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THE TECHNICAL WORLD
TABLE OF CONTENTS, SEPTEMBER, 1904
THE TECHNICAL WORLD is a monthly magazine, published the fifteenth of each month by the
Entered at the Postoffice, Chicago, Ill., as second-class mail matter.
I consider it the BEST Ency.
clopedia yet published in
P. N. JOHNSTON, Reference Librarian, New York Public Library. THE CHICAGO PUBLIC LIBRARY,
CHICAGO, June 7th, '04. Scientific American, New York City.
Dear Sir-The general scope and plan of the "Americana" so thoroughly represents the book world of today that I am prompted to write you a few lines of appreciation.
The character of the work must appeal to all students of art or science whether related to technology or the professions. The striking merit of this stupendous literary undertaking is the interesting and comprehensive mannerin which subjects are treated; the important matter is brought forward while the less deserving is practically relegated and given little space. I am convinced of the wisdom of the congress of men who have had this work in charge-they fully appreciate the value of the reader's time and render the information without engendering the "fague of search."
Americans will welcome this set of books as the most courageous undertaking in the publisher's domain.
I am truly delighted with the tone and arrangement of this strictly American publication. Very respectfully, B. J. CIGRAND,
Director Chicago Public Lib.
Dear Sir-I keep the Encyclopedia Americana at my chambers with a view to quickly obtain information upon the great variety of topics which are frequently involved in cases tried in the Circuit and District courts. I have found only one objection to its presence in my working library. It is that the charming style of many of the articles and the freshness and original character of its facts have more than once beguiled me into somewhat extensive excursions through the beautiful volumes when my attention might well have been, as Falstaff said, "fobbed with the rusty curb of old Father Antic the Law." Notwithstanding this temptation, I am grateful that I have been permitted to purchase the Americana. Believe me with great respect,
Very sincerely yours,
Our readers are notified that the time is short to take advantage of the special price, now open to advance subscribers to the
published under the editorial supervision of the Scientific American.
Our belief that the time had come when the American people demanded an American Encyclopedia, made by American scholars and specialists, and from the American point of view, has been more than justified. The orders received in advance of publication aggregate
MORE THAN ONE MILLION DOLLARS
An advance sale never before equaled in the history of publishing.
Incredible as it may appear, our children, educated in American schools, taught by American instructors, and in accordance with American ideas, have been compelled to consult foreign books of reference for their information concerning even our American institutions, progress and achievements.
To remedy this condition-to produce a National Work, which should bear the impress of the National American character-has been our aim and inspiration.
More than a thousand American experts, each an authority upon his subject, have contributed the results of their ripest scholarship, study and experiment to this great work. Prepared under the editorial supervision of the Scientific American, FREDERICK CONVERSE BEACH Editor-in-chief, assisted by the largest corps of distinguished editors, specialists and experts ever engaged upon a similar work, our readers may be assured that it represents the highest type of modern scholarship, the latest results of modern scientific investigation. THE WORK-It is more than an Encyclopedia it is an AMERICANA. The departments of American History, American Biography, American Literature, and such fields in applied philosophy and science, as Government, Industries, Finance and the like which we can claim as essentially American, are treated more clearly and comprehensively than in any other work. Its 65,000 subjects if written in the heavy wordy English style, might easily have been extended to 50 volumes; but the American system of condensation has enabled us to cover the entire field of Twentieth Century Knowledge in Sixteen Royal Octavo Volumes. In its mechanical details, paper, binding, maps, plates and illustrations, it is superior to any work of its kind in existence.
THE PLAN OF SALE which we have adopted has been devised for the purpose of giving those who order in advance of publication the benefit of the lowest wholesale price. We thus enable the intelligent and prompt purchaser to assist in making the first distribution of the AMERICANA a success, and we compensate him by giving him a great reduction in price in return for this co-operation and assistance.
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THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN COMPILING DEPARTMENT 258 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK
will bring you sample pages, and full information about the work, the price, and the plan of sale to advance buyers, As the work is now nearly completed the special price offer will soon end.
Mention The Technical World.
By HORACE L. PIPER
Assistant General Superintendent, United States Life-Saving Service
RGANIZED EFFORT for the rescue of life from the perils of the sea is decidedly modern. In England, the foremost maritime nation of the world, it developed no earlier than here.
Origin and Early Growth Although the Humane Society of Massachusetts established houses of refuge on the coast of that Commonwealth as early as 1789, and began placing lifeboat stations there in 1807, the Government of the United States, strange to say, took no hand in life-saving affairs until 1847, when an appropriation of $5,000 was made for furnishing lighthouses on the Atlantic coast with means for assisting shipwrecked mariners. The next year, Congress appropriated $10,000, to be expended on the coast of New Jersey, between Sandy Hook and Little Egg Harbor. The importance-or unimportance. -of the stations established with the help of this paltry sum, may be estimated from the fact that eight stations were erected and put in working order. They were little more than rough board shanties 16 by 28 feet, scantily equipped. An appropriation of $20,000, made in March, 1849, proved sufficient to build and equip eight stations on Long Island, and six on
the New Jersey coast between Little Egg Harbor and Cape May.
Among the appliances furnished was a life-car, which was destined to be tested soon and successfully. During a savage storm on the night of January 12, 1850, the emigrant ship Ayrshire stranded at Squan Beach, having on board many people for those days of small things. They were more than 200; and, since the surf ran so high that no boat could be launched, a line was shot out from a mortar, and the life-car, with a rope attached to each end, was then drawn forth to the ship and back to the land many times, finally rescuing the entire ship's company. Instantly the invention of the car came into hot dispute between Mr. Joseph Francis and Capt. Douglas Ottinger, it having been constructed under the supervision of Mr. Francis, a practical machinist, with the coöperation of Captain Ottinger, of the Revenue Cutter Service, who had charge of the life-saving stations. Francis lived to be 92 and Ottinger to be 94 years old, but neither could prove his claim. In 1859 Congress recognized that of Ottinger, and voted. him $10,000 in consideration of his services to humanity. Twenty-eight years afterwards, another Congress awarded a huge gold medal to Mr. Fran
Copyright, 1904, by The Technical World.