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importance. Its difficulties were minimized, how ever, by the invention of a mechanical device whereby eighteen fountain pens were connected on the principle of the pantagraph in such a way that all moved in unison with a pen in the hand of a secretary, who thus signed nineteen certificates at once.
Here no new principle was involved, but the ingenious application of an old prin
ciple resulted in a great saving of time and labor.
Turning to it lied about its far removed as possible from the office
Multiplier of Hands
a very interesting type was devised recently to meet a curious need. The dissolution of the Standard Oil Company into thirty-three auxiliary companies
of the Standard Oil Company, let us note the that the pressure is made first above and successful application of machinery to one of then below, somewhat as in hand-milking. the most primitive and exacting of the labors It is reported that two milkers can opof the farmer-namely, the milking of cows. erate eight or ten of these machines, thus Until recently, this has been a manual task, milking one hundred cows in two hours. performed precisely as it has been ever since Eight or ten hand-milkers would have been the first bovine was domesticated. While required to accomplish the same task. practically all other stages of the dairy industry-including the separation of cream Our Prehistoric Ancestors and the manufacture of butter and cheesehave been performed by mechanical devices,
"HE discovery of relics of prehistoric man it has been found difficult to devise an ap has attained such proportions in Europe paratus that would satisfactorily extract the in recent years that it might be said to reach milk from the udder of the cow.
almost the dignity of an industry. Some of The peculiarity of the manipulation per the recent finds have been sold to museums formed by the hand in milking consists in for relatively enormous sums, and there is the fact that pressure is first applied with now danger of imposture that will make it the thumb and forefinger, and then succes peculiarly incumbent on the anthropologists sively with the remaining fingers, the opera to examine very closely into the antecedents tion being simple enough once the knack of of any alleged cave deposits brought to it is acquired, but presenting certain diffi their attention. culties for the novice, and even greater Meantime, a great deal of undoubtedly difficulties for the inventor who would authentic material has been dug out of the imitate it mechanically.
caves of different regions in Europe, notably Now, however, the feat appears to have the south of France and the Isle of been accomplished. A milking-machine Jersey, in recent years,
and anrecently developed in Sweden is a compact thropologists are
gaining apparatus that is attached to the cow's new glimpses into
the habits udder and operated by any kind of air com of prehistoric
man. pressor driven by electric motor or storage Up to about
half a cenbattery, or gasoline engine, or even by horse tury ago,
the major power. The actual milking is performed by part of
the a movable rubber sheet driven forward by scien
tific two pistons lying one above the other, so
The work of signing 200,000 stock certificates, following
the dissolution of the Standard Oil into thirty-three auxiliary companies, was facilitated by a mechanical device whereby
eighteen fountain pens were connected on the principle of the pantagraph in such a way that all moved in unison with a pen in the hand of a secretary. Nineteen certificates were thus signed at once
existence and relics of his bones were in many suggest with some precision the probable cases preserved in deposits that gradually channels of their remoter origin. accumulated in the cave bottoms. Some of A very interesting attempt in this directhe most interesting remains that have been tion was made recently by Dr. John Gray discovered in recent years were the pieces before the Royal Anthropological Institute of reindeer and other horns found in the of Great Britain and Ireland. He declares caves of La Chapelle-aux-Saints in the south that two quite different races of men lived of France, on which were roughly engraved in Europe in the paleolithic or rough stone remarkable drawings of the heads of chamois age—the time when the most perfect imand the bodies of deer. On the walls of a plements were made of chipped stone; the cave at Dordogne are tinted drawings repre idea of smoothing the surfaces by friction senting the prehistoric bison with extraor being a later development. dinary fidelity.
One of these races is represented by At La Chapelle-aux-Saints, a human skull skeletal remains discovered at Galley Hill, also was found in such state of preservation at Brunn, and at Aurignac, and may thus that it has been possible to make a mold be conveniently designated the Galley Hill of its interior that represents the brain of the cave man with a high degree of accu The other race has left remains at Neanracy. A recent number of the French peri- derthal, at Spy, and at Mousterien, and may odical L'Anthropologie makes a study of be conveniently designated the Neanderthal this brain-cast in comparison with the man, after the famous skull that for a brains of higher apes and of present-day long time represented the most primitive man.
type of prehistoric man known to us. The conclusion is drawn that the brain Dr. Gray has made elaborate comparaof the cave man is intermediate both as to tive studies leading to the conclusion that size and as to typical characters of its con the Galley Hill man originated from the volutions. In mere size, it is much larger simian strain whose best known modern than that of any existing ape; the predomi- representative is the chimpanzee. The Nenance of the left hemisphere, and certain anderthal type of man, he thinks, comes characteristic fissures are also distinctively of a strain that has its present day reprehuman.
sentative in the gorilla. On the other hand, the general form of He speaks of the Galley Hill man and the the brain, the general simplicity of its con chimpanzee as chimpansoids; and of the volutions, the position and direction of the ancestors of the gorilla and the Neanderthal important fissure known as the fissure of man as gorilloids. Sylvius, and the reduction of the frontal What gives peculiar interest to Dr. Gray's lobes are characteristics that link the brain theory is the fact that he does not hesitate of the cave man with those of the existing to extend it to the existing races of mangorilla, chimpanzee, and ourang.
kind. The tribe of chimpansoids that, at Summarizing the results of the compari an excessively remote period of the past, son it is declared that the skull of La Cha diverged from the tree-haunting ancestral pelle-aux-Saints is assuredly human in the strain and developed the Galley Hill race of abundance of its cerebrod material, but that cave men, was destined ultimately, through this material lacks the superior organization sundry lines of descent, to develop the races that characterizes the man of to-day. of men now inhabiting the South Sea Islands
and Eastern Asia. The Origin of Man
The race of gorilloids, branching from the
ancestral line independently and at a later IT
must be understood, however, that day, developed ultimately, as descendants whereas the cave man in question lived of the Neanderthal man, the Europeans of several hundred thousand years ago, he to-day, and through collateral lines, such nevertheless represented a relatively ad far-away nations as the aboriginal Australvanced stage of human progress. There ians and Tasmanians. are other relics that carry us back to much Of course, there is much that is provisional remoter periods, and already the anthro in this hypothesis, and future discoveries of pologists are beginning to classify the differ human remains in many regions of the globe ent groups of prehistoric man, and even to must be called on to substantiate or refute
seems to show that two widely : diferent races did ococupy Eurcpe in the cave-dwelling period. The hypothesis reopens the question as to whether the existing races of men originated from a single stock. It has practical interest for the present-day sociolo
gist in that it suggests that
the races of Eastern Asia are moreradically different in their heritage from
of the Western world than most anto the chim
thropologists in recent years have panzee than
been disposed to believe. to the gorilla; and whether the converse The mixture of Oriental and Occidental relation holds in the case of the Euro races presents problems that the civilizapean. Professor Nuttall has already shown tion of the near future must solve. It is that both gorilla and chimpanzee are closely
a curious reflection that the sociologists related to man, and that old-world monkeys and statesmen who grapple with these are closer of kin to man than are new-world practical problems—say in California-may monkeys. His tests should tell us something gain useful information from the relics as to the validity of Dr. Gray's hypothesis. of races that lived and died in western
Meantime, the hypothesis is based on the Europe perhaps five hundred thousand study of a large quantity of materials, which years ago.