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for other subjects he will consult it before examining the card catalogue. One or more articles have been written and published in the periodicals on every subject of importance; on some many have been written. Many different kinds of periodicals are published, the total number in the United States, including magazines, journals, weeklies, and house publications being more than 15 000.

For library use a periodical is of little value unless the literature is available through some index. There are indexes for many of the general and literary magazines and for many of the journals devoted to large subjects such as medicine, law, engineering, science, argriculture, chemistry and some other subjects.

The periodicals as a whole may be roughly grouped as follows:

(1) Literary and general. These vary in character but some, or all include the short story, poetry, drama, and descriptive and historical articles of literary merit. The number of this class is not so large in comparison with some other classes, and most of the important ones are indexed.

(2) Journals devoted to special, but not technical subjects. Included in this group are those, for example, devoted to sociology, education, physiology, history, medicine, law, mathematics, and botany. The articles are usually the result of study and investigation and the group as a whole represents scholarship. The subject matter of most of these is available through indexes.

(3) Technical journals, that is those devoted to the application of science to industry. The articles, usually written by specialists and frequently the result of laboratory investigation, relate to manufacture, construction and the various industries. Many of these are indexed.

(4) Trade journals and house publications. is of interest to those engaged in the different kinds of business, as for example, grocery, fuel, grain, fruit, dry goods, and lumber. The house publication is issued by the manufacturer or corporation for the benefit of its employes and in order to advertise its products. Few of this class are indexed.

This group

(5) Miscellaneous. Then there are other publications not included in either of the above groups such as religions papers, college and fraternal publications, and those devoted to travel, labor, out-door life, and sports. Very few of these are indexed.

Indexes to Periodicals.

The first attempt to compile an index to general periodical literature was made by William F. Poole, a student at Yale University, in 1847. The volume comprising 154 pages was issued in 1848 and a second edition of 521 pages was issued in 1853. No further efforts were made until 1876, at the first regular meeting of the American Library Associaton, when plans were laid to issue a new and enlarged edition of the publication. On account of the fact that the undertaking was a large one the labor of compiling the references was shared by some of the large libraries. The history of the first, and subsequent volumes, of this great index, thus begun, is recorded in the preface of the different volumes.

During the year 1900 the publication of another index to periodical literature was begun, including some of the same magazines indexed in Poole's. Because of this fact and for other reasons the latter was discontinued with the year 1906. Poole's Index to periodical literature, 1802-81. Rev. ed.

2 vols. Boston, Houghton, 1893. Supplements, 1-5. 1882–1907. Abridged edition, 1815–99. Boston, Houghton, 1901.

. - Supplement, 1900-1904.

It is a subject index but stories and poems are frequently listed by title. The index includes, alltogether, 470 periodicals; general, literary and a few scientific journals. Readers' Guide to periodical literature, 1900 to date. N. Y.

Wilson. 1905 to date. v. I, 1900–04; v. 2, 1905-09; v. 3, 1910–14; v. 4, 1915–18; v. 5, 1919–21.

, This index is devoted chiefly to literary and general magazines. It is published monthly and is cumulated quarterly, annually and triennially. That is, every three months previous entries are collected in a single number and a volume issued every third year. About 100 periodicals are indexed under author, subject and title. International index to periodicals, 1907 to date. N. Y. Wilson

1916 to date. v. I, 1907-15; v. 2, 1916-19; v. 3,

1920--23.

This was formerly the "Readers' Guide to periodical literature supplement”. It includes magazines of a general character not indexed in Readers' Guide; foreign journals in particular. The arrangement is similar Reader's Guide, but it differs from the latter in being published bimonthly and cumulated bimonthly. About 275 periodicals are indexed. Bulletin of bibliography and dramatic index, 1897 to date.

Boston, Faxon Co. v. I-I2. 1897—1924.

It includes bibliographies on special subjects, an index of articles relating to the drama, births and deaths of periodicals, and “contents” of library press.

Some useful bibliographies have been published in the journal. Annual magazine-subject index, 1908 to date. Boston, Faxon

Co. 1909 to date. Volume 1, 1908, was called Magazine subject index and in this particular volume some

sets of magazines are indexed from the beginning.

The index is devoted chiefly to history, travel, and fine arts, and the entries are under subjects. Fiction by well-known authors is entered under author's name. Since the year 1900 the Dramatic Index has been published as part 2 of the Annual magazine-subject index. A. L. A. Index to general literature. 2nd ed., enlarged and

brought down to January 1, 1900. Boston, Amer. Lib. association, 1901. supplement, 1900--10. Chicago, Amer.Lib.association, 1914.

This is a subject index to essays, papers and adresses in a selected list of books commonly found in the libraries of this country. Hence it supplements the card catalogue.

New York Times index, 1913 to date. New York Times.

It is a subject index; one volume being issued every three months. The index may be used in looking up information in other newspapers besides the New York Times. Severance, Henry 0. Guide to current periodicals and se

rials of the United States and Canada, 4th ed. Ann

Arbor, Mich. Wahr, 1920. Part 1, alphabetical list; part 2, classified list. Ayer, N. W., and Son. American newspaper annual and

directory; a catalogue of American newspapers, 1881

to date. Phila. Ayer.

The publication is revised annually. The names of the papers are in alphabetical order under the names of the cities in which they are published, and in addition there is an index at end of volume.

Reference questions:
Find one or more references in periodicals on crop rotation,

galvanizing, smoke prevention, canal boats, motor cycles,

safety lamps, refrigeration, canning fruits. Name four subjects you can find in an index to periodicals

but can not find in card catalogue.

Encyclopedias and Year Books.

Encyclopedias aim to include, in a more or less condensed form, information on all important subjects. They differ in size and scope, and those of approximately the same size differ in amount of space alloted to the same subject. The space de voted to an article depends upon the size of the encyclopedia. the point of view of the editors and the plan followed in constructing it. While the arrangement of encyclopedias today is alphabetical, some are also provided with an index volume.

Usually the preface of each encyclopedia tells something of its history, the aim of the editors, and some of the points in which it differs from similar works. The ideal as set forth in the New International Encyclopedia is as follows; "Accuracy of statement, comprehensiveness of scope, lucidity and attractiveness of presentation, and convenience of arrangement”. For the Americana, "The prime object has been to give a clear, concrete, definite, truthful and up-to-date statement of every subject without prejudice or bias of any kind”. The aim of the Britannica is to "give a reasoned discussion on all the great questions of practical or speculative interest”.

Accuracy of statement is essential in the writing of articles for encyclopedias. Clear and distinct maps, illustrations, bibliographies at the end of the longer articles, all contribute to the value of the work.

Some articles in encyclopedias are useful for many years while others scientific and technical need revision after a

few years.

30 vols.

A good way to compare two encyclopedias is to read an article on some particular subject in each of them.

In reference work an encyclopedia may be used (a) when a general or condensed account will answer the question, or when a general idea of a subject is desired and (b) for additional references at the end of the longer articles. Encyclopedia Americana, a universal reference library; ed.

by Frederick C. Beach and G. E. Rines. N. Y. Encyclo

pedia Americana Corp., 1919–20.

Important articles are signed and some are followed by bibliographies. The material is in alphabetical order by words while volume 30 is also a classified index to the other volumes. Encyclopaedia Britannica, a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature

and general information. II th ed. Cambridge, Eng.

University press, 1910.

Compared with other encyclopedias in the English language there are fewer topics but the articles are longer and more exhaustive studies. They are written from the English viewpoint. It is the best encyclopedia for the scholar but not as useful for the college and high school student as some other encyclopedias. Volume 29 is an index to the other volumes.

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