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147–151.

PART III-SYNTAX.

PART FIRST.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

§1. LANGUAGE is the communication of thought by means of spoken or written sounds. The utterance of a single thought constitutes a sentence. Each sentence is composed of words expressing individual conceptions or their relations. And words are made up of sounds produced by the organs of speech and represented by written signs. It is the province of grammar as the science of language to investigate these several elements. It hence consists of three parts. First, Orthography, which treats of the sounds employed and the mode of representing them. Second, Etymology, which treats of the different kinds of words, their formation, and the changes which they undergo. Third, Syntax, which treats of sentences, or the manner in which words are joined together to express ideas. The task of the Hebrew grammarian is to furnish a complete exhibition of the phenomena of this particular language, carefully digested and referred as far as practicable to their appropriate causes in the organs of speech and the operations of the mind.

THE LETTERS.

§2. The Hebrew being no longer a spoken tongue, is only known as the language of books, and particularly of the Old Testament, which is the most interesting and important as well as the only pure monument of it. The first step

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