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at the point of initiation of the goods and the payment of a nominal fine.” But and maintaining its inspection throughout that is all. the whole year of sale." And there is The remedy that Mr. Russell suggests is no national law under which the label- a national statute such as that which has faker can be reached directly. In some protected the people of England for over cases, he can be reached indirectly under twenty years--a statute that clearly and the Pure Food law and punished with "im- distinctly defines label-faking as a crime prisonment for an inconsequential period and provides an adequate punishment for it.

Heckling the Church

Harry Emerson Fosdick, the writer of this article, is the minister of the First Baptist Church
at Montclair, N. J. Mr. Fosdick is well known as a lecturer at the Union Theological
Seminary in New York and as a college preacher at many of the large American universities

HE chief problem of the modern a public tax, and when as late as 1833, even Lyman preacher is to tell the truth without

Beecher bewailed it as an intolerable disaster that

folk of a persuasion other than his own were no more scaring his grandmother. This, ac

compelled to contribute to his salary! Good old cording to Harry Emerson Fosdick (Atlantic

times, when the elders, with a tankard of ale, walked Monthly, December), might be made the down the aisle in the middle of the sermon, that the text for a sermon designed to answer the preacher might refresh himself before he proceeded multitude of critics of the church and those

with the next two hours of homily; and when in

Connecticut a minister in jail for felony had his to whom it has become a “rage to cen- prison limits extended to take in the brewery which sure the blunders of organized religion." he owned, and where his presence was required for Mr. Fosdick is quite out of patience with


Good old times, when no Governor Hughes could those who so “obviously exhibit the joy of

claim the allegiance of the people of the churches in gunning for the church and peppering it with his assault on gambling, but when many a church such nice precision.” While the writer ad- edifice in Greater New York was erected by a lottery! mits that this twisting of the "ecclesiastical Good old times, when the Edinburgh Conference, lion's tail” may have some justification, he

the greatest ecumenical gathering in Christendom's

history, would have been a wild impossibility for at is not willing to believe that we are tottering least two reasons: that the severed branches of the on the verge of a terrible religious disruption. church were bitterly hostile, not fraternally coopera“How many times," he asks, "have we been

tive, and that the majority of American Protestants told of the laboring men's convention that

were anti-missionary! Good old times, doubtless,

when books like Christianity and the Social Crisis, hissed the church and cheered Jesus; of the The Social Teaching of Jesus, Jesus Christ and the trades union leader who said, 'Christ is all Social Question, were undreamed of; and Tennyson's right, bat damn the church'; of that other

aunt, so his biographer tells us, used rather to weep proletarian who eclipsed them all in scorn:

by the hour over the goodness of God, and say, "Has

he not damned most of my friends? But me,--me We used to hate and then we despised the he has picked out for eternal salvation, me who am church,' he said, "but now we ignore it."" no better than my neighbors!”

Behind a vast amount of this criticism, we are told, is the implicit and strangely

That the church meets a real crisis tomistaken understanding that the ecclesias- day, says the writer, no one doubts. “The tical situation used to be better than it is. growth of the factory system, the amazing It is the old cry of the "good old times.” To increase in urban population, the bewilderquote:

ing kaleidoscope of social reconstruction,

these and their kin create a crisis." We What good old times? Good old times, when for read further: the quibble of a text men excommunicated each other, or for a difference about the sacrament made Shall the church, adapted in organization and the ground run red with human blood! when James I method to an age of agriculture and domestic manusaid of the Puritans, "I will make them conform or I facture, confused in thought by the left-overs of an will harry them out of the land," and the Puritans exaggerated individualism, go through no spasms in turned the compliment upon the Baptists and the her attempts at readjustment? A few of her sons, Quakers! Good old times, when the Congregation- the prophets of the new church yet to be, throw alists of Massachusetts and the Episcopalians of themselves into the social mêlée; but the major part Virginia were bent on state churches, supported by of them, as usual, remain within the walls of their little spiritual gymnasia, pulling on the exercisers that are good indeed for raising moral muscle, but are not belted in anywhere to the big business of the world. It has never been otherwise. This modern social crisis is the result of the amazing transformation of the Western world from autocratic monarchies to democratic states. Did not the church in that crisis stammer and stutter her way toward a new phrasing of her social creed? After her long aristocratic training of seventeen centuries, with Rome for her nurse and Europe's kings for tutors, she acted

like some Prince Hamlet habituated to the scenery of his royal court, who suddenly finds himself amid the setting of A Midsummer Night's Dream, with Quince the carpenter, Snug the joiner, Bottom the weaver, and a bellows-mender, a tinker, and a tailor on the stage. Shall he not be tongue-tied, or else most inept and ridiculous, when first he tries to trim his courtly mien and purse his princely lips for democratic speech? So the church hemmed and hawed then, as now, over the difficult business of readaptation.

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F.C. Walsh, M.D., who writes on the brain from the specialist's viewpoint, states that "brain work in one form or another is the basic foundation on which our present civilization rests, and conquests to-day are more a matter of brains than arms.” Dr. Walsh takes exception to the recent statement made by Lord Rosebery that “a famished condition is conducive to the highest efficiency of poetic genius.” “However, most of these garret geniuses,” says the Doctor, "would more than likely have turned out a larger number of masterpieces had they been better fed”


\HE proper care of the mind has what may appear to be excellent work accomplished been given such little consideration,

by the brain at night, too often proves to be unsatisor none at all, that at first the nov

factory and disappointing in the morning, and re

quires doing over or reshaping under the keen superelty of the suggestion is provocative of risi- vision of the clearer critical faculties of the morning bility.” And yet, says F. C. Walsh (Tech- hours. In fact, at night the brain works very siminical World Magazine, December), if the

larly to the manner in which it does when influenced brain is to attain and maintain its highest

by alcohol, that is, new ideas and conceptions may

come into consciousness more readily, but their exlevel of efficiency, it must be given the care pression in any kind of art form is very likely to be and attention that are being so sedulously defective. From this we evolve the axiom: the recommended for the care of the various

night for meditation, and the morning for execution. other organs of the body. “Popular opin- Many a battle, military and financial, has been

The will is more daring in the morning hours. ion and practice notwithstanding,” declares planned in the still hours of the night and executed Dr. Walsh, “the brain is not an 'airy noth- with brilliant result on the morning after. Daying' that can live on mental pabulum alone;

courage, either physical or moral, is often turned to the brain requires nourishment, and of a

cowardice at night because of this peculiar attribute

of the brain. The devil and the red-skin have long very material kind.”

been cognizant of this fact. Dr. Walsh is not in sympathy with the “ food cranks” who starve themselves with

"Regular sleep is essential to brain health, the specious plea that an abundance of food

and loss of sleep not only injures the brain clogs and muddles the brain. Fasts and

itself, but sadly interferes with brain effihalf fasts, he asserts, never made for mental ciency.” greatness, though perhaps for better morals. The average brain does well on eight hours of He finds it much better for mental efficiency sleep, some require more, others less. The brain of to have a “rich blood stream, plenty of

a Napoleon thrives on four or five hours' sleep, but it

does not follow from this that a man having a brain oxygen, abundance of sunshine, and plenty requiring ten hours may not be possessed of genius of physical exercise."

equal to Napoleon's; it simply means that if he "Most minds,” we are told, “work best

sleeps ten hours and awakes refreshed, his particular

make of brain demands that many hours of rest. during the morning hours, and the powers of

A man could have a great mind and sleep twelve the will as well as of the intellect seem to be hours out of the twenty-four, or he could be an idiot at their highest at that time.” There are, and sleep only three. The capabilities of a mind however, exceptions:

cannot be judged by the number of hours it requires

for sleep. A Balzac, prodigious wizard in the use of brain- There are three common destroyers of energy, can write at stressful pace for eighteen hours on a stretch-and a Balzac can die of overwork!

brain efficiency-coffee, alcohol, and toMoreover, the critical faculties of the mind are more

bacco. “It has been demonstrated,” the apt to be suppressed at night, and as a consequence, writer declares, “that small quantities of

coffee actually prevent or postpone mental interests of brain efficiency stands for complete purfatigue, while large or excessive quantities ity of living. This is no mere preachment, but an

impartial, disinterested statement of cold fact. act in the opposite manner.” Alcohol in lesser quantity first whips up the brain to

The habitual use of tobacco seems to reincreased activity, and then benumbs it as

strain the fullest freedom of mental activity: the quantity is increased. New combinations of latent ideas may be brought before

Writers, poets, painters, composers, and scientific the eye of consciousness, but less effective

workers for the most part admit that they can do work will be accomplished during the course better work after giving up the habit altogether. of the alcoholic action. To quote further: For the first few days or even weeks after its discon

tinuance, the difficulties of mental effort in the A poet, for example, may gain an entirely original respective callings are increased; but as time goes on conception for a poem by means of the stimulative and the soothing effect of the nicotine is no longer action of alcohol in any of its forms, but if he attempt missed, the powers of concentration become greater, then and there to put that conception into verse, the the mind feels clearer, works longer and faster withresult will not be nearly so artistically perfect as it out fatigue, and the work turned out seems to be of would be if written after the brain were wholly free higher quality. It is true that many possessors of from the slightest alcoholic stimulation. The crea- the most brilliant minds have used tobacco in modtive powers may be temporarily increased by the eration and even to excess, Robert Louis Stevenson alcoholic spur, but the critical faculties of the mind being a noted example; but there is much reason to are diminished at any stage of brain excitement as believe that their work would have been even better the result of alcohol. With continued use the crea- and greater had they not been addicted to this widetive mental power itself becomes lessened, and finally spread habit of modern life. It is a curious refleca state of brain irritation is the consequence. tion on this point that of those who enter on the Alcohol, then, is of no value for the actual accom- career of literature, there are a greater number of plishment of brain work; on the contrary, its use successes among the women than the men, and other lessens the ability to perform the most satisfactory things being equal, it is not going too far to surmise, and effective mental labor. At this point modern at least, that this is due to a difference of acquired science joins hands with the old morality, and in the habit or lack of habit in the sexes.

Wanted-A National Business Court

Mr. George W. Perkins, the well known New York banker, is now devoting all of his time to the study of the question of uniting the interests of capital and labor. In this article he sums up his conclusions, and suggests a remedy for the present perplexing state of affairs in the economic world


EAL business competition under pres- all parties interested will enjoy the benefits ent conditions would be too destruc- of the business. It must be coöperation

tive, and private monopoly, com- between labor and capital, between capital plete and unrestrained, is intolerable."

and consumer, between company and govThis is the complex state of affairs in the ernment.” Broadly speaking, he would business world that Mr. George W. Per- organize the ideal cooperative company in kins, recently a partner in the banking-house the following manner: of J. P. Morgan & Co., seeks to better by a cure made up of a combination of a

The brain workers and hand workers should be National Business Court and coöperation.

paid their regular compensation for earning the in

terest on the bonded debt and dividends on preMr. Perkins, writing in a recent number of

ferred stock. If by successful management they the Independent, declares that "electricity earn more than this, it would under modern armore than aught else has been the creator

rangements go to what are known as common

stockholders, and at this point the organization of of our modern corporations. Ruthless com

brain workers and hand workers should share with petition by ox team,” he asserts, “could the common stockholders in the profits made for the never be very serious, but ruthless competi- common stockholders, and share on a definitely tion by electricity spells bankruptcy." As

stated basis, varying according to conditions in dif

ferent lines of business. Where this has been tried it the “claim is made that monopoly fleeces

has been found eminently successful. the public always,” the writer believes that we are forced to consider a third method of Mr. Perkins calls our attention to the fact business procedure.

that the trust has been developed by reason By the term coöperation, Mr. Perkins of modern invention and that it furnishes a means “a system of doing business by which more economical and efficient way of doing business. “Would it not be better to pre- As a final remedy for the present "intolserve the acknowledged good that is in the erable situation," the writer would establish trusts,” he pleads, “and eradicate the evil?” "in Washington a business court to which Congress, we are informed, “has ignored our great business problems could go for every suggestion by Roosevelt, by Taft, by final adjustment when they could not be setWickersham, looking toward any method tled otherwise: that would preserve any good there is, any

We now have at Washington a Supreme Court, to benefit or advantage there is to the people in

which is referred the final settlement of our legal large business undertakings, and has seemed questions. This court is composed, of course, of content to let the country drift toward lawyers only, and it is the dream of every young business chaos.”. We read further:

man who enters the law that he may some day be called to the Supreme Court bench. If such a call

comes, it matters not how lucrative his practice, he What has given us the sweatshop? Competition. always drops it for the honor conferred. Why not What has given us child labor? Competition. have a similar goal for our business men? Why not

What throws labor out of employment? Compe- have a court for business questions, on which no tition.

man could sit who had not had a business training, What causes low wages? Competition.

with an honorable record? This would surely come What brings panic and failure? Competition. to be regarded by business men in the same way that

And what is our Congress at this moment calling the Supreme Court is regarded by lawyers. The loudly on our Attorney-General to enforce, even to supervision of business by such a body of men, who the door of the jail? Competition.

had reached such a court in such a way, would unThe Congressman who stands for a literal enforce- questionably be fair and equitable to business, fair ment of the Sherman Act stands for the sweatshop and equitable to the public. Furthermore, it would and child labor.

not take out of business that invaluable asset, Competition produces the two extremes-million- individual initiative. It would leave the every-day aires and paupers; while cooperation looks toward management of business untrammeled and allow more stable conditions and a more equal distribution men free swing to devise ways and means to improve, of wealth.

enlarge and develop domestic and foreign commerce.

An English View of Our Patriotism

Sydney Brooks has made a careful study of present-day conditions in the United States.
He is an English writer of keen insight and rare interpretative ability. While severe in
his condemnation of what he considers to be grave perils in our public life, he is
strongly impressed with the real advance that we are making toward clean government.


YDNEY BROOKS, an eminent Eng- In America, again, Mr. Brooks found

lish publicist who has recently been patriotism habitually taught as a school

visiting America, has returned to his subject: country deeply impressed with Uncle Sam's idea of patriotism. Taking America as an An American boy of ten knows the words and example, he has started right in to scold his

tunes of more patriotic songs than an Englishman

hears in a lifetime. Nothing is more interesting than fellow citizens on their lack of pride in to go into one of the public schools of New York City England's history and their gross negligence just when the children are assembling. You will in connection with the public commemora

find them marshalled in the playground in semition of notable events.

military formation. They march off to their class

rooms to a martial air. In each classroom above the In the United States, the writer found teacher's desk hangs the Stars and Stripes, and the conditions just the opposite. We quote children every morning, before the day's work befrom the Forum (December):

gins, hold up their hands toward the national flag,

and with flashing eyes repeat some such vow as this: The Americans at this moment are recalling the “I pledge my allegiance to this flag and the country events of the Civil War on a scale and with accesso- for which it stands, one country indivisible, with ries that simply amaze Englishmen. To gather the justice and liberty for all.” There is something of veterans of that gigantic struggle on one of their the puerile and the humorous in this little ceremony, historic battlegrounds, to form them up in opposing but there is also something very impressive. It lines, to have them solemnly march up to one another makes boys and girls emotionally proud of their and shake hands over the scene of their ancient strife country and interested in it. It is precisely one of —that is an exhibition of sentiment and melodrama those things that have made the public schools of at which Englishmen can only gasp. They are them- America the greatest instrument of racial assimilaselves temperamentally incapable of even conceiving tion and patriotic instruction that the world has themselves as taking part in such a demonstration. yet seen.

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The Cause of Labor the Cause of Humanity

Dr. Crane gives here an inspiring view of the labor question. The cause of labor is,
he says, essentially a moral cause, and as such it has at its call far more potent
allies than the bullet or the bayonet. It can win no lasting victory by violence; its
triumph must and will come through a deepening of the moral sense of mankind

HE lords, the barons, the aris- the enfranchisement and manhood of the
tocracy of former days,” says whole people.
Felix Adler, "won their way by The labor movement is another name for
physical prowess; the middle the advance of civilization.

class won its way by intellec- It has been said that labor carries all tual qualities; the working class, I am per- other classes on its back. True! And theresuaded, will win its way neither by physical fore labor cannot rise without lifting the force nor by intellectual qualities chiefly, whole world. but by the development among themselves, and for the world, of new moral qualities.' Class Spirit a Curse

This is the most luminous word that I have seen upon the labor question.

"HE curse of labor is the class spirit. The McNamara case dazzled the country, Those who regard the labor question as a flash of lightning. The labor leaders as a clash of class against class are narrow. were staggered. The rank and file of the They lack vision. And “where there is no unions were blinded.

vision the people perish.” After the lightning-flash, comes the thun- When class fights class, it is merely selfishder, the voice of God.

ness wrestling with selfishness, it is greed That voice says what it has always said against greed, it is the have-nots opposed since history began:

to the haves. "It is not your gathered money, your

Those who take this view degrade labor. power to hurt, and your deeds of violence; The cry for justice becomes a servile snarl. it is the righteousness of your cause alone The hymn of humanity is turned to the that shall make you prosper.”'

jackal's howl. The trouble with individual men is that There is no room in America for class of they do not realize their nobleness. Men do unworthy things when they lose self- The very word “class” stinks in the nosrespect. If every man would believe that trils of democracy. he is divine, he would be ashamed to act To speak of the lower classes is to apply brutishly.

a term of mediævalism to modern life. The trouble with labor is that it does not There are no real lower nor higher classes. understand its own stature.

America is for humanity. It forgets that it is divine and uses the To call the workingmen a class, and to devil's weapons.

incite class passions, is to defeat the very Forgetting that it is noble, it descends to dream and purpose of labor. ignoble ways.

In the eighteenth century, the conscience For the cause of labor is the cause of of the world pointed to an improvement of humanity.

the conditions of the lower classes. In the The triumph of labor is the triumph of twentieth century, the unfolding conscience democracy.

of a progressing world demands that there The freedom and dignity of labor mean shall be no class.

any kind.

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