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William Niven, a field archæologist, while ex most astounding feature of this discovery is ploring, chanced to step into a cave-in, and the claim that among the relics are several the result of investigation proved most star clay cylinders resembling those of Babylotling. A city ten miles long by four miles wide nian civilization. These cylinders, about was found, with houses of cemented stone and three inches in length and an inch and a rooms of uniform height, ornamented with half in diameter, are covered with hierofrescoes that show a remarkable development glyphics, which are now being studied in of the color art. It is claimed by authorities Mexico City, where an International in Mexico City that these ruins, with their School of American Archæology has rerelics, while bearing a resemblance to those cently been established. Will they prove of the Tigres and the Euphrates, are new the Rosetta Stone of the New World to archæology.

Egypt? This great city lay buried and unsus Under the deep and long-cultivated soil pected all through the period of Aztec of Mexico there may be an indefinite numcivilization. Its extreme age seems amply ber of just such cities. Hidden in the priproven by geological conditions. Among the meval forests of tropical America, or exposed relics that have come to light are pottery to the elements on the bleak Andean highof a type unlike any heretofore found in lands, there may be still other habitations of Mexico; a goldsmith's outfit; rings and antiquity awaiting the explorer. What a beads of jade; a dental cast of a human productive study for the archæologist, what mouth, and skulls containing teeth with a fascinating field for all students-the fillings of cement and turquoise. But the ancient temples of America!

The Antiquity of Man in



Herbert J. Spinden
Assistant Curator of the American Museum of Natural History

N the Old World, there is abundant another the hippopotamus wallowed in the evidence of an antiquity for man that Thames. The bones of extinct animals are is expressible not in years; but in found mingled with the handiwork of man. geological epochs. An understanding After the last retreat of the ice sheet,

of the nature of this evidence is neces or the beginning of recent geological time, sary for any consideration of the antiquity variously estimated at from 10,000 to 50,000 of man in America. The scientist of to-day years ago, occurred the advent of Neolithic recognizes in Europe the cultural remains of man. Then came the slow rise through the so-called Eolithic man who lived before the Bronze Age to the classical civilizations of glacial period and who had no tools but Egypt, Greece, and Rome. natural stones. These stones were chipped Not only are the remains of man's art in and broken in peculiar ways because of the the Old World capable of being arranged in springiness of the human hands that held the ascending series just noted, but the them.

various finds of very ancient skeletons show Afterward came Paleolithic man, who that even his body changed with the passing made simple tools of flint and bone. This of the vast cycles of time. The famous was during the advances and retreats of Pithecanthropus erectus of Java represents the great ice sheet. There were long periods , a very old extinct animal midway between of arctic climate separated by intervals al man and the apes. The Heidelberg man most tropical. In one period, the mammoth lived many thousand years later, but still and the reindeer roamed over France, and in retained markedly brutish features. Exam

ples might be continued. But we have no place, the Indians, as a whole, show the genreason to believe that human beings have eral physical characteristics of a fairly wellchanged greatly in appearance and in general defined race, probably distinct from the races intelligence since the close of the glacial of the Old World. Yet there are many difperiod.

ferences from tribe to tribe. Then, there are The evidence of the antiquity of man in many independent languages-something the New World, based upon the findings of like a hundred for North America alone implements and human bones in geologic no count being taken of the numerous diastrata of the glacial period or earlier, is lectic variations within the same language. generally considered to be much weaker None of these languages, except Eskimo, and more inconclusive than in the Old is spoken in any part of the Old World. World.

Moreover, there are many so-called culture The most famous efforts to establish this areas in which are found peculiar useful and fact by archæological research has just decorative arts. Taken all in all, this dibeen brought to a close by the publication versity along so many different lines can of the long and careful exploration at Tren be explained only by a residence amounting ton, New Jersey. This exploration extended to many thousands of years. over more than twenty years. It was carried As for the pre-Columbian civilizations of out by Mr. Ernest Volk, under the direction America, such as the Mound Builders and of Professor Frederic Ward Putnam, of Har Cliff Dwellers of the United States, the vard University.

Aztecs, Mayas, etc., of Mexico and Central In this work, the duty of the archæologist America, and the Incas and their predehas been well done, but the results are un cessors of Peru, the antiquity of their wellfortunately somewhat marred by a doubt known monuments is much less than generconcerning the geological age of the deposit. ally supposed. The Mound Builders were The evolutionary stages of handicraft are probably the ancestors of the modern Indians not so clearly marked as in Europe and the of the Mississippi Valley, as the Cliff Dwellhuman bones do not show types of human ers were the ancestors of the modern Pueblo beings lower than the present day Indian. Indians. The stone-built cities of Yucatan

But it must not be imagined that the and Guatemala do not date back so far as rejection of a glacial or interglacial an the beginning of the Christian era. But tiquity for the objects in the Trenton gravels the essential features of the Maya culture disposes of the problem before us. The site were already developed at that time and in question is probably very old, and there find their roots in the distant past. In conare other conditions to be considered. clusion, it may be stated that all the Indian

The theoretical evidence of man's anti arts of America have been developed here, quity in America is very strong. In the first and none translated from the Old World.

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\HE idea of stimulating the growth of mental development, occupied an adjoining plants by the application of electric room not adapted for electrification.

currents is tolerably familiar to the At the end of six months, the electrified world at large, but we were hardly prepared children showed an average growth of two for the next logical step—the application of inches, while the others grew only one and the same process to human beings—which one-fourth inches. The former increased in has just been taken by Prof. Svante Arr- weight in the same proportion. The most henius, in Stockholm. Fifty school children significant result, however, was that the were chosen for electrical treatment. The children under electrical treatment showed walls of their schoolroom were lined with a an average proficiency in their studies of coil of wires through which a high-frequency ninety-two per cent., and fifteen of them current was passed. They were kept there were rated 100 per cent.; while the unelecevery day for six months; while fifty other trified children averaged only seventy-five children, of the same average age, size, and per cent.

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The urgent necessity for a revision of the present tariff laws of the courtry is apparent to all. . .. If there were a more general understanding that the tariff is a tax in which private interests share the proceeds with the Government, there would be a more rigorous questioning of the various duties imposed by Congress than has yet been manifest

REPRESENT in Congress a great of foreign merchandise, and that the country manufacturing district. When I was desires Congress to continue this mode of first elected to Congress, I was nom raising revenue. inated by the Democrats of my dis The urgent necessity for a revision of the

trict on a platform that declared in present tariff laws of the country is apparent favor of a tariff for revenue.

to all. I have maintained that position ever In the preparation of a bill, the differsince, but I often find myself in the anoma ences that exist between the two great lous attitude of having some of my constit parties are not on the issue of protection uents who are protectionists declare that against free trade; the true issue is that the I am a free trader, while some of my col Republican desires to write a protective leagues in Washington, because I come here tariff that leans toward prohibition of imfrom a manufacturing district, assert that I ports and the Democrat a revenue tariff am a protectionist.

that favors fair competition. Although we What I believe is that a large majority of occasionally find a free trader within the the people of the United States favor a sys

ranks of the Democratic Party, the great tem of taxation by duties levied on imports rank and file of the party do not favor the

doctrine of free trade. There has never a competitive tariff—that is, a tariff that been a platform of a national convention allows sufficient imports of every product since the organization of the Democratic made in the United States to be imported Party that has advocated free trade theo- from abroad to bring about fair and honest ries; Democrats have always maintained competition, thereby producing revenue and that the true position of the party is in at the same time preventing the home profavor of a tariff for revenue. There never ducer from hiding behind a tariff wall that has been a tariff bill enacted into law by will enable him to establish monopolies and the Democatic Party that has not favored unduly increase the burdens of taxation the doctrine for revenue as opposed to a resting upon the American people without tariff levied along free trade lines, such as their receiving any benefit in return, either the revenue laws of Great Britain.

in the shape of revenue for the Government The most distinctive Democratic tariff or in the development of the great industrial bill that was ever written on the statute interests of the country; for it is an axiom books of this country was the Walker tariff that cannot be disputed that the moment of 1846, and, although the duties levied any industry is enabled to create a monopoly, under this tariff did not exceed a 30 per cent. its development along the lines of best enad valorem, they were levied on competitive deavor at once ceases. articles, such as wool, cotton, iron, and steel. Sugar and coffee, non-competitive articles,

PROTECTION FOR INFANT INDUSTRIES ONLY were placed on the free list; which clearly If there were a more general understanddemonstrates that the Democratic Party, ing that the tariff is a tax in which private in preparing its tariff bills, has favored a interests share the proceeds with the Govduty levied for revenue, and has also stood ernment, there would be a more rigorous for the incidental protection that might questioning of the various dutics imposed arise from the levying of such a duty.

by Congress than has yet been manifest.

Professor Taussig, in his testimony before DEMOCRATS FAVOR A REVENUE TARIFF

the Ways and Means Committee at the The true distinction between the two hearing of the Payne-Aldrich bill, stated: great parties of this country, to my mind, is “Protection is granted for the purpose of the difference between a prohibitive tariff enabling new industries to establish thembill and a competitive tariff bill; the Repub- selves and to offset the difference in cost at lican Party favor a tariff that will raise home and abroad. If an infant industry can some revenue to support the Government, not be strong and lusty in a reasonable time, but that at the same time will prohibit the it shows that it is developed by artificial importation of foreign merchandise as far as means and is not justified, and the props that can be done without doing away with should be taken away. Statistics concluall revenue also; for although the Republi- sively show that most of our industries are can Party have repeatedly declared that they now able to stand alone.” favor a tariff to protect the difference in Again he stated: cost of production at home and abroad, they “Our national advantages, improved mahave placed their duties so greatly in excess chinery, efficiency of American labor, and of this amount,-in so many cases at pro ocean freight rates, in many instances overhibitive rates,—that we are compelled to come the difference of labor at home and reach the conclusion that their tariff bills abroad." are written to prohibit importation and not The facts developed before the Ways and to equalize the difference of the cost of pro- Means Committee on the bill demonstrate duction; that, in fact, they are protecting beyond a doubt that if the definition by Prothe manufacturer in his profits, as declared fessor Taussig of a tariff for protection is in the last Republican platform. The Demo- true, there are very few, if any, American cratic Party have always declared for a tariff industries that are left within its terms for revenue.

or entitled to its support. On the other It is true that any tariff taxes that allow hand, the testimony is conclusive that the some imports to enter the country are in one present rates of duty are far in excess of sense a tariff for revenue, but I take it that the difference in the cost of production; and the clear meaning of the declaration of the when the tariff duties exceed the difference party in favor of a tariff for revenue means of the cost of production at home and abroad,

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