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cuous use of color was visible in the paper-work, a great deal of such work being done in blue and white.

La Porte, Indiana.-Mr. Hailmann says: "Analysis takes the lead, and must be organically followed by synthesis throughout. The clay is fashioned from dictation, but the dictation never ends in itself; the child adds something of his own. Color is nearer the heart than form. Color contrasts are dictated first, then free work. Theoretic study of color comes in the upper grades. In primary work, surfaces are taken up first in clay; higher up, the solids. Color is used on the paper models, that the children may love the forms. Studies from nature are also given in water colors. Social work, as play in the store, the house, and the market, appeals to the instincts of creation." The group work in colored paper in the first and second grades was beautifully large. There was a manifest development of a sense of harmony in color as the work advanced from the lower to higher grades.

Springfield, Massachusetts.-The arrangement of the exhibit showed the educational development beautifully. In the Manual Training School was the best recognition of the type forms of any such schools. The tendency in the color work from the public schools was toward combinations in tints and shades and subdued contrasts.

Duluth, Minnesota.-The color work showed great freedom of handling. Minneapolis, Minnesota.-Much carving in wood was shown. The strap and rosette work was the best in the carving, as a naturalistic treatment of flowers in relief in wood is not pleasing in such material. The theory of color is taught in a systematic way. The first color-work from the object is done in pastel. (Pastel unless handled with great skill produces crude effects.) Decorative design was worked out strictly on the theory of color. A strong tendency toward the artistic is shown throughout the work in color in all the grades.

St. Paul, Minnesota.-An excellent sequence and development was shown in all the work in clay-modeling of type forms, and objects based on such forms. The color-work was based on theory and executed in water colors. Water color from the object (autumn leaves) was shown in the upper grammar grades, and in the High School in sepia and color work from groups of still life. Color is also used in the subject of Decoration, both in colored paper and water colors. In the Manual Training School the connection between the drawing and the wood-carving is well shown. In the carving some recognition is made of historic ornament.

Stillwater, Minnesota.-There was a recognition of type forms in the clay work, and there was some very good carving in soft wood. There was a beginning of color in primary work.

Winona, Minnesota.-There was no expression of form in clay. The colorwork in paper was the best in the drawing books; in many cases a good feeling for color.

Hannibal, Missouri.-Geometric type forms in clay and paper were exhib

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ited. Color was used in the geography work with great refinement and delicacy.

St. Louis, Missouri-Normal School. There was a fine display of clay-modeling of type forms and objects based on such forms. The pupils work out suggestive sheets of colored paper in decorative design for use in schools, and show some fine sheets of historic ornament in colored paper.

St. Louis, Missouri-Manual Training School.-Form was shown in the wood-carving in a variety of ways. Great skill was evident, the effect of careful teaching. The carving might be improved in artistic quality.

Omaha, Nebraska.-There was an exhibition of clay-modeling based on form study. The clay colored. Much skill was shown in the wood-work. Colored paper-cutting is carried on in connection with the drawing, and color is used in the made work. Several sheets of refined arrangements as to color were shown in the paper-work, as blue and gray, blue and cream, but there was evidently no regular training in color.

Cincinnati, Ohio.-Here there was a generally refined and delicate treatment of color, especially in decorative design. There were good examples of historic ornament in color. No study of form in clay.

Portland, Oregon.-The color is here brought in close connection with the drawing by the use of colored paper.

Hillside, Wisconsin-Hillside Home School. Some cornstalk furniture (age of children 8 years) showed an admirable bit of hand-training. The weaving with so pliable and tenacious a material might lead to basket work. Flags of all nations, excellent. A beginning in color was made, with a manifest tendency toward harmony.

Sparta-State Public School, Wisconsin.-An effect in color was shown here. Some weaving of ribbons with sticks produced pleasing forms.

Brooklyn, New York-Pratt Institute. The remarkable and comprehensive exhibit from this institution can hardly be treated with due justice in a brief report of this nature. In the Art and Normal department the three subjects-Construction, Representation, and Decoration-are well developed, both in form and color. Clay-modeling and carving are represented, and not only is technical skill shown in the rendering, but artistic quality. In decoration the applied design is most excellent, as shown in designs in color for wall-paper, carpets, etc. In the Normal class work three papers illustrating the subject of Decoration were very remarkable for simplicity and beauty of treatment. The restraint shown was a lesson in itself, that decoration is most beautiful and consistent when subservient and not aggressive. In the same class were some examination papers on the method of developing form. Here could be seen form as observed in action, location, shape, arrangement, objects like, etc., good memory work, and a good record of class exercises. (The rendering of form and color, as seen in the architectural drawing, was strong, free, and artistic.) The close connection between the different departments, Art and Manual Training, makes it nearly impossible to place different links

in their right places. Color is shown in millinery and dressmaking by the use of color in sketching from objects, as hats, waists, and gowns. In the Technical High School, historic ornament is recognized in the wood-carving, which is skillful and artistic. The exhibit from Pratt Institute shows a knowledge on the part of those who guide the work done there, not only of the practical and mechanical side of hand-training, but also free and artistic expression of thought is everywhere visible.

The exhibit as to form and color as a whole was extremely promising, not because of the excellence of execution, but because it gave strong and remarkable evidence of the feeling of educational workers that form and color may be made valuable aids in every school-room, and are important in the development of every child. The work exhibited in form and modeling ranged from very unguided imitations of objects and natural forms in clay, all the way up to artistic rendering. It is hard for beginners to realize that for this work objects should be chosen that have characteristics of beauty, and that the instruction should tend from the outset to the cultivation of the sense of the beautiful in the things of the natural world, and in the things of the industrial world. Imitations of doughnuts, or of pressed leaves with scratched veins in clay, have no beauty whatever. Carefully punctured surfaces to show the texture of the lemon or orange are not true in point of fact, and do not render at all the exquisite surfaces which nature gives to all fruit. Objects modeled in clay and decorated with other material, as ribbon and worsted, or fruit finished with real stems, are not congruous, and therefore are not harmonious or artistic. In many cases want of artistic feeling in the choice of subject as well as in the rendering was apparent, while in other cases there was shown in the modeling the true feeling for the beauty of nature. In the latter cases the leaves were not modeled flat, or as if pressed, and the veins were but slightly indicated, while the surface of the leaves showed the beautiful undulations and the general character found in nature. Clay is so different a material from the leaf that any attempt at close imitation is wrong, but its plasticity lends itself so readily to modeling, that the general character and expression of the leaf can be rendered with great beauty in clay.

The work in form as shown in wood-carving was also an interesting study; in all of the work of this kind in the exhibit there was much skill shown, and a great variety of motives used in the carving. In some there was no recognition of the laws of design, and no evidence of any study of good form or ornament. In other work there has been an evident recognition of standards of beauty, which was shown both in vases of artistic form in the turning, and of good examples of historic ornament in the carving. There is evidently much need of the study of decoration as applied to wood-carving.

In color, as in form, the exhibits ranged from the crudest attempts all the way up to work of high artistic quality. In this work there was also, as in the form, much lack of the recognition of standards of work. In many of the

exhibits there was no evidence shown of any attempt at systematic cultivation of the color sense, or any attempt at training in what is known as good handling of color. There was not much feeling for harmony of color; the combinations of various colors being frequently of the most startling kind.

But passing to those schools and institutions which were in the hands of trained teachers, the handling of color in groups of still life and natural forms was excellent. The subdued and harmonious contrasts visible in the colored designs were restful and inspiring.

The exhibit of 1890 should long be remembered as one marking an era in the development of form and color as part of the educational work of the country. As the present feeling for these subjects is strong enough to make possible so large an exhibit, progress is sure to follow, and the excellent results that were shown in the better work will have their influence in improving the whole character of instruction in these subjects. It could not but be evident that form and color are subjects which should be in the hands of trained teachers, and if the exhibit had no other effect than to impress this point upon those who critically examined the work, it served a most important purpose. HANNAH JOHNSON CARTER, Committee on Form and Color.


This report will not touch the Kindergarten work, but will cover the ground from the primary schools upward.

Indianapolis, Indiana.-In the exhibit from the Training School for Teachers the free and large drawings from objects were excellent specimens of work. The high-school exhibit was large, beginning with outline work from models, then taking up objects and continuing in well-distributed light and shade, showing careful form study throughout. For a full review of this work, one would do well to consult the thoughtful paper read by Miss Rhoda E. Selleck before the Art Department, and printed in this volume. This paper not only describes the exhibit, but adds many details as to materials, and extremely valuable modes of carrying out the plan of the work.

La Porte, Indiana.-The drawing here was greatly limited in size. It was of two kinds-noticeably so in the lower grades; the design-work on the one hand, partly from dictation, and partly original with the pupils, and on the other hand the free drawing of various objects and scenes. This free drawing of the child is always extremely interesting and valuable in calling out his spontaneity. In the higher work the drawing was mostly the representation of objects and the making of designs. The constructive element in drawing did not seem to have been pursued, and there was an apparent lack of the typical artistic feature.

Duluth, Minnesota.-There was very little constructive work in this collection, the work tending mostly to representation, with some decoration. The result in representation was evidently based upon form study, and was stronger than the drawing in decoration.

Minneapolis, Minnesota.—The work in drawing began with slate work in the primary grades. The work consisted mainly of geometric figures and different views of objects. The general exhibit through the higher grades displayed much more work in representation than in either of the other subjects. The representation was mostly in light and shade, even in the work below the high school. In the high school the work in this subject was excellent, and was the culmination of the course. The free perspective from models and objects, in the teachers' class, was excellent. The illustrative work in the same grade seemed to be rather beyond the ability of the class.

St. Paul, Minnesota.-Only a very small display of drawing was made here in the lower grades, but it was excellent in regard to harmonious development of the three subjects. Each subject, Construction, Representation, and Decoration, had received its fair amount of attention. The quality of line was very good, and indicated free movement, which is so important in drawing. There was much light and shade work from the high school shown here, which gave evidence of the careful study of models and casts.

Stillwater, Minnesota.-The connection was here well kept between form study and drawing, and the three subjects, Construction, Representation, and Decoration, were also well represented. The construction and representation showed the best development of the three subjects.

Winona, Minnesota.-But little constructive work was done here. The tendency of the work was toward representation and decoration, in which some very good work was shown, the representation being stronger, however, than the decoration.

Hannibal, Missouri.—The exhibit here was very simple. It consisted of construction and representation. The adherence to principles was evident, and the results promising.

Omaha, Nebraska.-The free movement in the primary work was very noticeable here, and its excellent effect shown in the upper grades. There was very little constructive and not much decorative work in this display, the greater amount of this display being the representation of objects, largely in light and shade; evidently much careful and profitable study had been given to that phase of the subject. In the high-school work, constructive and representative work were exhibited, but no decoration and no study of historic ornament.

Cincinnati, Ohio.-This exhibit was large, and arranged with taste. The work exhibited in the lower schools was mostly work in decoration; here seemingly attention had been given to the development of originality or novelty, rather than to the unfolding of art sentiment. There was but little work in construction, and very little in representation of objects. In the high school

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