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526-533 Note the contrast: the Roman dastard's disappointment, the hostile Etruscan's admiration. 529 Sacked. Plundered.
(Lat. saccus, a sack; plunder was carried off in sacks.) 532
Feat. Wonderful deed. (Lat. factum,) 535 Another version of the legend, given by Polybius, asserts that Horatius was drowned in the attempt to cross the river. 540
River-Gate. See line 147, note. 542, 543 Corn-land public right. Known as the ager publicus, or public land, acquired by conquest from other peoples.
544, 545 Cf. Livy, ii. 10,"agri quantum uno die circumaravit datum,” i.e. as much as Horatius could plough in a day.
546 Molten image. The statue was afterwards struck by lightning, and removed to the Vul. canal above the Comitium.
550 Comitium. The name given to that part of the Forum which was most remote from the Capitoline hill. It was set apart for the patrician assemblies and for public meetings.
553 Halling. Stopping, resting. (O. F. halte; Germ. halti, hold.) 558 Sounds stirring. Has a stirring or inspiring effect.
561 Volscian. The Volsci, an ancient people occupying a district of Central Italy between Latium and Campania; probably a branch of the Umbrian family. They were constantly at war with Rome.
561 Home. Effectively, closely. . Cf. King Lear, ii. 1. 53, “With his prepared sword he charges me My unprovided body.” Cf. “home-thrust,” that charge comes home.” 562 Juno. The chief goddess, wife of Jupiter, queen of heaven, and patron of marriage. 568 Long. Prolonged.
572 Algidus. An outlying mountain of the Alban hills, in Latium. Its lower slopes were in later times a place of summer resort for the Roman nobles, but anciently it was covered with dense forests. The black foliage of its holm-oaks is alluded to by Horace (Odes, iv. iv. 57).
574-580 Macaulay probably imagined some family festival, when the best wine came out, and the company told tales round the fire. No doubt, too, he remembered Horace, Odes IV. XV. 25-32,
582 Goodman. Husband, father of the family. The word is used in many places colloquially. particularly in Scotland. So goodwife, in line 584.
The home of Lincoln's boyhood days was a log cabin and he was almost a young man before he knew any home more comfortable than one made of logs.
On February 12, 1809, he was born in one of these rough cabins. There was but one room, one door and no windows, and out on that little clearing in Kentucky Lincoln spent the first seven years of his life. With the wind, rain and snow beating into the room through the cracks between the logs, Lincoln's mother told him all she knew of the Bible, fairy tales and old legends.
Lincoln's love for his mother inspired him to do many good deeds, but in 1818 a terrible disease made its appearance in their settlement, and Mrs. Lincoln, weary and worn with the hardships of their life, bade good-by to her little ones, begging Abraham to remember what she had taught him and be a good boy A coffin was made of lumber, which Mr. Lincoln cut, and under a great sycamore tree Abraham's mother was laid away to rest. There was no minister to speak words of comfort and this grieved Arbaham, who knew how his mother loved God. He determined to have a funeral service for her. He knew of a minister who traveled about the country, so he tried to put his thoughts on paper, and at last was satisfied with the letter begging the minister to come and deliver a sermon over her grave.
Many weeks and months passed, but one bright day the minister came. He had ridden one hundred miles on horse-back, forded swollen streams and followed narrow paths through the wilderness to comfort this little nineyear-old boy. Friends gathered about the lonely grave, sweet hymns were sung and Lincoln never forgot that day. From that time he determined to be a good and noble man. His mother had taught him to be true and honest and he would always remember her wish.
Years afterward, when he became a great man, he said, “All that I am or hope to be, I owe to my angel mother.”
When seventeen, this strong, ambitious boy heard a famous Kentucky man make a speech in court. Few things had ever inspired him more. From that time he practiced making speeches. Any question of the day, road-making, school tax or farm improvements, served as a subject. He always had many droll stories to tell and people were so attracted when listening to him that they forgot how homely and awkward the earnest young man was. He was in demand at every gathering for pleasure or for work.
He soon began to meet a better class of people. In 1834, when but twenty-five years old, this honest, hard working, roughly built frontiersman,
six feet four inches tall, found himself a popular man and a member of the Illinois State Legislature. He had studied law at every possible moment and in 1837 he accepted an offer to enter into partnership with a lawyer in Springfield, Illinois. He soon became a recognized leader in politics.
In 1860, amid much opposition he was elected President of the United States, and was reelected four years later.
Five weeks after the second inaugural adress, in April, 1865, the Confederate army surrendeed. The four years of sadness, bloodshed, devastation and sorrow were ended. Now, to this over-burdened man peace would take the place of pain and rest would come instead of pressure, but at this very moment of the nation's triumph, rejoicing was turned to grief, for, while seeking recreation at Ford's Theatre, Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, who, with others, had formed a plot for the assassination of the President, Vice-President, and leading members of the Cabinet.
Kind arms bore the loved and honored President to a friend's house, and kind hearts, who had aided with sympathy and counsel during the long, sad years, watched by the bedside through the night until the morning, when that noblest of all hearts ceased to beat.
Messages of sorrow and sympathy came from all the world to the sorrowing nation, to a nation who each year more deeply reveres the memory of him whose legacy was peace to his country, liberty to the enslaved, and an inspiring example of patriotism to the world.
FIRST INAUGURAL ADDRESS
MARCH 4, 1861
NOTE Men have made speeches valuable for their quality of literary style, but Lincoln's speeches are distinctive, individual, original and by his inborn reasoning power, his insight into the right of all questions, he became the most convincing speaker of his time. His speeches have won a permanent place in literature. The speech at Gettysburg is a classic and known to all English speaking people. It is brief, expressive, immortal. The two
. inaugural addresses are examples of brief, clear, persuasive eloquence.
Lincoln's Gettysburg speech was written in the car on the way from Washington to the battlefield the National Cemetery. Lincoln held a small piece of pasteboard on his knee and wrote those impressive few lines while persons were talking about him. Hon. Edward Everett, who delivered the oration of the day, said: “I would rather be the author of those twenty lines than to have all the same my oration of to-day can give me.”
On that memorable day in November, 1863, Lincoln, with bowed head stepped out before the vast assembly, slowly, quietly, as if unconscious of the tens of thousands before him. He seemed as if with those to whose memory he was speaking.
The memories, feelingly, simply told, his counsels wisely given, his feelings impressively uttered the prophecies so earnestly expressed, affected the assembly so deeply that they listened as to a voice divine with affection and
He stood before them “an heroic figure in the center of an heroic epoch.” Fellow-Citizens of the United States:
In compliance with a custom as old as the Government itself, •I appear before you to address you briefly, and to take, in your
presence, the oath prescribed by the Constitution of the United 5 States to be taken by the President before he enters on the execution of his office.
I do not consider it necessary, at present, for me to discuss those matters of administration about which there is no special anxiety
or excitement. Apprehension seems to exist among the people 10 of the southern states, that, by the accession of a republican ad
ministration, their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered. There has never been any reasonable cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most ample evidence to the
contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspection. 15 It is found in nearly all the published speeches of him who now
addresses you. I do but quote from one of those speeches, when I declare that “I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists.” I believe I have no lawful right to do so; and I have no inclination 5 to do so. Those who nominated and elected me did so with the full knowledge that I had made this, and made many similar declarations, and had never recanted them. And, more than this, they placed in the platform, for my acceptance, and as a law to them
selves and to me, the clear and emphatic resolution which I now 1o read:
“Resolved, that the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the states, and especially the right of each state to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively
is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and 15 endurance of our political fabric depend; and we denounce the
lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any state or territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes.”
I now reiterate these sentiments; and in doing so I only press upon the public attention the most conclusive evidence of which the 20 case is susceptible, that the property, peace, and security of no
section are to be in anywise endangered by the now incoming administration.
I add, too, that all the protection which, consistently with the Constitution and the laws, can be given, will be cheerfully given 25 to all the states when lawfully demanded, for whatever cause, as cheerfully to one section to another.
There is much controversy about the delivering up of fugitives from service or labor. The clause I now read is as plainly written
in the Constitution as any other of its provisions: 30 “No person held to service or labor in one state under the law
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service
or labor may be due.” 35 It is scarcely questioned that this provision was intended by
those who made it for the reclaiming of what we call fugitive slaves; and the intention of the law-giver is the law.
All the members of Congress swear their support to the whole Constitution to this provision as well as any other. To the 10 proposition, then, that slaves whose cases come within the terms
of this clause “shall be delivered up,” their oaths are unanimous. Now, if they would make the effort in good temper, could they not,