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quirement is met, a report is made each Friday of the time given to practice, on a paper upon which has been drawn a required study that bears some relation to the regular work of the week, in their books.
Our work has been almost wholly the representative, the reasons being the purpose of the work, the desire of the parent and the pupil, the need of time, the size of the classes, and the lack of facilities with which to do otherwise.
The manual-training work embraces much that is of the purely mechanical, and while the practical is a larger part of the educational régime, there is something higher and fuller, a culture that looks beyond machinery into the realm of nature and her beautiful forms.
The kind of studies, and the method followed in handling them, I have endeavored to show you in the drawings before you. I trust they are worthy of your careful study and criticism.
I have commenced with the line of various lengths, not to simply make the line, but to find the pupil as to his ideas of length, distance, position, holding of the pencil, etc. In this lesson he also learns the use of the two pencils F and H, the F with which to make the line, the H to finish the line.
The outline of the sphere is given as the second lesson, because of its simple form and multiplicity of application. To this is added a similar form from nature, to show the relation of the geometrical form to the natural.
The purpose is to draw almost entirely from the objects, so as to help to overcome in a slight measure one of the weakest points in our present school methods, to have the pupils do as told, to draw from the object as they see it and not to first draw as they think it is, or to add to a subject what they think is in it before first finding what is put into a subject by the maker or writer.
A lesson follows of the cone, where the axis is not parallel to the sides of the figure, but the principle of the cylinder continues of the longest diameter drawn of the perspective circle, remaining at right angles to the axis, no matter in what position the curved object may be placed. To fix this principle more clearly, a page is drawn from the cone in various positions, as in lesson seven. Believing it essential to fix the few simple principles that seem so hard to the pupil as firmly as possible, a page is devoted to drawing the hoop in many ways, closing with the drawing of a ring of considerable thickNot a lesson is given without a reason.
To test the pupil as to his knowledge at the end of the first step of the work, lesson eleven is required to be a drawing made at home from a group of objects similar to the ones from which he has thus far drawn. Taste and design are also sought in the arrangement of this lesson, as you may see from the two or three drawings I have purposely chosen. When this lesson is returned, it is criticised as to the quality of lines, the relation of the objects to each other, the perspective of the curves in accordance to their various positions above or below, to the right or to the left of the eye, and to the neatness and honesty of the work.
The second step, that is carried through several lessons, introduces the per
spective in straight-line objects, as the door open at various angles, the cubes in various positions, followed by two lessons in drawing from boxes, two from books, and closing with another original study drawn at home from objects of this class.
The difficulties to overcome are many with perspective, and these lessons are given with reference to these difficulties. I have often thought, whenever time should be given, of introducing at this point a few lessons in mechanical perspective. I fear now that with time and wider experience, I am being drawn to the conclusion of our great American artist, of New York, Mr. William M. Chase. He says: "It seems to me well to know much about these things. I never have thought it necessary to take a very thorough course in perspective. About the best lecture in perspective I ever had was once when I stood at the back end of a railroad train and saw a track running to a point away from me, and I have never forgotten it, and I have seemed to see things diminish in the distance so ever since."
I have commenced the third step of the first half-year's work with shading, the first correct representation of the object. I continue still with the use of the pencil, adding to the pencils thus far used the three-B landscape pencil, followed by the single-B pencil in the shading of the basket. An effort is made to impress strongly upon the mind of the pupil the tones and values of light and shade to be seen upon the object, where the high light and shadow should not be seen upon any curved object, and the umbra and the penumbra of the cast shadow.
The shading is commenced with the broad pencil, to more clearly show these facts, and to cause the pupil to use freedom and boldness in his work. He is taught to see the effect that the direction of the lines produces and the effect that one object has upon another, by shading the cylinder, the group, and the vase, as you may see in lessons XX, XXI, XXII, XXIV. The single-B pencil is brought into use by shading the basket with straight lines, to show the power of representing the values of light and shade, regardless of the direction of the surface, similar to pen-and-ink work. Two or three studies are also shown of this work. A specimen of this pen-and-ink work comes from one of our first-year high-school boys.
The pupils have now become very much interested in their work. Some of them prefer to continue this pencil-shading while the course takes up the crayon. The first half-year closes with shading the ball with the stump and crayon sauce, and shading a vase in stipple with crayons Nos. 1 and 2. The last class was able to accomplish more than any previous class, from some unknown cause, hence you see two or three additional lessons. The last lesson was drawn and shaded by one of the young men who was also in the manualtraining class.
The second half-year's work continues the pencil, the crayon, and takes up the charcoal; that is placed last for various reasons. More freedom is now given to the pupil, as he has become thoroughly enthusiastic in his work, and,
to a slight degree, begins to find himself, and often desires to work in a certain direction. He is now given the casts from which to draw. The variety of which we possess, you may know from the drawings before you. The pupil works from the simple to the more difficult with as much rapidity as he is capable of doing.
The shading from the cast is done with the crayon sauce and stump upon the charcoal, the English, and the Whatman crayon-paper, in various styles of touch. One piece you will see done in stipple. No other materials with which we have experimented have been as satisfactory.
Not for one moment is the thought lost sight of that the shading is of little value unless the drawing is well made at first. Again and again are the underlying principles brought before the pupil and written upon the board, that he may daily see them.
To the casts are added studies from still life. Some of the pupils prefer this work entirely to the cast work; to which there has been no objection, as it is more directly in the line of work at Cornell and other mechanical schools, to which many of our students go after leaving the high school. We have quite a number of casts of the human figure that form something of a connecting link between our work and the work of the art institute of the city.
The more advanced still-life studies that the pupil now approaches present new difficulties, not only in the values and tones, but in their selection and their arrangement; the last a much greater difficulty than one could possibly imagine unless he has made the attempt. Of course, suggestions are given and art books are upon a table in the room for reference.
The work that I have shown you is truly the pupils'; seldom does the teacher touch the work. She has no time, if she desired. The progress of the pupil because of this necessity is slower and perhaps has many more defects, but when the pupil leaves the class he is independent with what he has gained. Of course I have shown you from among our very best; for what farmer would take the poorest "nubbin" of corn to the fair?
Drawing is not a subject by itself, but a help to all of the subjects taught in our schools and colleges. It is of great value in all scientific studies, and the strongest weapon of government in the hands of our primary teachers.
The best work that we do is what we do for the young ladies of the normal class, who are preparing themselves for teachers in our primary schools, and for the young ladies who are preparing themselves for teachers in the kindergarten schools of the city and elsewhere. What these young ladies have been able to do in the fifteen lessons given to them in drawing and in color, with a very few of them having ever taken any lessons in drawing, you may see among Mrs. Blaker's display in the kindergarten department.
Some of the young ladies from the normal have already taken this course in drawing while in the high school, but not all. a day out of three days in the week, for drawing. draw varies with the nature and ability of the class.
They give to me two hours
class are before us. A few representative pages I should like you in particular to notice: the pages of the plate of apples, the plate of bananas, and the strawberries. The drawing is first made with the straight line, in various sizes, ending with the same shaded, having applied methods that they would use in drawing the object lesson before the pupil for reading or numbers in the school-room.
They have been required to make several outline-drawings and mount them for use by the pupil when they enter upon their school-work.
One of our great purposes has been to see the beautiful forms in nature.
"To him who
In the love of Nature holds communion with her visible forms,
We have come to love each other and our work. We see ourselves just upon the edge of great possibilities. Our enthusiasm has led us to the forming of outside work in the nature of two sketching clubs. The one of longest organization, "The Sketching Club," has taken for its work this past year the work in water colors, having spent two years in working entirely in charcoal from nature and from studies. Our work is of necessity slow, but we trust in the right direction. Certain rules and regulations are enforced, and work is brought by the members to each meeting for suggestions and criticisms. We have also studied the history of art from Radcliffe's "Schools and Masters of Painting," and have read from John C. Vandyke's "How to Study Pictures." Quite a collection has been made and mounted in a book of Soule's photographs of the pictures of the great artists, and a fine water-color of one of our leading artists has been purchased.
The younger and the larger club, "The Hints of Haunts," has worked thus far in charcoal, with a little in pencil. The historical study of this club has been from Lübke's "History of Art." Out of the funds this club has purchased this year a fine set of the "Ideals of American Art," published by the Lippincott Co. These books are kept upon a table in the room, where the pupils may have constant access to them. As far as possible we have gone to Nature herself for our studies. Not but that still-life and symmetrical shaped objects are the best from which to draw, but the attempt at the reproduction of nature's forms brings us into larger and closer relation with her influence and varied arrangements.
Another strong feature of our work has been the effort we have made to reach and interest the public. Without any egotism; for, as Chase says, "Wholesome conceit, great ambition, plenty of work, are the essentials." Our first reception, three years ago, was a revelation to the people and an inspiration to the school. Some thousand came this year to see the work and the artistic taste of the pupil. Under guidance the pupil is made to feel that this reception is his, and its success depends upon him alone.
Since the manual-training department has been added to the school, we have united in the display of the work, under the name of the "Art and Man
ual-Training Classes and Sketching Clubs." Great care is taken in the arrangement of the work upon the walls of a large assembly-room and in the decoration of the room. All effort possible is made to prevent a school-room appearance, and give to the visitor a feeling that he is in an atmosphere of appreciation for the work on the part of the pupil. An effort has been made upon the part of us all to work in the right direction. In a direction that would tend towards the greatest good for the pupil and for the school. An effort towards the recognition of the beginning of growth that is slowly but surely being felt throughout our prosperous city.
I claim nothing new. I have taken what I trust will produce upon your part a discussion as to what is possible to teach, what is the best, and what can be done in the limited time, kind of material, and lack of encouragement with which many of us work.
I have not brought my work for any advertisement. I simply trust that it may, in some way, assist and encourage some one who may be working in the same direction.
THE MISSION OF COLOR.
JOSEPHINE CARSON LOCKE, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
Many are the questions being asked to-day concerning color and form. The American public are slowly awakening to the fact that color has to do with healthy, wholesome human living; that there is an eternal word in nature and in color which we must heed, for the heart of man feels the need of it. Great changes have come in our civilization, whereby a large male population, that in former times were serviceable only for offense and defense, are now employed in the gentler ways of ministering to each other. Long ago, Mahomet said, "The colors which the earth displays to our eyes are manifest signs for those who think." Curious, isn't it, we should be the first civilization to neglect the teachings of color?
Among all people of high antiquity, it had a most sacred significance; in Egypt, oldest of the nations, it was closely associated with religious teachings. They understood that color and human happiness were closely associated together; that love lies back of all life, and that the colors with which Nature robes herself are simply the overflow of the oversoul—the covenant between God and man; the same which is expressed in the many hues of the rainbow. Hence, the robe of Isis was at once a hieroglyphic of physical and spiritual truth.
There is no separating these two-health of body and health of soul are one, and color ministers to both. What is light but color in the concrete?— and without light no fruition of physical life. Science, indeed, tells us that