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the evolution of Andean architecture ends in the well-laid quarry stone of the later Inca edifices. We have long known of the high civilization reached by the Incas, of their perfect communal system, their knowledge of the goldsmith's and weaver's arts, their extensive agricultural system; yet it is the skill shown in the construction of their temples that has impressed itself most strongly upon the world. · And yet more important than any Inca city hitherto known is that recently discovered by the Yale University expedition under Professor Bingham. With this discovery comes the astounding statement that the Yale expedition has

also found human bones which, in the opinion of the geologist of the party, Professor Isaac Bowman, date from the

glacial period. These bones were covered with over one hundred feet of gravel and were exposed to view by the cutting of a road in the side of a valley. The result of a careful examination by the anthropologist is being hopefully awaited by those investigators who have long contended that "the culture of the Andean races is an indigenous growth wholly self-developed, and owing none of its germs to any other races.”

Long before the Incas swept down from the highlands to conquer the peoples of the coast valleys, a culture had developed on the Pacific. The pyramids of Chimu, some of which covered an area of five hundred square feet and were one hundred and fifty feet in height, form the most remarkable feature of the ruins of a prehistoric capital. In Ecuador, there is another riddle to

be solved in

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Stone statue at Tiahuanacu, Bolivia

Manabí. Not far inland from the coast lived a mysterious people. On the apex of their sacred hills have been found the sculptured stone seats of their high priests.

The Southern continent does not possess all the impressive monuments. The same religious fervor found expression in North America in the erecting of temples of worship. These northern edifices, interesting in the strangeness of their architecture, are even more interesting in the story that they tell of vanished races.

In southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras this great civilization was called the Maya. In architecture, in sculpture, and in painting, the Mayas excelled. Their priests were astronomers of no mean ability. They had developed a calendar system and perfected a chronology that, in some characteristics, were superior to our own. Famine, pestilence, and internecine strife were doubtless the causes of the

[graphic]

decay that overtook these brilliant builders several centuries before the Spaniards set foot in the New World.

There are over seventy ruined cities in Yucatan alone, a bsolutely buried in great forests. From the most elevated points all that can be seen are islands of sculptured stones emerging from a veritable ocean of trees.

In western Honduras, a few miles from the border of Guate

Apart from the monoliths of ancient Egypt, there is nothing in any part of the world to equal

the enormous blocks of stone found in these South American ruins

[graphic]

was far older than the Mayan settlements of Yucatan, and had probably been abandoned many years before the

rise of the more northern cities. The striking absence of tradition relating to such an extensive site as that of Copan can indicate only that its fall and subsequent desolation had outlived the memory of man even in 1530,

when Cortez conquered TPK

the Aztecs.
Copan was built in
a valley a mile and
a half wide, sur-
rounded by hills
twenty-five hundred
feet high. In its
center was a great

terraced plaza, three hundred feet square, having the appearance of a sunk

en court, surrounded by tiers of stone seats, on all sides, save one. On the open side of the court was a pyramid twenty feet in height. Looking down from

its summit, a View of the west side of the church building in Chichén Itza, Yucatan

great open-air

auditorium lies mala, are the ruins of Copan, the mother at one's feet, with five great monumental city of the Mayas. The hieroglyphic inscrip- statues like giant sentinels guarding its tions on its stonework indicate that Copan sacred precincts. The use of the pyramid

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may forever remain a mystery. Were the glyphic stairway was uncovered in 1892 b decrees of rulers proclaimed from its sum- an expedition from the Peabody Museun mit? Was it the high

of Harvard University. Rising steeply fo altar of sacrifice? Who

ninety feet, its steps elaborately sculpture can say?

with full-sized human figures occupying i The most interesting

center at regular intervals, this marvelou feature of this great

work of art must have presented a strikin plaza is the gigantic

appearance in past ages. sculptured stones,

Lying to the north of Copan wer showing on their

even more important cities of th faces human figures

Mayan nation. In Guatemala, Qui carved in low relief,

riguá, sixty miles from the Atlanti the clothing and

Ocean, hás, because of its wonderfu head dress displaying

monoliths, become one of the most note a profusion of orna

ruins in America. Until recent years i mentation barbaric

was forest-buried and, owing to it in its splendor. The

obscurity in the jungle, escaped van sides and backs of

dalism, that arch-enemy of earth' these stones are cov

greatest treasures. Except for thered with hieroglyphic

destruction occasioned by th inscriptions, the char

falling of trees and the rendin acteristic feature being

power of their roots, Qui the Mayan method of

riguá would have stood in recording time. Be

tact for untold ages ginning with a date, an

Seventy-four acres sur interval is indicated.

rounding the famous followed by a second

plaza, with its elever date. This is contin

stelæ carved in high relief ued throughout the en

have been set apart as tire inscription.

park: so one, at least, of the While these dates, when

Mayan cities will be carefully compared with those in

preserved. neighboring cities, prove

Probably the largest and that Copan is the oldest

certainly the mos of the Mayan settlements,

magnificent of the they do not enlighten us

many cities o as to its age, since we are

ancient Yucatai unable to translate this

was Chichén Itza mode of time-reckoning

Over ten squard into our chronology.

miles are The greater age of

ered with crum Copan is also proven

ipling walls and by the crude tech

jungle-ridder nique of its carvings.

courts, and many Later, in the best

students claim period of Northern

that this holy city Mayan civiliza

of the Itzas was tion, sculpture had

the most imporgreatly ad

tant of al vanced, and

prehistoric was found

America. in very high

Uxma l relief.

also in YuNear the

catan, wa G r a n d

occupied alPlaza, a

most down great hieroOne of a curious group of idols on Easter Island, Chile

to the time

[graphic]

a

71 was built i lley a miles alf wides ded by E y-five hundr high. In cer was a gre aced plan hundred be

having nce of a sus 1 court, ounded byte f stone sex n all side zve one.

COV

he open s

f the court

Pyram wenty feet eight. Lo ng down ts summi. great opet uditorium: t monume guarding of the piti

[graphic]

of the Spaniards; but
in this once great
city, teeming with
its toiling thou-
sands, "palaces
and temples
glisten in the
sunlight, with
never the tread
of sandaled foot
echoing through
their empty
courts, nor chant
of white-robed
priests sacrificing to
offended gods.
Perchance a
bird may flut-
ter through
some ruined doorway, chirping
for its mate, or a buzzard, cir-

Interior view of the Palace of Columns cling high, soar above prospective prey. Save these, all else is silent, the On the Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the pomp and glory forever departed, and gods dead city of Palenque, and, as in the case and men alike forgotten in the onward of Copan and Quiriguá, we have sweep of time!"

knowledge of it as a living town. One of

no

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