Page images
PDF
EPUB
[merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[graphic][merged small]

Dynamo operating one of the fans; also some of the "ducts" by which cooled air is sent from the basement, 52 feet underground, to the floors above.

[merged small][merged small][graphic]

PART OF REFRIGERATING PLANT UNDER NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE.

Showing one of the ammonia machines and two of the pumps by which cold brine is forced into the coils to cool the air. A similar plant is being installed under the Presbyterian Hospital.

being 34 inches and the high-pressure cylinder 21 inches in diameter; two auxiliary elevator pumps 14 by 20 inches and 15 by 11 inches, respectively; three house pumps to supply wash-room water

ENDLESS CHAIN FOR HOISTING ASHES. Showing, on the right, section of thick copper dam-the armored side-which protects the sky-scraper's vitals.

throughout the building, so hooked up that they can be thrown at once into fire service if needed; three boiler-feed pumps; and four additional elevator pumps, besides those first mentioned. The first four elevator pumps drive ten elevators; the next three, seven elevators; and the two remaining, four ele

vators. Three elevators (there are twenty-four altogether in the building) are driven by three Sprague electric machines. The remainder of the boilerroom equipment comprises one 2,000horse-power Berryman feed-water heater and one 1,000-horse-power heater of the same type.

Leaving the fire room, the boilers are connected to a 24-inch header and to a 12-inch auxiliary header, which lead up over the coffer-dam to the main engine room, situated in a cellar under the areaway of three streets. When it enters the engine room, the main is reduced to 20 inches, and then picks up two engines by means of copper bends, and is then again reduced to 14 inches and picks up two more engines. These engines are of the Watts-Campbell type, their dimensions being 28 inches' diameter of piston by 48 inches' stroke, and are connected by a taper bolt-fitted marine coupling to a 16-inch solid steel shaft. The shafts are upset, turned down, and faced to each 350-kilowatt dynamo shaft.

The fly wheel maintaining momentum for each unit (engine to dynamo) weighs 87,000 pounds, is 16 feet in diameter, and makes 70 revolutions per minute. Each unit represents 3.180 amperes, or twice that number of 16-candle-power lightsor, in other words, 6.360 incandescent lights. There being four such units, the total lighting power is represented by 25.440 lamps of 16 candle-power each.

Ventilation is secured by the Stuyvesant system of electric fans, which are similar, so far as type goes, to the small electric fans in use in offices and private houses. In dimensions, however, there is a difference, for these fans have a diameter of from 2 to 4 feet. There are twenty of them in this particular basement. The air is brought directly from the street and filtered in the manner already described.

[graphic]

Disposal of Refuse

The sewage of a great building is disposed of by means of great tanks, which collect it throughout the building and then are automatically emptied by steam pressure operating to cause a vacuum. The matter in the tanks, upon reaching a certain level, lifts a floating ball, which thereupon opens a ball-cock. The sewage

is then, by the operation of an ejector, lifted from the tank and discharged into the street sewer many feet above. The operation of the principle of the vacuum to effect this discharge is accomplished by an ingenious arrangement of pipes, the steam, when released by the lifting of the ball-cock, being made to produce a vacuum in a duct leading directly from the sewage tank, causing a suction which lifts the material up. The discharge being automatic, the only attention required is to keep up the necessary supply of steam.

The ash-lift is an interesting if a minor feature of the underground plant. To hoist the refuse of the furnaces fifty feet to the street level, there is an endless chain, equipped with buckets, which operates every twenty-four hours for such length of time as is required to hoist all the ashes that have collected. The shovelers simply shovel the debris into the traveling buckets on the chain, and the latter carries them up and dumps them into the carts that are waiting on the street outside.

T

Initiative

HE world bestows its big prizes, both
in money and honors, for but one
thing. ¶ And that is Initiative. ¶ What
is Initiative? I'll tell you: It is doing

the right thing without being told.
¶ But next to doing the thing without being told is to
do it when you are told once.
That is to say, carry
the Message to Garcia: those who can carry a
message get high honors, but their pay is not always
in proportion. ¶ Next, there are those who never do a
thing until they are told twice: such get no honors
and small pay. ¶ Next, there are those who do the
right thing only when necessity kicks them from
behind, and these get indifference instead of honors,
and a pittance for pay. This kind spends most of
its time polishing
polishing a bench with a hard-luck story.

Then, still lower down in the scale than this, we
have the fellow who will not do the right thing even
when some one goes along to show him how and
stays to see that he does it: he is always out of a job,
and receives the contempt he deserves, unless he has
a rich Pa, in which case Destiny patiently awaits
around the corner with a stuffed club. To which
class do you belong?-ELBERT HUBBARD.

Scene of devastation at Kirksville, Mo., wrought by the great storm of April 27, 1899.

[graphic]

Heaven's Heavy Artillery

Cyclones, Tornadoes, Hurricanes-Their Origin, Area of Operation, and Methods of Action

By JOHN ELFRETH WATKINS

A

ROARING, snapping, deathsowing funnel-cloud looms up in the sky, descends to earth, ploughs through life and property for a mile or two, ascends into the air whence it came, and passes off. Ten to one the newspapers will state that a "cyclone" visited the affected region. It all results from our eternal, inveterate habit of sticking to wrong names-for example, "locust" for cicada, "buffalo" for bison, and other misused terms that might be cited.

Various Kinds of Storms

The funnel-cloud phenomenon briefly described above, is a tornado. The name we have appropriated from the Spanish, and it means "turned" or "twisted." It is applied by meteorologists to local storms of very short duration, but yet the most violent wind disturbances known to man. The weather man will show you on his map that there are cyclones active within our boundaries every minute of every day. Cyclones, according to the correct application of the term, are the ordinary, general storms moving over the continent, which they enter from

the northwest or southwest, and which they leave in the neighborhood of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. They visit us at all seasons, but are most vigorous in winter. They are great whirlwinds whose vortices are hundreds of miles in diameter.

Hurricanes constitute a third class of storms, one confused with both tornadoes and cyclones. They come upon us from the south or southeast, originate usually in the eastern Caribbean Sea, and travel generally in a curved track, up our coasts, going first northwestward, then northward, and eventually northeastward, toward the general storm exit near the Gulf of St. Lawrence, above referred to. They occur in late summer or early autumn, and are much more violent than cyclones, having a velocity of sixty to eighty miles an hour at their centers. They cause destruction to cities and towns which they visit, but especially to shipping along the coast.

While cyclones may be 1,000 miles in diameter, and hurricanes somewhat less -about 600 or 800 miles-a tornado is only a mile or two broad at the top, and only a few rods at the bottom.

« PreviousContinue »