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variety in houses; namely, differences in rents. The decision as to what proportion of his income a miner should spend on house rent is determined by a number of considerations. Racial characteristics, size of family, domestic habits, social and educational aspirations, past obligations, all affect the question. Each case can best be settled by each individual family, and means of meeting different desires should be provided within certain limitations.
PROPORTION OF TYPES.
After the variety in style of the houses for a new mining town has been determined, the next question that arises is the number of three, four, five, or six room houses that shall be built, and how many houses shall have single, double, or multiple tenements. This question can be decided only after carefully collected statistics have been interpreted with sound judgment. Local investigations must be made; the character of labor must be predicted; the percentages of married and unmarried men on neighboring pay rolls should be ascertained; and the sizes of miners' families should be recorded. Observation indicates that miners' houses in the past have been built entirely too small. In correcting this defect incongruous additions have been built, which probably gave rise to the term “mining patch."
As the number of rooms in a one-story house increases, the number of exposed sides to each room decreases. In a one-room house the room would have four sides completely exposed; in a two-room house each room would have three sides; and in a four-room house two sides exposed; and when a fifth room is added only one side of it may be exposed. Therefore, when the rooms reach a certain number it becomes advisable to build two-story houses, not only for improved lighting effects, but also because it cheapens the proportionate cost of foundation, roof, and of land occupied.
A two-story brick cottage is shown in Plate III, A. The plan of the house is shown in figure 5.
Double-tenement houses have in the past been used to a large extent in mining towns, especially in northern climates, where expensive cellars are required. It is generally necessary to make doubletenement houses two stories high. Each tenement should be made as private as possible. Separate front porches are highly desirable. The yards should be fenced off and individual privies and coal sheds built. Tenements should be side by side and not one over the other.