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Upon motion, the Bureau was closed, and E. Carle- Dr. H. M. Paine gave notice that, at the next annual ton, Jr., M. D., elected chairman for the ensuing year. meeting, he should move a change in the time of holdREPORT OF THE BUREAU OF OBSTETRICS.

ing the annual meeting to the first Tuesday and

Wednesday of February. PRESENTED THROUGH DR. C. A. BACON.

Upon motion, a set of the Volumes of Transactions 1. After-Pains, Physiologically, Pathologically, and of the Society were donated to the Strassbourg LibraTherapeutically Considered. By A. P. Hollett, M. D. ry, at the request of its Librarian. 2. Three Cases of Malformations. By E. Hasbrouck,

Upon motion, a vote of thanks was tendered the reM. D.

tiring President, for his efforts in behalf of the Society; Upon motion, the Bureau was closed, and C. A. Ba- and also to the Supervisors, for the use of their room con, M. D., elected chairman for the ensuing year.

on this occasion,


Recording Secretary.

1. Uterine Hæmorrhage. By C. J. Farley, M. D.
2. Use of Hydrastis Canadensis in Diseases of Fe-

MEDICAL ITEMS AND NEWS. males. By E. J. Pierce, M. D.

Upon motion, the Bureau was closed, and Anna C. The Connecticut State Medical Society has voted to Howland, M. D., was elected chairman for ensuing uphold the County Society in expelling Dr. M. B. year.

Pardee, of South Norwalk. The doctor defended himTHE BUREAU OF VITAL STATISTICS

self nobly, in a long address covering the points at

issue, and claims that the evidence in his favor was Reported a paper on "Longevity,” by the chairman, not considered, while that against him was duly exDr. A. W. Holden ; and upon motion, the Bureau was

amined and acted upon. closed, and Dr. Holden continued as chairman.

The time will come, and that before very long, too,

when these so-called scientists will be ashamed of their Reported a paper on “Duboisia,” by the chairman, c. actions. In Certis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in Omnibus Th. Liebold, M. D. ; and upon motion, the Bureau was Charitas," must be our motto, or else we shall degeneclosed, and Dr. Liebold re-elected for ensuing year.

rate into a mob of bigots unworthy the title we claim.

Dr. S. H. TALCOTT delighted the citizens of Middle-

town in a popular lecture on the “ Brain.” “He thinks Reported

the schooling of the young is begun far too early in 1. Laryngitis a Special Disease. By C. E. Jones, this country, and is pushed too rapidly. The real M. D.

work of education should begin with girls not before Upon motion, the Bureau was closed, and C. E. the age of eighteen, and with boys earlier. Their days Jones, M. D., elected chairman for the ensuing year. before that time should be spent in acquiring vigorous

constitutions, and their nights in refreshing, dreamless DEPARTMENT OF OTOLOGY

sleep. Life, health, body and brain are destroyed by Reported

overwork, worry, indulgence, want of sleep and rest, 1. A Case of Otitis Media Hæmorrhagica. By W. The brain is not only a delicate organ physically, but P. Fowler, M. D.

should be carefully used and protected. The brain is Upon motion, Bureau closed, and Dr. Fowler was a retentive organ, and parents should take great care elected chairman for the ensuing year.

that the earliest and most lasting impressions which BUREAU OF HISTOLOGY

their children receive should be good. Whoever

stamps a bad impression upon the mind of a child Reported a paper by the chairman, Bukk G. Carleton, commits one of the greatest possible wrongs.” M. D., entitled A Pathological Report ;” and upon

TROMMER's Extract of Malt has been so long favor. motion, Burean was closed, and Dr. Carleton contin- ably known to the profession that it is scarcely necesued chairman the ensuing year.

sary for us to call attention to it as an article of diet. THE BUREAU OF VACCINATION

The fact that it has vearly superseded the imported Presented no report, and W. B. Kenyon, M. D., was preparation is sufficient evidence of its superiority. elected chairman for the ensuing year.


N. Y., Dr. Philo Brauns, Physician and Surgeon.

Devoted to the treatment of gynecological cases requirPresented no report, and upon motion, A. R. Wright, ing medical or surgical treatment. References: Dr. E M. D., was elected chairman for the ensuing year. Guernsey, of New York, Dr. C. Hering, of Philadelphia.

H. D. Paine M. D., was elected Necrologist for the REMOVALS.-Dr. W. Storm White to 228 West 34th ensuing year.

street; Dr. Henry von Musits to 1233 Lexington J. W. Dowling, M. D., was appointed to report “On i avenue. Physical Diagnosis.

DR. J. A. CARMICHAEL has been appointed to the Drs. Dowling, Hills, Watson, Holden, Talcott, A. Chair of Anatomy in the U. S. Medical College in this R. Wright, Paine, and Hollett were appointed a com- city. Dr. Carmichael's great ability as a teacher will mittee on reception of the American Institute. give additional strength to the college.

Upon motion of Dr. H. M. Paine, the following res- Dr. L. S. ORDWAY, of Hot Springs, Ark., has been olution was adopted :

elected a member of the local Board of Health. Resolved, That we approve the series of experiments instituted by the Milwaukee Academy of Medicine, Address C. 1. L., Office of this Journal, naming

WANTED.-A copy of “ Lippe's Materia Medica." with a view of determining the scientitic and medicinal qualities of the thirtieth IIahnemannian potency,

price. and hereby recommend that a committee of this Soci- ESSENCE OF MEAT.—Of the numerous extracts of ety be appointed to co-operate with the committee of meat before the public we know of none so palatable the Milwaukee Academy, for the purpose of promoting and nutritious as those of the London Manufacturing the proposed investigation ; and Drs. Paine, Wildes, Company. The profession are adopting them in preferand Gardiner were appointed.

ence to all other extracts. The physician finds in them Upon motion, the Treasurer was authorized to cred- what he so often needs, a concentrated meat stimulant it Chautauqua ('o. Society with $20.

and also an exceedingly pleasant nutrient.

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Of Medicine, Surgery, and the Collateral Sciences.



No. 5


have we a case of individual disorder — an individual sick, more or less, in every part -- and the more finely

strung (organized) is such an individual, the more sureTHE RELATION OF PHYSICAL STATES TO ly does a particular sickness become a general disorder.

Hahnemann recognized this fact when he observed MENTAL DERANGEMENT - A CONTRI.

that “.

Sometimes a man who is patient while in the BUTION TO MORAL PATHOLOGY. *

enjoyment of health, becomes passionate, violent, ca

pricious, and unbearable, or impatient and despairing, BY D.-A. GORTON, M. D., BROOKLYN.

while he is ill; or those formerly chaste and modest,

often become lascivious and shameless. It is frequentThe unity of body and mind is still further disclosed ly the case that a sensible man becomes stupid in sickin the relation which subsists between physical and psychical disease. The teaching of pathology on this ness; whereas a weak mind is rendered stronger, and

a man ot slow temperament acquires great presence of subject is in perfect accord with that of physiology

mind and resolution." * If there are any exceptions which has already been considered — the phenomena to this remark, they will more often be found in disease of disease being due to abnormal or unhealthy condi- of the higher nerve-centres than in disease of the lower tions and actions of the bodily organs and functions. nerve-centres, or bodily organs; for mania of the intelSickness presents, in fact, the obverse side of human lect, as indicated by delusions, may and does sometimes nature, and comprehends not only bodily deformities exist with little or no disturbance of the corporeal and defects and their sequences, aches, pains and dis- functions; but, on the other hand, it is rarely the case abilities, but also abnormal molecular actions and that a corporeal malady can exist, even the most trichanges of the bodily substance and tissues in every fling, without disturbing -- sometimes in a manner most part, giving rise to nervous and cerebral disorder, and marked -- the intellectual as well as the other cerebral abnormal phenomena of soul, or of psychical life.

functions. This fact should be constantly kept in view. It has In all maladies we have, therefore, a unit - an indibeen recognized from time immemorial by medical phil. vidual — to deal with, whose mechanism, at first perosophers, but continually ignored by the medical nov. haps a supposed inconsequential part of it, has become itiate. M. Broussais never uttered a sentiment more disordered, as the hand or the foot, the mucous memtrite than when he wrote that “Man is but half under- brane or the skin, and the being, the living, moving, stood if he is observed only in health,” ! It may be thinking “automaton” is abnormally affected by it. in said to be axiomatic. The truth which it involves is every part. So close is the “sympathy.” between the quite as significant in its bearings on the doctrine of central and the remote ganglions, so intimate is the the monism of man, or the unity of matter and force, relation of cognition and sensation; so homogeneous, and of the physical and psychical, as any similar axiom in other words, are substance and being throughout the in physiology. Medical psychology, in fact, owes its living organism, that a disorder of a part is an injury existence to pathological phenomena upon which this

to the whole. axiom of Broussais is predicated, and from which it

As an illustration of the coexistence and mutual derives all the wealth of meaning with which it is so dependence of physical and psychical states, we cite pregnant. The symptomatology of a sick man does, the following case, which, though based on observaindeed, reveal his essential monism - oneness, homo- tion, shall be supposititious. Let us suppose a delicate, geneity, mental and physical, body and soul — so un. dark-complexioned man, with a slight swelling of the mistakably that it is difficult to reason one's self out of phalangeal joints of the great toe. The swelling is red this conclusion by the most consummate use of word- and lot; sore to touch and to movement; ibe whole symbols which the physiologist has yet been able to limb, to which the affected member belongs, aches and devise. 1 Griesinger has very wisely remarked, in respect to this is local and particular. Should the condition of

pains in evident sympathy with the inflamed joints. diseases of the mind, that “ nowhere is the disideratum the organic functions be inquired into, they would evi; strictly to keep in view the individual of greater im- dently be found deranged, every one, the manner of portance than in the treatment of insanity; nowhere which every experienced physician could easily foresee is the constant consciousness more necessary that it is not a disease, but an individual patient; that it is not bowever, could not be so easily apprehended, from the

- presuppose. The more purely psychical condition, mania, but an individual who has become maniacal, greet complexity of moral symptoms wbich is often that is the object of our treatment." The observa contingent upon such an affection. The sympathetic tion is equally applicable to disease of the bodily or system may be so deeply involved by this little ailment gans; for in every instance of so-called physical disease as to completely unbalance and derange the psychical * Revised from the advanced sheets of the National Quarterly muy in consequence lose the contiol of his will, and

life of the patient for the time being. The individual Review, for I vE HOMEOPATHIC Times, by the Auihor. + Irritation and Insanity. Mental Pathology und Therapeutics, p. 462.

Organon of Medicine, Sec. 210.

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fall under the sway or dominion of feeling, preiernat- ! digestion. Nor is this remark inapplicable to certain urally active, and therefore disordered. He faints, children of a larger growth ; for criminal statistics possibly, in the attempt to move; is easily excited ; is show that crime is largely the effect of derangements anxious and apprehensive without just cause; often caused by “strong drink"-in most instances the vicimpatient, quarrelsoine, despairins, and complaining. tim being amiable and well disposed until his stomach If he were amiable before, he is quite otherwise now and sympathetic system were“ tired" and their funcNothing gives him either pleasure or satisfaction. Life tions perverted by alcohol. When will our theoloitself is a distress--one long sigh of unrest. His con-'gians and law-makers realize that only a normally consciousness is overwhelmed with the morbid impress stituted human being, in a normal condition, is a sions of his disordered body. He has lost his normal responsible creature and amenable to the criminal taste and relish. The books he used to enjoy have code? The day may not be near when a philosophy become uninteresting and insipid. The friends he of life and its phenomena, moral and physical, so oploved, and whose companionship was a necessity, no posed to that of the present, shall find favor in the longer seem the same to him. He becomes estranged eyes of such classes. But when it does come, as come from persons and things. Their presence is displeas- it must in the natural progress of ideas, we venture to ing, irritating, and provocative of uncontrollable resent- predict, in the management of refractory children, an ment. Instead of being trustful and loving, le is increase in the use of physic and a decrease in that of resentful and suspicious-possibly profane. Ill-nature the rod, or “ spanks ;" and, for the cure and reformaand despondency bave taken the place of a disposition tion of adult delinquents, the building of fewer jails naturally buoyant and hopetul. A disordered imagina- and penitentiaries and more asylums and hospitals. tion has supervened, conjuring up wild, extravagant, These psychical effects-even to the degree of comand most unnatural horrors, uponi one whose fancies plete transformation of the natural disposition-are were full of life-like pictures, and whose conceptions frequently observed in adult life in the progress of were ordinarily pleasing, rational, and enjoyable. This chronic maladies. The vicious become amiable, and patient is full of whims, and needs to be humored as the amiable, vicious; the irritative and combative bemuch as a child during its first'dentition. Psychically, come kind and obliging; the weak-minded become he presents a very common form of mental alienation; strong-minded, and the strong-minded, weak-minded. physically, he is simply gouty.

Nor are these peculiar effects of physical disease conSimilar forms of mental alienation are observable fined to any particular class of disorder. There are among children suffering from diseases peculiar to few diseases of either animals* or man with which we childhood. The seat of those diseases is the very citi, are acquainted, which are not accompanied with del of the grand sympathetic, the centre of emotional psychical symptoms of some kind or other, favorable life ; and when it is disordered the natural disposition or unfavorable; and sometimes the psycbical symptoms suffers in a manner with which parents are but too are more clearly characteristic of the malady than are well acquainted. The period of the first dentition is the so-called physical symptoms. The parts of the one during which the functions of the nerves of organic bodily organism are so intimately related with each lite are most easily disturbed, and the consequent per other, and the influence between each part and the enversion of the disposition is most strongly marked. semble is so reciprocal that an affection of one is imThe presence of worms in the intestines, for example, mediately felt by the others. If there is any class of is indicated by symptoms subjective as well as objec diseases that does not modify the psychical character tive. In other words, while their presence in the of an individual it is that peculiar to the spinal cord, economy may be suspected from dilated pupils, in- or its meninges. Several cases of spinal irritation, flamed nostrils, offensive breath, constipated and in some of which presented well-marked symptoms of fatel bowels, morbid appetite, convulsions, etc.— fickle- spinal meningitis of the upper half of the cord, of a ness,“ mwishness," inordinate mischievousness, in chronic character, accompanied with opisthotonos and somnia, delirious sleep, etc., are indications of their emprosthotonos, have come under our observation, in presence equally characteristic. So, likewise, the which no decided influence of the disease upon the

sour stomach "and constipation of children affect the cerebral functions was discoverable from the beginning disposition far more seriously than they do the purely to the end. The patients were mostly women; and the physical life. While the physical symptoms produced degree of patience under prolonged sickness, and fortiby those causes may be sütficiently distressing, the tude under frightful sufferings, was so noticeable as to psychical symptoms are still more so. A lovable child become the subject of remark by the most casual obmay be transformed by them into one of mental char- server. Their minds were clear and unclouded, brighter, acteristics quite the opposite. Nothing is more com- indeed, if anything, than before or since the attack; mon to childhood, in fact, than these moral transform and the general balance of all the mental powers, of ations by reasons of disorders of the functions of the the moral perceptions and the intellect, was surpris** vegetative,” or sympathetic system. The records of ingly preserved throughout. In two of these cases the the nursery tell a fearful tale, and upon them was pro- sufferers would frequently come out of the most violent bably founded the doctrine of total depravity, which spasms with faces beaming with good nature, and rehas long been such a favorite among Christian theolo- sume their chat with some friendly caller as if they had gians, and which has served the double purpose of a been indulging a frolic, instead of enduring a period of theory of family government and an excuse to practise agony. Their exemption from the nervous depression upon it as old as Solomon.

and moral deterioration, so frequently observed as the It should be observed, however, that sin and iniquity effect of prolonged and tedious chronic disorders, was are often due to disease; and that the rude, wayward a subject of profound interest to us. Formerly there impulses of children arise, for the most part, from dis was no degree of praise to which, in our estimation, orders having their seat primarily in the physique. A the fortitude of these patients did not entitle them. childl. possessing a disposition naturally kind and Since discovering its rationale, however, we are less obliging when he is well, becomes cruel and disobli,- inclined to admire the self-control of these victims iny when he is ill ; one with a sweet and amiable dis- under such circumstances, and more disposed to believe position, becomes morose and irritable; the bright and that the credit given them for its exercise, under what industrious lad becomes thriftless and stupid; the generous-minded are perverted into the greedy and covet

* The celebrated horse, Longfellow, is a notable illustration of ouls. 4 All the forms of sin and wickednes; recognized the difference in pojut. In his race with Harry Bassett, he met by the law, or known to the theologian, may be due in a'though he recovered from the wonnd and became thoroughly children too young to have obtained the mastery of well and sound, his temper was so vicious that it was dangerous their moroid emotio:13, to deran ge.nents incident to

for strangers to go near him. Previous to the injury his disposition

was amiable.

appeared to be trying circumstances, was more easily plètement le caractère de la personne, de la rendre earned than had been supposed.

irritable,'colère, bizarre, violente, ou triste. Ces changeIt is quite otherwise with discases of the “ vegetative ments dans la nature instinctive de l'individu, par system," or disorders of the functions of “ organic life” le fait des affections morbides dans lesquelles le grand as we have seen. The most inconsequental affection sympathique est engagé peuvent avoir lieu sans douleur of this part of man's nature disturbs the balance of the physique, sans malaise important. La grossesse, l'é. emotions; and if actual mental derangement does not poque menstruelle, la constipation, la présence des vers follow upon it, a mental state is induced which is closely dans les intestins, quoique occasionnant à peine un allied to mental derangement. The psychical phenom: malaise local, peuvent causer les changements les plus ena of gout and dentition have already been referred graves dans le caractère, et même la volie, chez les 10; and they afford a very good illustration of the personnes dont le cerveau est très-impressionable.” *mental effects of diseases affecting the chylo-poietic, Psychologie Naturelle, Tome I., pp. 440-441. or digestive system in general. The moods in such Disease of the heart, particularly that known as affections are proverbially sullen, fickle, irascible and angina pectoris, is very generally accompanied with irritable. The dark side of life comes into undue excitable, anxious moods; not ünfrequently with illprominence, and the sufferer is, accordingly, morose humor and ungovernable choler, of which we have in and melancholic. The central ganglions of the history many conspicuous illustrations, notably the sympathetic are profoundly depressed ; the blood is case of the celebrated Dr. John Hunter. In people disordered by functional disturbance of the liver and with an apoplectic tendency these moods may be comkidneys, either as a sequence or as a cause of the monly observed; indeed, their liability to fall into a ganglionic depression; and the latter send disordered passion is notorious. It is a species of insanity with messages to the sensorial centres, which, together with them, often, in which feelings of irascibility, from very the supply of unwholesome blood to the circulation, trivial causes, overpower the rational will and compel depress in turn their functions, and thus corrupt all the the individual to acts of violence. These people are processes and phenomena of the individual life. An never without a grievance. It is a question of“ honor” individual may thus, in good health, be a paragon of with them to resent a slight or an injury, although the excellence in all that constitutes a noble man or wo- latter may have no foundation except that of undue man, and he suddenly metamorphosed into a being of sensitiveness and a morbid tendency to envy, suspicion, quite opposite moral characteristics, when an affection jealousy, revenge, etc. That they sooner or later of this pature has come upon him or her. Whereas, become paretic is a matter of observation. But paresis in good health he was in possession of lovable charace and apoplexia are diseases closely allied, being more teristics, now he is possessed of characteristics which often associated with disease of the heart and vascular ally him to that abnormal conception of diseased men system than with disease of the cerebral substance. of ancient fame—the devil. Even should he be able The sacred writers of antiquity, therefore, were not so to maintain his self-control and suppress the expres. far astray, after all, in ascribing wickedness to “hardsion of his evil thoughts, in act or speech, the morbid nesy of heart," a ""heart of stone,” etc., for this is whisperings, instigating to mischief, go on in him literally true, often, as shown in autopsies of people without abatement; and he finds it most difficult to with hard tempers. persuade himself, or to be persuaded, that he is not But last, though pot least, in this category, are disreally tempted of the devil, so thoroughly is lie pos- orders of the sexual functions. The abnormal psychi. sessed by impulses attributed to that celebrity. “An cal phenomena, having their source in diseases of the old patient of the writer, a lady whose moral character womb, ovaries, testes, and spermatic vessels, simulate in health is the most unexceptionable, used to suffer the symptoms of every form of mental derangement from an occasional attack of icterus. During the ar- and of moral disease, ibose of intellectual derangement tacks, which are sometimes prolonged, her moral char. possibly excepted, even when such deraugements are acter undergoes a compleie transformation. From not actually and permanently induced by disease of being prayerful and devout she is inclined to upbraid those organs. the Deily. She cannot as usual enjoy her devotions. ! In women, inental deterioration from uterine disease The heavens are as brass to her. She is capricious and ; is no unfrequent occurrence, even in the absence of resentful; takes the kindest overtures in bad part ; is brain complications. The strong character becomes overbearing, arrogant, and repioachful toward those weak; fickleness supervenes upon a judgment preshe once loved best, but from whom she is now alien. I viously calm and clear; indecision upon resolution; ated. She has repeatedly confided to us her secret pusillanimity upon fearlessness and courage; deceitful. thoughts-the morbid impulses to acts of vice, the ness upon a frank, open manner. We believe that the commission of which would be a grave misdemeanor babits of truth-telling and fidelity in the social and and inevitably consign her to the ranks of the low and domestic relations are more frequently destroyed by degraded-impulses which, we are confident, are en irritable ovaries than by any native tendency to de. tirely foreign io hor normal nature, and confessed, with pravily in the female sex. The affections and disposithe utmost consternation of manner, her charge of tion are frequently alienated and iransformed by such feeling, remarking that she was no longer herselt. Nor a cause, so that the victim dislikes what she formerly was she. Mary Magdalene was not more possessed loved, or loves what she formerly disliked. Her life than was sle. During all these periods of profound seems 10 run in morbitic channels; her being seems to mental agony the intellectual functions were apparently be inspired by abuormal impulses. Il once she were unimpaired.

fond of pets, she now dislikes them. She neither It is interesting to observe that these transformations caresses nor cares to be caressed. If she formerly loved of the moral character by reason of vodily disorder are society, she now prelers solitude. Her relations with often eftecied without bodily pain or physical discom The things of time and sense have changed; apathy fort. The sufferings are described by the unhappy patients us of the extremest lype, bit wholly of a

This is the reason that the affections of the organs which mental character, being caused by retlex influence of react casily upon the brain and upon tho e functions, so much so

receive the nerves more especially from the grand sympathetic, the sympathetic upon the higher sensorial functions, as liv change'ihe character of the person completely, rendering Despine remarks inis peculiarity of reflex, psychical him irritable, angry. whimsical, violent, or sad. These changes disorder, and observes :

in the instinctive vature of the individnal, by means of morbid “Elle donne la raison pour laquelle les affections des

| affections in which the grand sympathetic is involved, may take

lace without phyrical suffering, without serious indisposition. organes qui reçoivement plus spécialement leurs erfs Pregnancy, the menstrual period, constipation, the presence of du grand sympathique iéagissent facilement sur le worms in the intestines, although scarcely occasioning local dis

comfort, may cause the gravest changes in the character, and even cerveau et sur ses fonctions, au point de changer com- insanity, in persons in whom the brain is very impressionable."

has succeeded upon enthusiasm, indifference upon cesses, nor the resolution to carry out old ones. His interest, misanthropy upon love and affection. These habits of business and enterprise reverse the axiom of moral cbanges may be so radical as to involve the business life, for he never does to-day what can confoundation of the moral character and lead her to ignore veniently be put off until to-morrow. That indepen. the affection of children and friends, or even to neglect dence of thought and action ; the manly self-reliance ; her duty to him whom she has solemnly vowed to love, the strong love of life and the enduring faith in virtue; even though he prove worse instead of better. For the calm, clear head in trouble and adversity ; the some, to her, strange and unaccountable reason she can courage to live while he can and to die when he must no longer endure her husband's presence ; his caresses without fear or reproach of the gods, or complaint or are received with ill-concealed but uncontrollable aver- distrust of the providences ; all the elements of charsion.

acter, in brief, which make a man a man, and a tower Women, whose moral characters are above reproach, of strength to his race-a refuge for the weak in trouble have thus, through abnormal impressions on the sym- and adversity-lapse in part, or die out altogether in pathetic system, been known to play the fiend one who suffers from the graver forms of spermatorrhea; incarnate during the first months of utero-gestation ; and in their place succeed weakness, irresolution, desexhibiting every species of demoniacal fury which a pondency and despair. Many forms of vice may follow demoniacal cunning could devise. All the vile pas- also, but more often, especially in the graver or more sions and abnormal emotions known to the human settled forms of the weakness, no serious offence against heart frequently gain the ascendancy over the unhappy morality is committed. He may, on the contrary, have being, under such circumstances, and incite in her the excess of the pious element and be moral even to pru. desire to indulge in petty violence, obstinacy, malice, dishness. While he is weak enough to be miserable, he and revenge ; or to exhibit a spirit of envy, jealousy, is too weak to be absolutely immoral. More often he quarrelsomeness, resentment, arrogance and selfish is so good as to be absolutely good for nothing. ness ; or a faithless, lying, reproachful, overbearing, We believe that the influence of sexual disorders of fault-finding, complaining mood ; a disposition, often, men, as a cause of insanity, has been overrated by when worse traits are suppressed, to annoy, tease, medical writers. The clinical records of asylums, of hinder, disputé, destroy property and engage in strife course, show as a matter of fact an almost constant and weak contention, ad libitum-conduct altogether association of the two maladies in the same person; but foreign to their normal state. Happily for the race it is by no means always easy to determine with any.. and for husbands, these phenomena are not the rule in thing like certainty the relation which the two states pregnancy. . And it is worthy of note that these un sustain to each other. While, on the other hand, we happy forms of alienation are more frequently observed have good reason to believe that medical writers underamong the better classes. There seems to be some rate the influence of disorders of the sexual functions connection between a life of ease and luxury and moral on the etiology of the petty vices of men and women degeneration. Be that as it may, there can be no so prevalent in civilized life. The insane must have doubt that the mode of life of the affluent classes en- an insane temperament, bias or neurosis, to give direcgenders sexual weakness in both men and women, tion to a morbid cause. When no such predisposing perverting their moral nature and impairing their bias to insanity exists, insane effects from any of the powers of reproduction, their capacity to produce a usual exciting causes of insanity cannot be counted on healthy, hardy progeny.

with certainty. Given the predisposing bias or neuroIn men, psychical disorder consequent upon disease sis, and the causes which produce any form of disease of the sexual organs can hardly be less serious than in may likewise produce insanity. It is a matter of women. There may not be absolute hysteria in men, observation that some of the worst forms of sexual as in women, though we do believe that it does some disease, both organic and functional, exist both in men times occur ; but the moral break-down is as complete and women without exciting any insane tendency. and equally common. Take, for example, that weak. They cannot be found, however, unaccompanied with ness known as spermatorrhea. What ravages does it more or less impairment or demoralization of the psynot inflict upon the cerebro-spinal system, as well as chical character. This, however, while it is in fact an upon that of the sympathetic ! In destroying the tone insanity, is so outside the confines of technical interof the organic system, so called, it impairs the vigor of pretation. the intellect, of volition, and corrupts the centres of In respect of the changes in the morale of an individemotion and of moral feeling. This disease causes in ual, tbrough the influence of disease of the corporeal men of naturally strong mental character the same organs, Griesinger very truly observes that they " condegree of fickleness and instability, the same want of stitute some of the most fundamental elements of the fidelity in their relations of business, or love, or friend- pathology of insanity. They are the key,” he remarks, ship, which we have ascribed to women suffering from * to a knowledge of a predisposition to mental disease an analagous disease. The courage which peculiarly resulting from the most diverse bodily diseases, and of distinguishes the ideal masculine character, the courage the mode of action of psychical causes.

" * The rationof opinion and conviction ; the heroism to brave dan- ale of the effects of functional disease upon mental deger and encounter obstacles ; the daring to do what rangement is perfectly clear to the mind of every med. one believes to be right when all the rest of mankind ical man. Equally clear is it to him why a grave believe it to be wrong ; the resolution to work and to affection may exist in the cerebral centres, or even in persevere, for work and perseverance's sake, these some parts of the spinal system, without perceptibly bigh qualities all crumble into decay in an individual disturbing the bodily functions or demoralizing the whose sexual system has become enfeebled by disease. emotional states. If the normal operations of the The purpose of such a one is weak and vacillating: he functions of organic life be preserved, a certain stability is uncertain to promise and still more uncertain of of the emotions will be assured, even if emotional inkeeping his promise ; he has lost the energy of manly sanity, by far the largest variety of insanity, be not an loving, manly working and manly daring ; he comes absolute impossibility. Indeed, we must maintain, to doubt himself, and therefore everything else—the without fear of contradiction, that the protean forms existence of truth, fidelity, honor, conviction ; he be- of emotional insanity, and the disease of the organs of lieves all men are miserable dullards ; and if he is the so-called “vegetative life," sustain the relation of suspicious of all men, all men, sooner or later, become cause and effect, the cause being in the domain of the suspicious of him, and especially all women. He loves latter; and that when the relation of cause and effect nothing long, but everything by turns ; now excess of is inversed and the emotional disturbance precedes the passion, fitful and capricious ; then disgust and loathing. He has not the strength to think out new pro- * Mental Pathoʻogy and Therapeutics, p. 53.

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