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jury system a crass, rude, awful intrusion even greater than the financial. He secures into a realm where pure intellect should sit a rise in self-respect, and that satisfaction enthroned.

with his work which goes with great acHe has got over that; his lifetime of complishments. Zeal and interest take the service and experience has completely place of indifference, both because the democratized him. “Experience has shown workingman is called upon to do the highme," he says, "that men are on the whole est work of which he is capable and because open-minded and inspired by purpose to do in doing it he secures appropriate reward. right. The composite mind will come nearer Under scientific management, men are led, the right conclusion than any other intel not driven. Instead of working unwillingly, lectual or moral standard.”

they work willingly. Of course, a man whose life has been

LABOR AND CAPITAL MUST BE PARTNERS a training in personal efficiency, must have distinctive views about social and industrial “In order that the workingman may get efficiency. “Scientific management,” he his share of the benefits accruing from declares, “denies that there is any sphere coöperation with his employer, the labor for ignorance or lack of skill. It is to pres unions must participate with the employers ent modes of management, what the ma in establishing the standards under which chine is to hand labor. It is not merely the workingman works. They must act in 'speeding up'; it is conservation of effort, coöperation with the employers. They removing obstacles, the shortening of hours, ought to take the initiative, where the emthe organization of business to avoid unem ployer is lagging in establishing scientific ployment, the greatest waste in American

management, in teaching the employer to industry; it is the square deal that gives avert waste from irregularity of employthe worker a proper share of the profits ment or waste in material, plant, and the he produces.

like. Labor ought to put itself in position

to stop such things as a day rate and LABOR GAINS BY SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

immediate discharge.

It should provide “It is charged that if men do more work against waste of work, above all else, since without increased effort, there will be less that is most vital to it. It should also work to do, and more loss of employment. provide against overwork and for reasonNot at all. Greater producing capacity able hours, recreation, and exercise. will mean greater compensation, greater “Labor and capital are to be partners. consuming capacity. The demand for la The first question before the partnership bor grows when the real demand for its is, How much profit are we to make and product grows.

how are we to divide it? Now is the time * Apprehension of displacing the ineffi for the labor union to arrange for a larger cient is unfounded; rather, scientific man share than it has heretofore received. It agement aims to improve these; it provides did not arrange for its proper share when practical teachers and special instruction machinery was introduced, it lost its chance to bring up the laggards.

because its membership was not properly "Fear of hostility to unions is just as organized and did not endeavor to get its unfounded. Collective bargaining may as proper share in the right manner. It never well determine the piece-price as the price received its fair share. Now it has a second of the day's work; it may agree on hours chance and it must utilize it. If a workingand conditions of work under one system man can do a thing in two motions where as well as another. In the most successful before it has been done in five, eventually unions, as cigar-makers and the shoe trade, the two-motion method will supersede the the piece is the standard, and some earn other. With the same inevitableness, scientwo and three times as much as others tific management is superseding the old at like work.

methods. It behooves labor, as well as "The social gains to the workingman are capital, to provide for the new methods.”

[graphic]

mLong have they searched without
The hoary fortress of Sacsahuana in Peru. The three lines of massive walls. One
thousand feet in length, are composed of stupendous blocks of limestone

By
Franklin Adams, F.R.G.S.

Editor of the Bulletin of the Pan-American Union Archæologists are finding a new and marvelously interesting field of exploration in the ruined cities of South and Central America. Evidences of a highly advanced stage of civilization have been found in these cities, but as yet little information has been obtained as to the race that inhabited them. Silent guardians of the history of a vanished people, the hieroglyphics carved upon their stones are still undeciphered, the many enigmas that they present are still unsolved

T last many of the investigators who are seeking

the sources and beginnings of things have aban-
doned the theory that the New

World is really the Old World.
tangible result the caves of America for the
remains of primitive man, and for a while
the human fossils discovered by Dr.
Ameghino in the hills of Argentina did
encourage the belief that the man of
the western hemisphere was an “in-
digenous product"; but now the
agreement is almost unanimous
that Asia was probably the place
of origin of the American abo-
rigine. How and when the first
man reached these shores is still
a fascinating matter of conjecture,
even to the scientists who are de-
voting their lives to this problem.

An idol in the ruins at They practically agree that it was a

Tiahuanacu, Bolivia

[graphic]

very primitive creature who arrived here in the remote past, and that the great cultural developments were distinctly American. Appearing as indisputable evidence of this contention are the marvelous monuments and temples that, as the forests are unveiled, are discovered with startling frequency scattered over the New World.

But not in the forest lands, rather on the high, barren plateau of South America, over 12,000 feet above the sea, is the real unsolved mystery-the ruins of Tiahuanacu. If stones could speak, these ruins would reveal a story of deepest interest. The difficulty in solving the mystery is due to the present nature of this region. This city, covering a large area, was built by highly skilled masons, with the use of enormous stones, one weighing 170 tons. Apart from the monoliths of ancient Egypt, there is nothing in any other part of the world to equal them.

The point next in interest to the enormous size of the stones is the excellence of the workmanship. The lines are perfectly straight, the angles accurately drawn, and all surfaces level. The upright monoliths have mortices and projecting ledges to retain the horizontal slabs in place. The carvings are complicated, but accurately designed and executed, affording

ample proof of the advanced stage reached by the builders in architectural art. Flights of stone steps,

recently discovered, prove that the ancient city, which is now several miles from Lake Titicaca,

was once on its shore. Here, indeed, was a great metropolis built in a region where corn cannot ripen, nor a dense population be supported; yet the vestiges of the ancient civilization silently proclaim a state of affairs entirely different. In the endeavor to reconcile such seeming paradoxes, scientists have advanced various theories. The recent study of southern geology and botany has given rise to the belief that there was a physical connection between South America and the Antarctic continental land. It is claimed that it is

more remote geological period there was Ha in the ruins of Quirigua, Guatemala

no South America, but only three land

masses,

,-a Guiana, a Brazil, and a La Plata island. These were divided by great sea inlets. There were no Andes. Then followed the long period through which the Andes were slowly upheaved.

On a journey that I made in the saddle along the high Puna of Peruover 14,000 feet above the sea-I found my way blocked by a peculiar dark mass that was spread for

Hence this leads to the conclusion that Tiahuanacu was

built when the Andes were much lower than they now are, when corn could ripen and thus support the necessary population. If this is geologically impossible, then the mystery remains unexplained, unless we accept the theory that the site was chosen for safety, and that the llama was developed as a beast of burden to convey food from lower levels. Now comes the question, if Tiahuanacu was built when the Andes were, say, 2,000 feet lower, what is its age? Arthur Posnansky, a Bolivian engineer, in a recent report to the Congress of the Americanists, defends the theory that Tiahuanacu was built when the plateau was several thousand feet lower, and making his estimate from the rise of the continent in modern times, he gives

[graphic]

Largest stela in the ruins of Quiriguá. This stela is some five feet square and over twenty feet high. Leaning at a sharp angle, it must extend at least ten feet underground

miles over the plains. On examination, it proved to be oily peat of recent deposit. Later, I learned that several weeks previous, the great glacial mountain, Ananea, which dominates the plain, had erupted and released this product of vegetation which it had held for æons of time. The discovery of peat at this altitude impressed on my mind the fact of the great upheaval. I recalled that the bones of a mastodon had been discovered in Bolivia, 13,000 feet above the sea. Such an animal could not have existed at this elevation.

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Figures of women are graven upon the front and back of this stela, and glyphs on either side

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the city a minimum

supporting the terage of 12,000 years.

races and parapets, His startling theory

are composed of has been considered

stupendous blocks by many scientists

of limestone, as extravagant, or

closely fitted, at least unproven.

though of irregular They will not admit

size and shape. One as proof of antiquity

of the stones is over the fact that cities

twenty-seven feet are buried or par

high and fourtially buried; for

teen feet wide. such conditions, Gateway in the ruins of Tiahuanacu, Bolivia.

The work has

An enlargement of they maintain, the design on the gateway is shown above. The complicated, yet remained subcould have de accurately executed, carvings afford ample proof of an advanced stage of architectural art

stantially perveloped in a day.

fect through Vor will they admit the assembling and the centuries, although no mortar was used, haping of huge monoliths as evidence of an and is, without doubt, the grandest speciextended civilization. This, they assert, men of the "Cyclopean” style in America. could have been the work of one generation. Who built this fortress? Its origin is as

Throughout the highlands of Peru are unknown as that of Tiahuanacu. The lso found the great megalithic works Incas, with their list of over one hundred lmong them the hoary fortress of Sac kings, tracing back 200 years B.C., knew ahuana, overlooking Cuzco. This stupen- nothing of its builders. It is the second lous work differs greatly from the edifices great problem in the Americas for the f Tiahuanacu. For here the three lines of archæologist. These megalithic blocks mark nassive walls, one thousand feet in length, the earliest period. Through many changes,

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