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New England

Shakespeare, William
Antiquities

Works
Biography

Selections
Church History

Single Works (In alpha-
Economic Conditions

betical order by title) Fiction

Stories
Genealogy

Books about Shake-
History

speare (In alphabet. Industries

ical order by author) Poetry

Authorship
Politics and Government

Bibliography
Social Life and Customs

Characters
New England and its neighbors (Title)

Contemporary England New England bird life (Title)

Drama New England boyhood (Title)

Translations, etc. Observe that the entries under Shakespeare are arranged as follows: works, selections and single works, biography, and then publications relating to his works, arranged by subject. A fairly large number of divisions are required for some subjects, of these some may be form divisions, relating more especially to the character of the publications, others geographical, and still others logical, as may be observed from the following lists. Education.

Coal.
Bibliography

Analysis
Congresses

Ta tion
Form
Directories

Testing
Divisions
History

Alaska
Statistics

Great Britain
Alabama

Idaho
Canada

Illinois
Colorado

Texas
Geographical
France

United States
Divisions
Michigan

West Virginia
Switzerland

Coal, Pulverized
Vermont

Coal age (Periodical)
Education, Elementary

Logical

Coal and candle light (Title) Education, Higher

Divisions

Coal, Distillation
Education, Secondary

Coal Miners
Coal Mines and Mining
Coal Mines and Mining,

Explosions
Coal Mines and Mining, Safety

Measures
Coal Storage
Coal Tar.

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Some Rules for Arranging Entries.

Some of the difficulties in arranging entries in alphabetical order arise from the facts (a) that initial words of different kinds of entries are identical, (b) that names of authors are identical, and (c) that some words are written in compound forms in some instances and as two separate words in others. Conflicts similar to these and other problems in alphabeting have resulted in certain rules, which are generally recognized in library work, for the arrangement of entries. Some of the more important of these are given below.

Disregard the article in filing entries; this applies not only to those in the English language but also those in the French, German, Italian and Spanish.

Arrange all entries first by words and second by letters. If the first word does not indicate the exact place of an entry examine the second word, the third, etc. Notice the difference in the following of alphabeting first by words and second by letters, rather than alphabeting strictly by letters: Arranged by words:

Arranged by letters:
Land

Land
Land and the book

Land and the book
Land of romance

Landed gentry
Land tenure

Landing at Plymouth
Landed gentry

Landlord and tenant
Landing at Plymouth

Land of romance
Landlord and tenant

Landscape gardening
Landscape gardening

Landslides
Landslides.

Land tenure.

If the first words of different kinds of entries are identical observe the following order: names of persons precede places, and names of places titles of books.

Washington, George
Washington, Martha
Washington (City)
Washington (State)
Washington and his generals (Title of book)
Washington celebrations (Title of book).

Identical surnames are filed according to forenames; initials preceding forenames beginning with same letters.

Smith, J. A.
Smith, James
Smith, R. C.

Smith, Robert Payne. Forenames of saints, popes and rulers precede identical surnames, as for example:

Henry VIII

Henry, Joseph. If entire names are identical arrange by dates, place of residence, or title.

Smith, James of Jordonhill
Smith, James, 1737-1812

Smith, James, 1775-1839. English personal names compounded with prefixes are arranged as single words.

Lantz

La Roche
Lapage

Larson
La Palma

Larue
Larned

La Salle.

The prefixes M’, Mc, S, St, and Ste should be arranged as if written in full, as Mac, Saint, Sainte, and Sanctus. For example:

MacGregor
Mach
McIntosh
Mackay
McKenney

Mackenzie. Compound names of persons and places either with or without a hyphen should be arranged as separate words; except those beginning with a prefix (see rule above). Gordon, William J.

South Dakota New Haven
Gordon-Brown, Hildegrade South Natick

New Jersey
Gordon-Smith, Richard

South Portland New York
Gordy, John P.

Southampton

Newark
Goring-Thomas, A. R.

Southport

Newburgh.

The apostrophe in the possessive case singular, and in elided words should be disregarded. For example:

Manors of Virginia Whom the gods destroyed
Man's responsibility Who's who in Finance
Mansard roof

Whose home is in the wilderness.

German names written with the Umlaut, for example Göthe, are usually arranged as though written ae, oe, and ue; but for the small library they should probably be arranged as written.

Titles beginning with numerals or abbreviated words should be arranged as though the numerals or abbreviations were spelled out in full; as for example, Dr., Rev., Mr., and Mrs.

Some words are occasionally written as single words by some writers and as compound words, either with or without a hyphen, by others; for example such words as hand book, water works, story writer, cooking-stove, and breast-bone. In arranging entries in a catalogue by word it makes a difference whether such words are written as single or compound. Where there is variation a particular form should be followed in each

Preference is usually given to the compound form of the word. If for example the word schoolhouse is written as two separate words then the entries are filed in their alphabetical place under school, but if written as a compound word then the entries are filed along with other compound forms such as schoolbook, schoolhouse, schoolroom, after all the entries under school.

The reference entries, referring from one particular subject to a related subject should be filed at the end of the different sections of subjects.

case.

Importance of Consulting the Catalogue.

Two questions frequently asked by patrons are whether certain books are in a library, and if any information may be obtained a particular subject. Many prefer to ask than to go to the trouble of examining the catalogue. The answer to the first can always be found by consulting the catalogue and frequently the answer to the second. These

.

on

instances are cited merely for the purpose of calling attention to the importance of consulting the catalogue for every subject, of much importance. Technical, or narrow subjects, such as do not require a book for treatment, may not be found directly but books containing discussions of them may be obtained. The catalogue should even be examined for current questions, whatever their character; although for some it is better to examine the indexes to periodicals first.

In using the catalogue one should always look for the subject he has in mind; if it is epic poetry or wireless telegraphy, look for those terms and if books are not listed under such headings, references will direct to the word used as heading. The logical method of procedure in investigating the literature of a topic is to examine first the books treating it directly as indicated by subject entries, and second, those under related subjects which may possibly contain some treatment of the question. In making such investigations it is important to observe the date of publication of the books and also the number

of pages.

The catalogue is used by the librarian in answering various questions of patrons; as a check list to avoid duplications when new books are being purchased, and in other ways. The patrons who use it find answers to some questions which they can not find elsewhere in the library.

The open shelf where everyone has free access to the books tends to minimize the use of the catalogue, and those who have had this privilege sometimes regard the catalogue as a barrier between themselves and the books. But nothing else shows the resources of a library and no thorough investigation of a subject can be made without it.

Questions on Catalogue.

Make an exact copy of an author, of a subject, and of a

title entry.

What is the distinction between alphabeting by letter and

by word ?

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