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New-York Nautical Institution and Shipmasters' Society; devoting itself especially, however, to the spread of nautical knowledge. It was organized in 1820, and incorporated March 23d, 1848.
For sick seamen, the institution most widely known is the Seamen's Retreat, on Staten Island, near the Quarantine-ground. The trustees of this institution have the right to collect from the master of every vessel arriving from a foreign port, one dollar and fifty cents; for each mate, one dollar; and for each sailor, fifty cents; and from the master of every coasting vessel, twenty-five cents for each member of the crew. Every person who has paid these "hospital-moneys " can claim reception into the Retreat. There have been, during the past year, 2,956 patients in the institution, of whom 167 have died. In connection with the Retreat, a large brick building has just been erected near by for the destitute or sick female relatives of sailors, and such sailors in particular as have paid hospital dues.
ported within its walls during the past year was 295. Near by this Asylum is the Home for Sailors' Children.
The Mariners' Family Industrial Society has for its object to supply work to the female relatives of seamen, and to relieve any pressing want among them. Their clothing store is at No. 322 Pearlstreet. The "Seamen's Retreat" disburses a portion of its charitable fund through the medium of this Society.
The American and Foreign Christian Union. This Society originated in 1849, and grew out of three others, "The American Protestant Society," the "Foreign Evangelical Alliance," and the "Christian Alliance." Its object is especially to spread Protestant doctrines and practice through Roman Catholic countries. It publishes a monthly Magazine, "The American and Foreign Christian Union," a monthly tract, "The Missionary Intelligencer," and a semi-monthly, "Der Freie Deutsche Katholik (The Free German Catholic). One of the Secretaries is the well-known and respected Rev. Robert Baird, D. D.
"The New York Association for improving the Condition of the Poor," is the name of a Society, operating very widely in its charities over the city. According to its charter, the city shall be divided into as many districts as there are wards; and these again into sections of about 25 families each. For each section a suitable visitor shall be obtained, whose duty it is to find out the wants of every family, and if needy and not the fit subject for other societies, to give them tickets for food, or fuel, or medicine. Money is in no case allowed to be given by the visitor, without especial permission.
Of those assisted, not more than oneeighth are American-born, usually onehalf Irish, and about three-eighths German or foreign in birth. In religion, threefourths are Roman Catholics, and most of the remainder unconnected with any Protestant Church. During the last year, 6559 families, with 29,515 persons were relieved.
The Marine Hospital, also situated on Staten Island, is devoted to the sick passengers or seamen from the ships just arrived. It is supported by an emigrant tax of two dollars on every cabin-passenger, native of a foreign country, and of fifty cents on every steerage-passenger. The fund from these sources, employed for various objects, amounts now to nearly $100,000 per annum. The two institutions last mentioned are controlled by the State Legislature.
The Sailors' Snug Harbor.- This Asylum for aged or infirm seamen stands on the north side of Staten Island, in a charming situation, opposite the Jersey shore, and commanding a full view of the harbor and distant City of New-York, with their ships and spires. It was founded in 1801, by a bequest of Captain Robert Richard Randall, and incorporated in 1806. The property appointed for the object consisted of a piece of land, then an open field near the city, worth about $50,000. Now this field is covered by the New-York Hotel, and the substantial blocks of elegant houses in its neighborhood; and it yields a rental of nearly $100,000 per annum-one of the richest endowments in the country. For many years the Snug Harbor itself was a plain wooden building, isolated on a slight eminence, near what is now the corner of Broadway and Ninthstreet. The present commodious and elegant edifice on Staten Island, has a front of white marble, and, with its wings, is 225 feet in length. The grounds belonging to it cover about 160 acres. The number of aged and disabled seamen sup
Among the Institutions, which have originated from this Association, are "The Demilt Dispensary," "The Northwestern Dispensary," and The Juvenile Asylum."
The American Female Guardian Society. This Society originally started with reference to throwing good influences around poor young women, has turned more and more to efforts for relieving deserted children. They have been enabled to erect a building in 30th-st. (between Fourth avenue and Madison avenue), as a house of reception for poor women and children, called, "The House of Industry and Home for the Friendless." Their object is to find homes in the country for its inmates. Since its opening in 1847, there have been received into it 1489 adults and 961 children. In the year 1852-415 adults and 217 children. Of the former, 243 were provided with places; and of the latter, 134 were sent to their friends or to families in the country.
The Society publishes a semi-monthly paper, The Advocate and Guardian," with an issue of 14,000. They have also published 10,000 tracts, 3000 copies of "Friendly Advice to Domestics," and 1000 petitions for street children.
The Asylum for the Relief of Respectable, Aged, Indigent Females-or, as it is more familiarly known, the Old Ladies' Home, is in 20th-street, near Second aveThe Association was established in February, 1814; and the Asylum founded, November, 1838. It has been uniformly prosperous, and acknowledges in various receipts for the last year, $22,108.
The House and School of Industry, has its rooms in 100 West 16th street. It was established in 1850.
ed in 1797, by the efforts of the late Mrs. Isabella Graham.
The Society for the Relief of Poor Widows with Small Children, was found
This Society has been a very efficient, successful Association. During the years 1847 and 1848, the number of persons relieved were 385 widows, and 1023 children; and the sum of $5,413 was expended in their behalf.
Out of this Society, sprang the NewYork Orphan Asylum. The managers found often young children on their hands, for whom they had no home, except the Alms House. By the constant exertions of the ladies of the Association, an Asylum was at length opened for these orphans, in a hired house, at Greenwich Village, May 1st, 1806. They were incorporated in 1807; and, by collections in various Churches, were enabled to build a suitable edifice in Bank-street. At length, in the increase of the City, Greenwich ceased to be a village, and they determined to obtain a situation farther removed in the country. The old property was sold, and nine and a half acres were bought in Bloomingdale at a cost of $17,500.
The present Asylum buildings were commenced in June 1836, and finished in 1840. They are on Ninth avenue, near 23d-street.
There have been as inmates of the Institution this last year, 184 children;-112 boys, and 72 girls. Of these, 1 has died, and 12 have been returned to their friends, or have been indentured. The Board acknowledge during the past year legacies, to the amount of $15,199, and the gift of a library of 750 volumes, with a valuable Philosophical Apparatus.
Another Orphan Asylum, equally successful with the former Institution, is the Leake and Watts Orphan House, founded by a legacy of John George Leake, deceased June 2d, 1827.
The House was first opened for children November 1st, 1843. It is situated amid pleasant scenery, between 111th and 112th streets, and between Ninth and Tenth avenues. The whole front of the building and its wings, facing on the South, extends 206 feet. The Institution has a fine landed property of 26 acres, unencumbered, and an incore sufficient to support 250 children. There were at the last Report 194 children within it.
A similar Institution, now very widely known, was commenced under more unfavorable circumstances, than either of the above-the Colored Orphan Asylum.
In 1836, the colored pauper children were kept in the cellars of the Alms House, or in places entirely unsuited to health or improvement. The prejudice against their color was so great, that those
who attempted to relieve them, could find no house which could be rented for their shelter. They were obliged at length to purchase a house and two lots in 12thstreet, at the heavy rates then prevailing -for $9,000.
They had received in 1840, $13,000 for a building fund; and in 1842 they acknowledge as a gift from the City, 20 lots of land on Fifth avenue, between 43d and 44th streets. There the present building was erected, and in 1843, opened for the children. In 1849, a Hospital was added, the money for its erection being obtained by legacy.
Since the opening of the Asylum, 631 children have been admitted. The number of inmates during the last year was 258, of whom twenty-one have been indentured, and fifteen have died. The number of children under eight years of age, is 79.
The Protestant Half Orphan Asylum is conducted on a different principle from any of the above. The parents, where
not incapacitated from labor, are required to pay fifty cents a week for each child received into the Institution. The income from this source alone, the last year, amounted to $2,245, or about one-third of the receipts of the Society. An excellent provision it is found to be for all parties; and the worst evil from a charitable Institution is somewhat escaped, the weakening of independence in the recipients.
There are now within the Asylum 176 children. The whole number in attendance during this last year is 246, and what is most remarkable in a medical point of view, there has not been a single death among the children for about three years. During the last ten years, says the Medical Report, there have been 676 cases of distinctly infantile diseases, and only one death-this from scarlet fever. The deaths during the cholera season amounted to ten. The average annual number of children in the Asylum since 1842, is 161 and a fraction.
This success in that most difficult matter-the preserving the health of a large number of children, shut up in one building is well worthy of close attention from inedical men.
The Asylum buildings are on Sixth Avenue, between Tenth and Eleventh streets.
The Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum is situated in Prince-street. The president is the Archbishop Hughes. As we have received no report, we can give no facts with regard to this Institution. It is believed however to be well supported, and successful in its operations.
The [R. C.] House of Protection, under the charge of the Sisters of Mercy, is in Houston-street, corner of Mulberry.
In speaking of the Benevolent Institutions of New-York, we should not omit one, peculiar in its organization, and with many objectionable features, still widereaching in charities-the Odd-Fellows Association.-The Annual Report to the Grand Lodge of the U. S. for 1852, speaks of "their Brotherhood, as affiliated for no unlawful purpose, but on the contrary, ever standing firmly in defence of their country and its laws; excluding from their halls all sectarian and political discussions; discouraging every species of vice and immorality; disseminating no other doctrines than those of peace and good-will to man," 'an Order, built upon the very homestead of humanity, a gentle brotherhood."
The Order numbered in 1842, 24,160 members; it contains now 193,298, with 2,729 lodges. The revenue from the subordinate lodges amounts to $1,164,331 per annum. The total amount of relief to $614,721.
The Association which owns the fine building, called the "Odd-Fellows' Hall," at the corner of Grand and Centre streets, reports the present indebtedness at $82,601, which includes $60,000 mortgage on the building, $15,560 of stock, and $2,175 due to stock holders. Receipts are stated at $75,583.
One of the most practically useful of our benevolent institutions of New-York, is the "People's Bathing and Washing Establishment, No. 141 Mott-st. We say benevolent, for although it is founded by joint-stock subscription, nominally returning interest, yet it is in effect a charity of the most effective character. The first idea of such an establishment originated in London, about eight years ago, and there are now several of these associations in the great metropolis, all supported, we believe, by voluntary contributions.
The New-York enterprise originated in 1850. A few active philanthropists sub
scribed the funds, and erected the building at a cost of about $40,000. Robert B. Minturn is the president; Richard Warren. Horace Greeley, and Marcus Spring, are among the active directors. In the "washing" department of this building sixtyeight women can work at the same time; and the washing, drying and ironing of an ordinary family, can be done easily in one hour, at the cost of three cents, including fuel, an immense saving for the poor, in time, in money, and in comfort. The male and female swimming and single baths can accommodate a large number at the same time, and cost from 5 to 10 cents. The object is to promote cleanliness and comfort among the poor, at the smallest possible cost-the prices barely paying the actual expense.
For the first three months of its existence, ending last August, the number of bathers was 38,600, and the whole revenue $2,136.
The greatest number of bathers during any one week, was from June 12th to the 19th-4.670; income, $237 68; from washing, the same week, $253 27. The next greatest number is from July 17th to the 24th-4,214; income $207 18. The highest number per one day, is 1,147.
This year has opened very favorably, the bathers for a single day in spring having already amounted to 753.
Within a few years the attention of our citizens has been aroused to a wide-spread evil in the city, for which no remedies had yet been found-the condition of vagrant children.
It was suddenly discovered that there were, hidden in cellars, swarming in foul alleys, infesting docks, and markets, and factories, a vast multitude of almost heathen children. They were not usually of American origin, or the fruits of our institutions; still they were, it was evident, poisoning the whole range of society around them. The law did not touch them, as very many were not legally vagrant. The first measures to reach them, were the formation, in 1848. by some earnest Christian men, of a "Boys' Meeting," on the corner of Hudson and Christopher streets. This was a Sunday meeting for street boys, where the poorest and most ragged might hear something of Christian truth. From this sprung various similar meetings, and at length, in 1851, the "Asylum for Friendless Boys," situated in Bank-street. This Asylum was designed to provide a home for the street boys, where they could be instructed in the common school branches, and also in some industrial pursuit, until they were sent away to the country. There have been up to January 21, 1852, in the Institution, 127 boys,
mostly of the poorest and most miserable class. Of these, 100 are foreigners. Out of school-hours in the morning, they have been employed in sewing, knitting, and shoemaking.
Since the establishment of that Asylum, the city has taken up the matter of providing a home for these street children.
An Institution has been incorporated, with a grant of $50,000 from the city, provided $50,000 were raised by private subscription. This sum has been collected almost by the individual exertions of one active and benevolent merchant; and in the present year, the Juvenile Asylum of New-York will begin its operations. The Bank-street Asylum is merged into it; it has a large fund, and an especial Act under which it can collect children, and the whole power of the city to sustain it, so that success seems almost certain.
It is a great experiment to collect four or five hundred of outcast vicious boys and girls from our great city, and try to bring them up to take an honorable place in American life. If successful, hardly any expense can be considered too great. Nothing costs a State more than such a class of young vagrants and criminals growing up in its midst. The plan of the Institution, though on a much larger scale, is similar to that of the Bank-street Asylum. It will teach the boys some honest trade or business, give them the basis of a mental education, and then send them out to be apprenticed with mechanics or farmers in the country. According to an especial Act, the Courts have the right to commit to this Institution not only the vagrant children, but also children who are neglected or abused by their parents. The Institution has a House of Reception in Grand-street, where all the children found in circumstances of vagrancy or abandonment are kept for ten days, after which, if not reclaimed, they are committed to the Asylum. The Asylum buildings themselves are to be on the northeast side of the island, beyond the city.
In connection with these Institutions for a truly neglected class, may be mentioned a new Society, originated by active, earnest men from various denominations, designed to act exclusively on the poor children of the city-the Children's Aid Society. It proposes in its circular, to devote itself to the multitude of children who cannot in any way be shut up in asylums, and who are now out of religious influences. It begins with the opening of "Boys' Meetings" in needy quarters, through which a knowledge is gained of this class, and in which the only words of religious instruction that ever
reach the street boy, can be spoken. With these it intends "to connect Industrial Schools,' where the great temptation to this class, arising from want of work, may be removed; and where they can learn an honest trade." It hopes to be "the means of draining the city of these children, by communicating with farmers, mechanics, or families in the city who may have need of such for employment." Lodging-houses for boys, lectures, reading-rooms, all come within its ultimate plan.
More momentous objects could not be before any Society. If successful, it will do the very work of all others most needed in this city; for it is the individual labor in the homes and dens of the poor, the inducing them into the country, where labor is in demand, and where no man can starve, which will help them more than all the asylums that the whole Corporation estate can support. The opening work-shops for the street children, which shall be self-sustaining, is also a grand experiment; and one which, if satisfactory, is calculated to change the whole surface of poverty in the city.
It remains yet to be seen whether this immense youthful vagrancy and crime is an incurable disease, consequent on the overcrowding of a great city, or whether there are remedies which can strike at the very seat and core of it.
The New-York Hospital.-In 1770 several wealthy citizens of the city of New-York subscribed a large sum of money, for the purpose of establishing a hospital, and applied to Lieutenant-Governor COLDEN for a charter of incorporation. Their prayer was granted the next year by the Earl of Dunmore, Governor and Commander-in-chief of the province, and a charter given to the applicants, to whom were joined the officers of the city government, the Rector of Trinity Church, and the President of King's (now Columbia) College, under the incorporate name of the "Society of the Hospital in the city of New-York in America."
The Society at once organized and commenced building a hospital within two years, but the breaking out of the Revolution, and the confusion accompanying it, prevented further operations; and it was not till 1795, that the hospital was in condition to receive patients, when 18 were admitted.
The expenses of the establishment were defrayed through an annuity of £800, granted by the Legislature of the State, March 1, 1788.
This sum was increased two years afterwards to £2,000, and again in 1805 to $12,500, which by an act, passed in 1806,