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BY WILLIAM SWINTON,
HARPER'S LANGUAGE SERIES," BIBLE WORD-BOOK," ETC.

AUTHOR OF.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1877, by

II ARPER & BROTHERS,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

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PREFACE.

The present text-book is a new-modelling and rewriting of Swinton's Language Lessons. It has grown out of a double motive —first, the desire of better fitting it to fill its place as the intermediate book of Harper's “New Language Series;" and, next, the conviction that an elementary manual might be made, which, combining the essentials of English Grammar and Composition, should find especial welcome in ungraded schools.

The remarkable favor with which the Language Lessons was received has suggested the propriety of retaining, in the new book, at least the spirit of the old. In that work the author's theory was set forth in the following words:

“This book is an attempt to bring the subject of language home to children at the age when knowledge is acquired in an objective way, by practice and habit, rather than by the study of rules and definitions. In pursuance of this plan, the traditional presentation of grammar in a bristling array of classifications, nomenclatures, and paradigms has been wholly discarded. The pupil is brought in contact with the living language itself: he is made to deal with speech, to turn it over in a variety of ways, to handle sentences; so that he is not kept back from the exercise — so profitable and interesting—of using language till he has mastered the anatomy of the grammarian. Whatever of technical grammar is here given is evolved from work previously done by the scholar."

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In the actual test of the school-room during the past four years, it has been found that the vitalizing elements of the Language Lessons are, first, the analytic or inductive method of unfolding the theory of language; and, secondly, the affluence of constructive work. Accordingly, in the preparation of the present book these approved features have been retained; but it has been the author's aim to remould the book on a more comprehensive plan, with a more systematic arrangement and a more orderly development of the subject. Wherever the book was thought to be weak

as, for instance, according to many, on the side of too great a neglect of grammatical forms—it has been “toned up;" and, throughout, the effort has been made to produce a thorough, working text-book.

To the thousands of teachers who gave the old Language Lessons a reception exceptional in the history of text-books, the author desires to commend the New Language Lessons as being, in his belief, more worthy of their acceptance, and, in his hope, a nearer approach to their ideal.

WILLIAM SWIXTON. Dec., 1877.

CONTENTS.

SEOTION

TAGX

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I. CLASSES OF WORDS.....
II. THE SENTENCE AND ITS ELEMENTS....
III, SUBDIVISION OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH..
IV. MODIFICATIONS OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH...
V. SYNTAX.....
VI. ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS..

85

116

144

APPENDIX..

181

INDE X.

A, article, 6.

Analysis, definition of, 1H ; of the sim-
Abstract noun, definition of, 02.

ple sentence, 148–150; of complex
Active voice, 103.

sentences, 154-157; of the compound
Adjective, definition of, 6; use of, as sentence, 162–164.
modifier, 29; qualifying, 71; limit- | Antecedent, definition of, 68.
ing, 72; proper, 71; pronominal, 73; Apposition, explanation of, 36; syntax
irregular, comparison of, 97; com of, 127.
parison of, 96; syntax of, 123; pred Article, definite, 72; indefinite, 72; use
icate, syntax of, 125.

of, 72, 73; syntax of, 124.
Adjunct, definition of, 28, 144.

Auxiliary verb, 103.
Adverb, definition of, 9; use of, as mod-

ifier, 42; simple, 78; conjunctive, 78; Bills, forms of, 176.
comparison of, 97; syntax of, 131;
misuse of, 125.

Capitals, rules for use of, 21, 61, 71.
An, article, 6.

Case, definition of, 89; nominative, 89;

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