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PRACTICAL POINTS

A very troublesome class of troubles are the diseases of the prostate gland and adnexa. The Rowe Publishing Co. of Chicago are advertising a non-surgical treatise on just this class of diseases. Have you seen it ? See adv. on page 21.

NEW BRIGHTON, England. During the past few years I have used and prescribed Valentine's Meat Juice largely, with most satisfactory results. Its sustaining power is obvious in cases of pneumonia, bronchitis, typhoid fever, and wasting diseases. It is usually much preferred to ordinary beef tea, especially with children, with whom it agrees better than any other meat preparation with which I am acquainted.

J. G. BRIDE, L. R. C. P.; L. F. P. S.

If people could be induced to attend to the cleanliness of the nose as universally as they do to the cleanliness of the teeth, the health of the nation would be materially advanced. A new nasal dish is presented this month. See adv. on page 19.

On April 7 of this year, Messrs. Frederick Stearns & Co. celebrated the wooden anniversary of their biolog; ical department. Open house was kept all day and there was an almost uninterrupted stream of visitors. All classes were represented, from grayhaired surgeons and specialists of more than national fame, to young prospectiv graduates of 1904. The regular work of the department was carried on as usual. Perhaps nothing pleased the visitors more than the modern operating rooms, rivaling those of first-class hospitals. Although this department was establisht only five years ago it already uses stable accommodations for i20 horses, for its serum yield.

Such a common complaint as constipation is sure to bring to the market all sorts of remedies of all grades of ethical goodness and quackish badness. The wise physician will not allow himself to be misled by the great number of remedies proposed to him, but will see that what he buys is made by a house of undoubted reputation. In this connection Sharp & Dohme's advertisement on page 30 will interest him.

When administering Ergoapiol it is advisable to direct the patient to drink a glass of milk immediately after taking the capsule, that is if milk is convenient, if not, water will answer the purpose.

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Have you a telephone in your house ? Every physician should have one. See adv. of the Elliott Telephone Co., on page 12.

T. J. Biggs, M.D., Stamford, Conn., reports that he has used Bovinine with great success in skin grafting. In one case of leg ulcer of nine years' standing, in a patient 60 years old, which ulcer had never completely healed in all that time, despite treatment, the Bovinine was used with wonderful results. The patient came under Dr. Biggs's care on March 3, 1902. On March 7 treatment had brought the case to a satisfactory condition for skin grafting, and the doctor laid nine small pieces of skin taken from a callus on the patient's toe, on the surface to be grafted. The dressings were kept wet with Bovinine, and on the fourteenth on removing them, eight of the nine pieces were found attacht and healthily growing. The ninth had been displaced, and was removed. On March 24 the patient was discharged cured.

"Caripeptic Liquid: Indicated in all cases of indigestion, fermentation, and malassimilation of food. Pill Methylene Blue Comp.: Indicated in Gonorrhea, Gleet, Cystitis, Nephritis, and all diseased conditions of the Genito-urinary tract." The above is quoted from the Upjohn advertisement on page 3.

The Upjohn Co. are well known to the profession as the originators of friable pills. They are now making a special offer on the two preparations here mentioned. See adv.

Have you tried Peptenzyme for dyspepsia ? If not, why not? Are you so well satisfied with your present treatment that you need no other? If so you are to be congratulated. Reed & Carnrick present Peptenzyme as a remedy that will act favorably on all classes of foods. If one remedy will do the work it is certainly better han to give several. See adv. on page 24.

Have you a satisfactory surgical instrument dealer in your town? Well, better send for Mr. Frye's bulletin of instruments and prices, anyway ; perhaps he can save you money. At any rate, he can supply you with anything you need in the surgical instrument line. See advertisement with short list of instruments and prices, on page 8. Send for his complete Bulletin.

The Phospho-Albumen Company write us that those physicians who confine their use of Phospho-Albumen to sexual troubles make a mistake. They say that while it is one of the most serviceable sexual tonics, its range is much wider, including all cases where a reconstructiv is needed. See adv. on page 25.

"Nervousness” is an accompaniment of so many diseases, that a reliable remedy for this condition would probably be one of the most useful in the physician's bag. Mr. Daniel recommends his Passiflora in the strongest terms, for all conditions demanding a calming of the nerves without depression of the heart. See adv. on page 5 and send for samples and literature.

The day for keeping your equipment in any corner, box, or closet that happens to be about, has passed. The physician of today must have a proper, modern equipment if he wishes to keep up to the times. See adv. of Allison's cabinets, tables, etc., on page 12.

In addition to Thiocol Roche, Merck & Co. are this month advertising, the hypnotic “ Veronal;" which they claim to be a distinct advance over all other hypnotics. See adv. on page 25; adv. of Thiocol Roche is on page 13.

(Continued or page 20.)

Circulation : June, 1904, 35,504.

THE MEDICAL WORLD

The knowledge that a man can use is the only real knowledge; the only knowledge that has life and growth in it and converts itself into practical power. The rest hangs like

dust about the brain, or dries like raindrops oj* the stones.-FROU DE.

The Medical World

securing the general adoption of the suggested amendments IRVING SHEPARD, Secretary.'

We feel it a duty to recognize the above tendency, and to adops it in a reasonable degree. We are also disposed to add enui

(enough) to the above list, and to conservativly adopt the follow C. F. TAYLOR, M.D., Editor and Publisher ing rule recommended by the American Philological Association : A. L. RUSSELL, M.D., Assistant Editor

Drop final "e" in such words as “ definite,"“ infinite," "favorite," etc., when the preceding vowel is short. Thus,

spell " opposit, ." “preterit," “hypocrit," " requisit," etc. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: To any part of the United States,

When the preceding vowel is long as in polite," "finite,"

** unite," etc., retain present forms unchanged. Canada, and Mexico, ONE DOLLAR per year, or FOUR YEARS

We simply wish to do our duty in aiding to simplify and ratios.for THREE DOLLARS; to England and the British Colonies, alize our universal instrument-language. Five SHILLINGS Sıx PENCE per year; to other foreign countries in the Postal Union, the equivalent of gs. 6d. Postage free. Single copies, TeN CENTS. These rates are due in

Pure and Reliable Drugs. advance. HOW TO REMIT: For their own protection we advise that

Interests that are anxious to push their own our patrons remit in a safe way, such as by postal money order. products make a great noise about “pure express order, check, draft, or registered mail. Currency sent drugs," magnifying the difficulty of the physiby ordinary mail usually reaches its destination safely, but

cian in getting reliable drugs. Desiring to money so sent must be at the risk of the sender. We cannot always supply back numbers. Should a number fail to learn the actual truth in the matter, we reach a subscriber, we will supply another, if notified before

addrest the following letter to a number of the end of the month. Notify us promptly of any change of address, mentioning both old

our leading manufacturing pharmacists : and new addresses.

Gentlemen :-A certain medical journal, a well If you want your subscription stopt at expiration of the time paid known organ for certain proprietaries, constantly has

for, kindly notify us, as in the absence of such notice we will much to say about the "purity” and reliability" of understand that it is the subscriber's pleasure that the subscrip- proprietaries, endeavoring to lead physicians to the tion be continued, and we will act accordingly.

conviction that the only way to get pure and reliable Pay no money to agents unless publisher's receipt is given,

drugs is to prescribe proprietaries. What have you

to say, as manufacturing pharmacists, as to the posADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO

sibility of the medical profession being able to get "THE MEDICAL WORLD”

pure, standard and efficient drugs; as tinctures, fluid

extracts, syrups, elixirs, standard official combina1330 Chestnut Street

Philadelphia, Pa.

tions as compound syrup of squills, etc., solid extracts, powdered drugs, pills and tablets, both single

and compound-in short, drugs in general ? VOL. XXII. JULY, 1904.

No. 7 I do not take a stand against proprietaries, nor do I these goods are kept for exhibition purposes, or thrown provide the physician with the best, the purest, the away; it seems but reasonable to say that they are put most reliable pharmaceutical products, of invariable to good use. Very truly yours,

expect you to do so in your reply. I wish only to Language is a growth rather than a creation. The growth of

know what facilities the medical profession has of our vocabulary is seen in the vast increase in the size of our diction. obtaining standard, pure, efficient and reliable drugs aries during the past century. This growth is not only in amount, other than in proprietaries, in the free and unrestricted but among other elements of growth the written forms of words are channels of trade. Very sincerely, becoming simpler and more uniform. For example, compare Eng.

(Dictated by) C. F. TAYLOR. lish spelling of a centnry or two centuries ago with that of to-day! It is our duty to encourage and advance the movement toward The following replies were received: simple, uniform and rational spelling. See the recommendations of the Philological Society of London, and of the American Philo.

Detroit, Mich., 5/19/04. logical Association, and list of amended spellings, publisht in the Editor MEDICAL World:-Anyone who claims that Century Dictionary (following

the letter 2) and also in the Stand- it is difficult or impossible to obtain pharmaceutical ard Dictionary, Webster's Dictionary, and other authoritativ preparations of standard quality in the drug stores of works on language. The tendency is to drop silent letters in some of the most flagrant instances, as ugh from though, etc., change ed

this country displays a most lamentable ignorance of tot in most places where so pronounced (where it does not affect

trade conditions. Nine-tenths at least of the drug the preceding sound), etc.

stores of this country carry the products of the best The National Educational Association, consisting of ten thous- manufacturers in stock for dispensing purposes. As and teachers, recommends the following:

these products afford the dealers an excellent profit, "At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the National Educa- there is but little temptation to substitute, or to use intional Association held in Washington, D. C., July 7, 1898, the action of the Department of Superintendence was approved, and

ferior grades. The question of purity, we should say, the list of words with simplified spelling adopted for use in all pube

has but little to do with the matter. Some proprietary lications of the National Educational Association as follows:

articles are not adapted to preparation on a small tho (though); program (programme);

scale, and doubtless numerous others have their imaltho (although); catalog (catalogue);

portant uses. But to claim that there is no assurance thoro (thorough): prolog (prologue);

of getting pure goods without relying entirely upon thorofare (thoroughfare); decalog (decalogue);

some proprietary compound, is to give utterance to a thru (through);

demagog (demagogue); thruout (throughout);

very evident absurdity. Pure pharmaceutical and pedagog (pedagogue).

chemical products are made in greatest abundance. “You are invited to extend notice of this action and to join in Dealers buy them as fast as made. It is not likely that

standards of quality and strength. Never for an F. STEARNS & Co., instant have we tolerated the idea, or even tacitly Per J. W. T. Knox. sanctioned the suggestion that anything less than the

very best is good enuf for the use of the physician, or General Offices, New YORK City,

worthy to bear our label. Now, as of yore, our motto,

May 14, 1904. “Medicamenta Vera," is our constant watchword. Editor MEDICAL WORLD:-In reply to your esteemed Has this policy proved profitable? Has it workt favor of the 12th, we do not know why it should be dif- to our advantage or disadvantage? You can judge for ficult for physicians to obtain thotoly reliable drugs. yourself when we say our label is accepted the world We know that there are a number of manufacturers over as a certificate of purity and a guarantee of powith whom quality is a religion. Personally, we guar- tency. No matter whether the prescription for a Parke, antee the quality of everything that bears our label. Davis & Co. preparation be filled in America, Europe, Very truly yours,

the remote Orient, in Africa, Australia, or the islands SHARP & DOHME. of the Pacific, the medical practician knows just what PHILADELPHIA, June 3, 1904.

he is getting and just what results he may expect. Dr. C. F. TAYLOR,

Furthermore, no matter where or when a given prod. Dear Doctor :-In reply to your letter in which you

uct of our laboratories is dispenst, the medical pracask for a report as to the ability of physicians to secure

tician knows that it does not vary in strength from a pure, reliable products, we would stale that the manu.

specimen of the same product that his paliert may facturer of pharmaceutical products today is using his

have obtained months or years before, or at a place best endeavor to furnish the highest standard possible

thousands of miles remote. to offer.

These facts are the outcome of our elaborate and On fluid extracts, tinctures, elixirs and standard

thoroly scientific system of drug standardization. products, the manufacturers do not content them

Every crude drug and chemical product submitted to selves with the ordinary means-exhaustion, percola

us for use in our manufacturing operations is thoroly tion, repercolation, etc.—but the first step is submitting

tested by chemists, botanists, pharmacologists or other samples of the various crude drugs to chemical assay

scientific experts, of whom a large and efficient corps and pharmacological test.

is engaged in our service. Every important drug exUnder separate cover we are sending you our cata

tract that we make is carefully assayed to determin its log, and call your attention to Fluid Extracts, pages

strength (in activ principle). Should the product vary 128-149. You will note after certain preparations the

from our standard, it is modified until its strength standard or alkaloidal content. This applies to drugs

conforms exactly to the establisht formula. We have the activity of which can be determined by alkaloids

a very large and elaborately equipt analytical departor extractivs. Such preparations as digitalis, ergot,

ment, in which a considerable amount of the work colchicum, strophantus, etc., of which it is impossible

consists in standardizing drug extracts. Furthermore, to determin the activ principles by chemical test, are

those important drugs-and the list includes not a few submitted to physiologic test on animals. In short,

of the most powerful therapeutic agents—that cannot every method is used that will insure an activ and

be assayed chemically are tested upon animals, i. e., uniform product.

physiologically. Among these may be mentioned digiWe will not purchase drugs that do not come up to

talis, aconite, ergot, indian cannabis, strọphanthus, our regular standard of strength. These preparations

convallaria, etc. We were the pioneers in drug stand. are sold according to the usual laws of competition,

ardization, first by chemical assay, and latterly by the and their sale yields but a moderate profit. We

physiologic method. In this connection it may interbelieve that no manufacturer of proprietary remedies

est your readers to know that we do not concentrate can take greater care than is exercised by the phar

our extracts by heat in open pans. We use expensiv maceutical manufacturer today.

vacuum stills, in which evaporation takes place at a In the using of such preparations as bromids or

temperature so low that even the most delicate princi. iodid of potash, calomel, quinin, morphin, in addition

ples are not impaired. Even the chlorophyll, the green to the usual tests which are applied by the manufac

coloring matter of hyoscyamus, is not affected during turing chemists, we employ careful tests to insure an

the process of concentration in our laboratories. absolutely reliable product.

Finally, not only can the physician obtain pure drugs In conclusion, we feel that when our label is on a

and pharmaceuticals by specifying our products, but, preparation that we are responsible for that prepara

per contra, by so doing he cannot obtain any but pure tion, and we certainly would not be willing to affix our

products. It is almost a physical impossibility for any label to a product that was not first submitted to a

but a thoroly standard product to get out of our laboracareful examination and test. Very truly yours,

tory. Our reputation is behind every bottle of pills, H. K. MULFORD COMPANY,

tablets, solid, powdered or fluid extract that we place H. K. Mulford.

upon the market. If any of your readers is seeking

further light upon this subject, which we must admit NEW YORK, May 17, 1904.

is altogether too vast for thoro treatment at this time, THE MEDICAL WORLD :-In reply to your favor of we shall be very happy, indeed, to answer inquiries or the 12th inst. we beg to say that in our opinion where to supply information. members of the medical profession are able to draw Thanking you for the opportunity to direct your attheir supplies from pharmacists of undoubted skill and tention to our attitude toward the subject of pure probity, they may feel assured of obtaining standard, drugs, and with kind regards, we remain, Very truly pure and efficient drugs, other than proprietaries. yours,

PARKE, DAVIS & Co. As to proprietaries or pharmaceutical preparations, the same assurance may be had by employing prod.

The above letters speak for themselves. It ucts bearing the label of houses of establisht reputa- doesn't pay to claim too much; so when the tion, of which there is a considerable number in the different sections of the country. Yours truly,

proprietary man makes his oft-repeated speech SCHIEFFELIN & Co., about "purity, reliability, uniformity," etc.,

H. S. Livingston. you can show him that it is possible to get pure DETROIT, Mich., May 19, 1904.

and reliable drugs and pharmaceutical preparaDR. C. F. TAYLOR,

tions without paying proprietary prices. We Editor MEDICAL WORLD :-We are pleased to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 12th inst. re

do not mean this as an argument against prospecting the purity or reliability of pharmaceutical prietaries, but as a reply to their oft-repeated preparations. From the very inception of our career down to the

claim that physicians should prescribe propriepresent moment our constant endeavor has been to taries in order to get purity and reliatility.

Contaminated Milk as a Disseminator of

worry them into extremes of fear or anger; the Disease.

milk from cows in such condition has been The majority of authors and observers appear known to cause gastro-intestinal troubles, fever, to pay their entire attention to the bactericidal and headache-ample evidence of a mild toxside of this question, yet other contamination emia. The cow, even in the pasture, will aside from bacteria often renders the milk un- often lie down in manure in such manner as to wholesome, if not distinctly pathological. foul the legs, loins, and udders, and this filthy Admitting that the contamination by bacteria condition is ten fold intensified when she is is the most frequent cause of unwholesome forced to lie down in the filthy winter stable. milk, it is wise to look into the subject to a Those familiar with dairy countries will recall greater depth. Every practician is concerned the fact that throughout the winter the accumulain this matter. We hear a great hullabaloo ted manure of many weeks always forms a when some epidemic sweeps thru a city because thick coating on the loins of the cows, and is of contaminated milk, yet for one serious result only removed when the hair is shed in the in an epidemic we believe a thousand occurs in spring. Many cows, in this filthy condition, isolated cases. It is the isolated case, seldom are milkt without even so much as a thought recognized or investigated, that should receive about cleansing the udder. The hands and a greater proportion of study and notoriety, clothing of the usual stable attendant are hardly until all practicians in both city and country to be called aseptic. The motion of the arms, get a true conception of the gravity of the in milking, causes the clothing to rub over the whole matter, and raise such a storm of pro- loins of the cow, and the particles cannot help test at the present filthy and ignorant methods but fall in the pail directly underneath. To of handling milk as will compel greater clean- remove this excess of hair and manure, it is a liness and care.

common practise to reinforce the strainer with There is no more subtile culture media for one or more thicknesses of cheesecloth, and certain bacteria than milk, nor will any other we have witnest the “emptying" of a confluid food become so quickly contaminated.

siderable amount of fertilizer from such cloths Not only do bacteria find welcome lodgment several times in the course of a milking, bein milk, but it will absorb noxious odors with cause the cloth became so clogged that the great avidity. The nature of the fluid, and milk would not run thru. the methods of milking and marketing, expose Cattle in poor health cannot give wholesome it to numerous chances for absorbing filth and milk, even if no great excess of bacteria be becoming contaminated. In itself so very un- present in the fluid. It is a well known fact stable, it speedily undergoes decomposition, and that scarlet fever can be disseminated by milk, develops within itself under suitable conditions, yet we have not as yet isolated or recognized one of the deadliest poisons known to chemistry the bacterium responsible. A cow suffering -tyrotoxicon. As if nature had not provided from any of the common diseases is not in fit enuf perils, man adds to these by the addition of condition to furnish marketable milk. Tuber“preservativs,” which may in themselves be culosis, anthrax, foot and mouth disease, garpoisonous, and by a neglect of proper methods of get, rinderpest, digestiv disturbances, ulcerated cleansing the receptacles employed. The cow, udders, open and running sores, etc., make herself, is often the original source of danger, animals unsuitable to furnish milk to the pubmainly because of man's ignorance and inhu: lic; yet such animals may be seen supplying manity, but other times because of her inher- such milk in almost any dairy. ent taste for anything green. In the summer Even if the milk be drawn from the udder in season, when water is scarce, she will drink a reasonable state of cleanliness, it is often from any pool within reach, however filthy; contaminated as soon as it touches the recepnumberless bacteria thu's absorbed cannot fail tacle, for these are usually constructed of tin to reach the milk ducts. She will eat poison- with seams which afford admirable and inacous plants, a common example of which is the cessible lodging-places for decomposed milk consumption of poison ivy, which produces and multitudes of germs. The cans in which the symptom known as “trembles," and when the milk is shipt are generally washt by male milki in this condition the milk is poisonous. help, and consequently the cleansing is very There are many other plants eaten by cows imperfectly performed; the seams are here too, which render the milk unfit for use, even if not and another influx of some other bacteria actually poisonous. It is a question whether occurs. We have smelled many noxious and the ensilage, which is now so commonly fed strenuous odors, but the most heinous smell thruout the country during the winter, is a food that ever assailed our nostrils came from a of proper composition from which to derive tightly closed can that was “cleaned " so well milk. Cattle are often handled by brutal and that it fairly shone, both inside and out, yet ignorant men who chase them with dogs, or had been allowed to stand in the sun a few

hours on the depot platform after being re- The Glorious Fourth ; but How About the turned empty to the shipper. This is not the

Fifth ? exception; it is the rule. Another nauseating If an enemy to our country would punish us fact: The colostrum corpuscles are demon. every Fourth of July as much as we punish ourstrable in the milk after the birth of the calf selves, what would we think of it? The record up to the fifteenth day, at least, and such milk for last Fourth of July, which was about an is distinctly able to produce pathological re- average, was 466 deaths and 3,983 injuries, results. Did one ever know of milk being sulting from “celebrating !" A battle which thrown away, or the calf being allowed to suck results in 466 killed and 3,983 wounded, ranks for fifteen days? We have repeatedly observed as a great battle; the American loss at Bunker its being marketed on the third day, mixt with Hill was 449. Every year we have a battle other milk.

(or rather the results of a battle) in which our The commoner diseases disseminated by loss is much greater than at Bunker Hill. If milk are scarlet fever, diphtheria, cholera infan- the English were still our enemies, don't you tum, typhoid fever, etc. The typhoid bacillus think the above facts would give them a peculwill retain all its virulence in milk for forty iar satisfaction? It is one thing to gain a vicdays, and it has been discovered after even four tory, and another to use the results of victory months. The bacillus coli communis is an with prudence. Many a victory leads to the almost universal constituent of milk. We need final defeat of the victor. We gained a notable not reiterate the devious and multitudinous victory over a century ago ; shall we indulge ways in which the contamination occurs. in annual self slaughter in celebrating it?

Another important point: Those who write The Journal of the A. M. A. gives the folmost upon this subject insist upon pasteuriza- lowing details : "406 deaths from lockjaw, 60 tion or sterilization of the milk as a safeguard. from other causes, and 3,983 injuries that were It is now definitly establisht that such treat- not fatal.” The latter include loss of fingers, ment makes the milk more difficult of diges- hands, arms, legs and eyes. tion; moreover, it is questionable if the ordi- The following practical remarks are also nary degree of heat employed in cooking has taken from the same source : anything more than a temporary effect on the Last year 64 percent of the total injuries and over bacilli present. We do know that chemic 80 percent of the fatal injuries were the results of

blank cartridges. Nearly all cities, it would seem, change (as in the formation of tyrotoxicon) is have at some time passed ordinances that control their not modified by any degree of heat or cold, sale, or the sale of the pistols in which they are used, and we firmly believe the chemic contamina

but, as a rule, the ordinances have remained on the

books unconsulted and non-enforced. It would not be tion is oftentimes more important than the bac- a difficult matter to reduce this source of mortality terial invasion, grievous as that generally is. greatly; the pistols and cartridges are sold usually by As to the common use of preservativs: We

dealers in sporting goods or in notion stores," and know that their use not only works a chemical

every policeman knows all such places on his beat.

Confiscation of pistols from boys on the Fourth would change in the constituents of the milk, but also

also be of some service. Enforcement of the law is the has a definit effect upon the digestion of the

chief thing that is needed. In Washington, where

these matters seem to be controled better than in ordmilk. It is yet early to assert what the extent inary municipalities, Fourth of July tetanus is exof the injury may be, some observers taking

tremely uncommon, altho there is a fair number

during the year from other causes. the ground that the formaldehyde and boric acid are harmless in themselves, and by The Clinical Importance of the Appearance inhibiting the growth of bacteria, work posi

of the Tongue. tiv good. It is possible that the medical pro- The importance of the symptomatology of fession, with their well known tendency to be the lingual mucous membrane has been recogradical in everything, have acted too hastily in nized by physicians from the earliest recorded condemning without complete investigation date of the practise of clinical medicin. Whatthe preservativs used in milk.

ever other attentions may be expected by the The remedy, for the contamination of milk

average patient on the approach of a physical is, however, not in the addition of preservativs examination, he always anticipates that his or antiseptics, not in sterilization or any other doctor will feel his pulse and look at his form of cooking, but in absolute cleanliness of tongue. One of those items of research rethe animal and attendant, the stable, food, vealed the state of the circulatory, the other of and containers, and the sterilization of all ves- his digestive organs. The physicians of olden sels by heat after use and before again being times also lookt at the urin; but, it need filled.

hardly be added, the further chemical and phyDo not put the turpentine in the water when prepar

sical examination was absolutely defectiv. ing a turpetine stupe ; wring the cloth from the hot Having regard to the state of the physical water, and then sprinkle the turpentine on the cloth. Twice the beneficial effect of the turpentine is thus

sciences down to within less than a century secured.

ago, it was a very natural consequence that

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