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the evolution of Andean architecture ends in the well-laid quarry stone of the later Inca edifices. We have long known of the high civilization reached by the Incas, of their perfect communal system, their knowledge of the goldsmith's and weaver's arts, their extensive agricultural system; yet it is the skill shown in the construction of their temples that has impressed itself most strongly upon the world. · And yet more important than any Inca city hitherto known is that recently discovered by the Yale University expedition under Professor Bingham. With this discovery comes the astounding statement that the Yale expedition has
also found human bones which, in the opinion of the geologist of the party, Professor Isaac Bowman, date from the
glacial period. These bones were covered with over one hundred feet of gravel and were exposed to view by the cutting of a road in the side of a valley. The result of a careful examination by the anthropologist is being hopefully awaited by those investigators who have long contended that "the culture of the Andean races is an indigenous growth wholly self-developed, and owing none of its germs to any other races.”
Long before the Incas swept down from the highlands to conquer the peoples of the coast valleys, a culture had developed on the Pacific. The pyramids of Chimu, some of which covered an area of five hundred square feet and were one hundred and fifty feet in height, form the most remark
able feature of the ruins of a
be solved in
Stone statue at Tiahuanacu, Bolivia
Manabí. Not far inland from the coast lived a mysterious people. On the apex of their sacred hills have been found the sculptured stone seats of their high priests.
The Southern continent does not possess all the impressive monuments. The same religious fervor found expression in North America in the erecting of temples of worship. These northern edifices, interesting in the strangeness of their architecture, are even more interesting in the story that they tell of vanished races.
In southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras this great civilization was called the Maya. In architecture, in sculpture, and in painting, the Mayas excelled. Their priests were astronomers of no mean ability. They had developed a calendar system and perfected a chronology that, in some characteristics, were superior to our own. Famine, pestilence, and internecine strife were doubtless the causes of the
decay that overtook these brilliant builders several centuries before the Spaniards set foot in the New World.
There are over seventy ruined cities in Yucatan alone, a bsolutely buried in great forests. From the most elevated points all that can be seen are islands of sculptured stones emerging from a veritable ocean of trees.
In western Honduras, a few miles from the border of Guate
Apart from the monoliths of ancient Egypt, there is nothing in any part of the world to equal
the enormous blocks of stone found in these South American ruins
was far older than the Mayan settlements of Yucatan, and had probably been abandoned many years before the
rise of the more northern cities. The striking absence of tradition relating to such an extensive site as that of Copan can indicate only that its fall and subsequent desolation had outlived the memory of man even in 1530, when Cortez conquered the Aztecs. Copan was built in a valley a mile and
a half wide, surrounded by hills twenty-five hundred feet high.
In its center was a great
terraced plaza, three hundred feet square, having the appearance of a sunk
en court, surrounded by tiers of stone seats, on all sides, save one. On the open side of the court was a pyramid twenty feet in height. Looking down from
its summit, a View of the west side of the church building in Chichén Itza, Yucatan
auditorium lies mala, are the ruins of Copan, the mother at one's feet, with five great monumental city of the Mayas. The hieroglyphic inscrip statues like giant sentinels guarding its tions on its stonework indicate that Copan sacred precincts. The use of the pyramid
may forever remain a mystery. Were the glyphic stairway was uncovered in 1892 b decrees of rulers proclaimed from its sum an expedition from the Peabody Museun mit? Was it the high
of Harvard University. Rising steeply fo altar of sacrifice? Who
ninety feet, its steps elaborately sculpture can say?
with full-sized human figures occupying i The most interesting
center at regular intervals, this marvelou feature of this great
work of art must have presented a strikin plaza is the gigantic
appearance in past ages. sculptured stones,
Lying to the north of Copan wer showing on their
even more important cities of th faces human figures
Mayan nation. In Guatemala, Qui carved in low relief,
riguá, sixty miles from the Atlanti the clothing and
Ocean, hás, because of its wonderfu head dress displaying
monoliths, become one of the most note a profusion of orna
ruins in America. Until recent years i mentation barbaric
was forest-buried and, owing to it in its splendor. The
obscurity in the jungle, escaped van sides and backs of
dalism, that arch-enemy of earth' these stones are cov
greatest treasures. Except for thered with hieroglyphic
destruction occasioned by th inscriptions, the char
falling of trees and the rendin acteristic feature being
power of their roots, Qui the Mayan method of
riguá would have stood in recording time. Be
tact for untold ages ginning with a date, an
Seventy-four acres sur interval is indicated.
rounding the famous followed by a second
plaza, with its elever date. This is contin
stelæ carved in high relief ued throughout the en
have been set apart as tire inscription.
park: so one, at least, of the While these dates, when
Mayan cities will be carefully compared with those in
preserved. neighboring cities, prove
Probably the largest and that Copan is the oldest
certainly the mos of the Mayan settlements,
magnificent of the they do not enlighten us
many cities o as to its age, since we are
ancient Yucatai unable to translate this
was Chichén Itza mode of time-reckoning
Over ten squard into our chronology.
miles are The greater age of
ered with crum Copan is also proven
ipling walls and by the crude tech
jungle-ridder nique of its carvings.
courts, and many Later, in the best
students claim period of Northern
that this holy city Mayan civiliza
of the Itzas was tion, sculpture had
the most imporgreatly ad
tant of al vanced, and
prehistoric was found
America. in very high
Uxma l relief.
also in YuNear the
catan, wa G r a n d
occupied alPlaza, a
most down great hieroOne of a curious group of idols on Easter Island, Chile
to the time
71 was built i lley a miles alf wides ded by E y-five hundr high. In cer was a gre aced plan hundred be
having nce of a sus 1 court, ounded byte f stone sex n all side zve one.
f the court
Pyram wenty feet
eight. Lo ng down ts summi. great opet uditorium: t monume
guarding of the piti
of the Spaniards; but
Interior view of the Palace of Columns cling high, soar above prospective prey. Save these, all else is silent, the On the Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the pomp and glory forever departed, and gods dead city of Palenque, and, as in the case and men alike forgotten in the onward of Copan and Quiriguá, we have sweep of time!"
knowledge of it as a living town. One of