years earlier it would have been very acceptable. Many wise men have said that every four years is too often for such extensiv disturbance to business as a

The Ensuing Contest, presidential election involves. Yes, it is, if there are The nominating conventions are approaching, and no vital questions to settle ; but it isn't often enuf if

there is much political discussion in the newspapers. there are vital questions to settle in the meantime. But But have you seen much about issues or principles ? do our presidential elections, as we conduct them, It is mostly confined to discussing the chances of men settle questions? Do they not only determin what or parties. That seems to be the chief interest. Is it man, or what party shall control?

worth while to have elections for that?_Hardly. But We certainly had a question at issue in 1896. The it is our way, and we must do it. The English plan of contest was the most bitter one since the Civil war. letting the government stand until an issue arises upon We thought we settled it. Let us see. One side said which to appeal to the people is a good one, but it is not there was not enuf money to meet the legitimate de- our way. We must have an election at a stated time, mands of business; hence the low prices, hard times, whether there is any issue or not; and frequently and commercial depression. The other side opposed when there is an issue we can't have an election, nor this contention, and (by means and methods well even an expression from the people by their votes, known) won the election. Mr. McKinley was not only because the stated time hasn't come. an astute politician, but also something of a statesman. When a political party means a definit thing, it may When he got in he insisted that as much silver should fulfil a very useful purpose. Political parties originally be coined as the mints were capable of coining. This do mean definit things, but they soon acquire power did not affect the price of silver outside of the mint as and patronage, and in the struggle of selfish men or a free silver coinage law would have done, but it did interests to capture these advantages, principles are the more important thing of increasing the amount of usually lost sight of. The Republican party was available circulating medium. I have not the figures organized in the interest of human liberty, and of before me, but I understand that while Mr. McKinley the most down-trodden. Since that purpose was was president, the maximum amount of silver was accomplisht, that party has been made to serve the coined, in a quiet way. Also a law was passed interests of special privilege. The Democratic party designed to increase the amount of national bank has from time to time been turned as far from its currency, and also increase the number of national original purpose, and from its name and meaning. At banks by reducing the minimum amount of capital present there are incongruous elements in both parrequired to organize a national bank. This still further ties, held together by partizan sentiment and tradition, increast the amount of circulating medium, tending patronage, and “organization.” The corporation and to remove the cause of hard times, and restore pros- speculativ interests don't want Roosevelt again, but perity, which it did. But there was another cause for they cannot hope to defeat him for the nomination, the restoration of prosperity, which was not a political particularly since the death of Senator Hanna. The one, and it was just as effectiv as the political causes. crowd that don't want Roosevelt hope to recapture I refer to the vastly increast production of gold, be- the Democratic party, and thru that organization elect ginning in about 1897. Gold having the privelege of a man of their choice and kind. Why do not the free coinage at a stated ratio, not only at our mints but progressivs in both parties have their way a little, at the mints of the world, increast the quantity of instead of being used by those who wish to promote world money, raising prices, thus favoring the pro- the interests of corporations, trusts, and the protected ducing classes, and hence favoring general prosperity: interests and privileged classes in general? A party There were other causes operating--a great many if composed of incongruous elements and interests we knew them all, for civilized society has become should be split, and the respectiv factions should go very complex; but I wish to here confine my remarks their respectiv ways. The liberal or progressiv demoto the main issue of 1896, and how we thought we crats, and the many republicans whose thoughts and settled it.

sympathies are similar on present questions (forgetting For years I have received from the U. S. Treasury, differences in the long distant past), and the populists, every month, a detailed statement of the funds there should “Alock” and work together, for what they keld, in what form they are-how much gold coin, bul- believe in. Then there should be another party, lion, silver dollars, silver certificates, etc., and a calcu. which would stand frankly for the corporations, prolation as to the amount of money per capita in the United tected interests and privileged classes. Then we States. I remember that in 1896 it was not quite $25 per would know what parties really, stand for. Really, capita. I have noticed it creep up gradually until now it the corporations and capitalistic classes stand together, is about $32 per capita. This in spite of the fact that anyway, regardless of party, when there is any issue the population has been constantly increasing. If I affecting them. They are always ready to unite in remember right, the population has increast nearly their own interest, but they want to keep the people ten millions since 1896-immigration has been ex- divided, which they always succeed in doing, and traordinarily heavy, particularly during the past they are always on the winning side. Cannot our several years. Multiply this increase by $32 per capita common people learn a little political wisdom? Are and we will get a part of the increase in the circulat- you at a loss for principles to work for, in the interest ing medium since 1896. As there has been an increase of the common people?“ The Story of New Zealand”

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