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A multiple-tenement block may be a building two or two and onehalf stories high, extending along the street front so that 6 to 10 homes are under the one roof. This type of dwelling is economical hecause of the saving in side walls and may be necessary where land frontage is scarce. The critical consideration in its adoption is climatic conditions. In a cold climate the practice of building a number of two-story houses of identical design with narrow passageways (4 or 5 feet) between the houses is undesirable. Little sunlight reaches the rooms on these blocked sides; in fact these sides are generally windowless. It would be better to combine these houses and omit the narrow passage entirely and enlarge the window areas in front and back. The tenement block should never be built more than two rooms in depth, except, perhaps, for the extension of a kitchen ell in the rear. Tenement blocks should be built preferably on a street that runs north and south, so that the exposed side of the rooms will have the advantage of as much sunlight as possible. The cutting off of the convenient entrance to the back door is not a serious objection. The combining of eight of these houses may permit the blocks to be separated by an interval 30 feet or more wide, thus furnishing two tenements in every eight with plenty of light and sunshine.
In warm climates, however, the important consideration is to get a cool, well-ventilated house, and individual houses, even though spaced closely, help this. Even if sunlight can not penetrate these narrow passageways, windows should be placed therein for ventilating purposes. Privacy may be attained by not placing windows directly opposite each other or by using ground or other translucent glass.
The direction in which the house faces is important in self-contained houses as well as in multiple-tenement dwellings. Every effort should be made to have the living rooms that are most used on the south and east sides. The north and west sides are more cheerless in winter and more uncomfortable on warm summer evenings. The halls, stairways, and less used rooms should be on these less desirable sides.
In some places it was a common practice in the past to build the kitchen entirely separate from the rest of the house. It is not believed the best conditions result from separating the kitchen and the house; ultimately the intervening space is roofed over, then one side
will be closed, and finally the kitchen becomes a part of the main building.
The kitchen in a miner's house should be made much larger than has been the practice in the past; in fact, the kitchen should be the largest and most pleasant room in the house. It is the center of all home activities. The miner's wife spends a large part of her life in the kitchen; it is used as the family dining room; the children play there and around the back door. Neighbors are entertained in the kitchen. In the absence of a washhouse, it is used as a bathroom. On cold winter nights the family circle is around the kitchen stove. These remarks apply notably to the smaller houses, in which tho living room is often converted into a bedroom. Statistics as well as observations prove this. Of 2,371 miners' families investigated by the Immigration Commission 43.5 per cent used all but one of the rooms in the house for sleeping purposes, and 41.1 per cent used all but two rooms for sleeping purposes. Of course, it would be desirable if every miner-in fact, every workingman-could have a dining room, a living room, and a parlor, in addition to his kitchen, but this is not always practicable under existing conditions.
WINDOWS, DOORS, AND ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING. In this bulletin the discussion of windows, doors, artificial lighting and heating, and interior finish precedes the discussion of foundations, chimneys, framework, and roof. Although this order is illogical from the builders' point of view, it is the logical order as regards the health of the people who are to occupy the house. It is felt that many advantages have been abrogated because of a desire to conform to construction practices or through fear of violating fixed standards, such as placing windows with a view to symmetry rather than with regard to the interior arrangement or the lighting effect. It is desirable that the plan of the house should be developed from the room out and not from the foundation up.
MORE SUNLIGHT IN THE HOME.
The part played by sunlight and fresh air in insuring good health is often dwelt upon, but practical and specific methods of introducing a maximum of these into a cottage .are seldom furnished. Because lighting and ventilating an individual house, as compared with a crowded city tenement, is simple, the tendency has been to slight this subject, with the result that the prevailing condition is far from perfect. The lightsomeness of a miner's cottage deserves special consideration. As the miner's occupation necessitates many
• Immigrants in industries : Reports of the Immigration Commission, 1910 (Senate Doc. No. 663), vol. 6, 1911, p. 134.
sunless hours, every effort should be made to bring as much sunshine into his home as possible and to reduce to a minimum the need of artificial light.
The explanation frequently given for not having more windows is that they would make the house more difficult to keep warm in cold weather. Climatic conditions should greatly influence one's judgment in this matter, and it must be remembered that warmth and comfort are essential as well as sunlight, but excuses should not be allowed to masquerade as reasons. A house can be well lighted and still be kept warm. Open foundations, single floors, unceiled rooms, leaky roofs, loose windows, and sagging doors are the chief reasons for cold, uncomfortable houses, and if larger windows will necessitate a correction of these defects, then they bring a double blessing.
CONTROLLED VERSUS ACCIDENTAL VENTILATION.
Some good from the above construction defects has been claimed because they were all that furnished many occupants with fresh air on account of their prejudice against opening windows. This claim is not supported by modern ventilating ideas. “Air-conditioning” is the latest word in ventilating parlance. It signifies that the amount of air furnished should depend upon whether the occupant is actively engaged in housework, or sitting quietly eating or reading, or is sleeping under warm bedclothes. “Controlled " ventilation by properly placed doors and easily opened windows is needed, and not “ accidental” ventilation.
No hard and fast rule can be given for the proportion of wall area that should be used for window space. The climate, building material, interior finish, shape of room, number of sides exposed, and the use of the room all affect the proportion. One feature that may serve as a guide is the common inadequacy of window area in the past. Those mining companies that are changing the type of construction of their houses are especially cautioned. Some companies have recently built clapboarded and plastered houses and did not increase the window area from that used with old methods of construction, with the result that the rooms are very warm and close in summer.
POSITION, SPACING, AND SHAPE OF WINDOWS.
It will be of help to keep in mind the three distinct functions of a window, namely, air, light, and outlook; and the position of the window should be such that all these purposes are fulfilied to the best advantage. The arrangement of the furniture in the room
should be forecasted so that the windows may be placed with respect to the arrangement of the bed, bureau, tables, looking-glasses, etc. In placing bedroom windows it should be remembered that bedsteads are from 6 feet 6 inches to 6 feet 8 inches long and from 3 to 5 feet wide. If the room has two sides exposed, advantage should be taken of this feature and windows placed in both exposed sides. One of the fundamental considerations emphasized in designing a house is the necessity of having exposed sides for this very reason. In a balloon-frame house it is desirable to have the windows in the second story directly over those in the first story.
The shape of the opening is important, and in building a large number of houses the use of sashes not of standard sizes may be justifiable. A tall, narrow window is more effective than a short, wide one, and the opening should extend well up toward the ceiling. This permits the light to penetrate farther into the interior of the room and reduces the reservoir of stagnant air between the top of the window and the ceiling. It also allows greater wall space for furniture.
On all window casings a strip of sheet lead should be placed along the top on the outside. Otherwise water may leak in during rains and stain the curtains or shades.
Ordinary window glass is made in two standard thicknesses, known as “ single thick” and “double thick,” the former being about one-sixteenth inch and the latter one-eighth inch thick. Although the latter costs a little more than the “single-thick” glass, it is much stronger and is a better insulator against the cold. Singlethick glass should never be used in panes larger than 24 by 24 inches.
Glass should be set with putty made from a mixture of pure linseed oil and whiting, to which one-tenth part of white-lead putty has been added. A liberal number of triangular zinc points should be used. Before the glass is set the sash bars should be painted with a linseed-oil paint so that the wood will not absorb the oil of the putty. If these directions are followed the putty will harden and cling tightly both to the glass and the wood and will last as long as the sash itself. Cheap commercial putty is sometimes made from marble dust and kerosene; this putty tends to curl away from the glass and fall off, thus permitting the rain water to lodge on the sash bars and rot them. Attention to details of glazing will greatly reduce the number of vexing window troubles.
NUMBER OF PANES IN SASH.
Sashes with six or eight panes of glass have been used to a large extent in the past in miners? houses. These permit the use of
"single-thick” glass and reduce the expense of replacing broken panes. They do, however, catch more dirt, are more difficult to clean, and obstruct the light more than windows with larger panes. The leakage of air is probably greater and cracked or broken panes are apt to remain unrepaired longer than with larger lights. A twolight sash makes a very desirable window for a dwelling.
EASILY OPERATED WINDOWS.
All windows should be double sash and each sash should slide up and down with such ease that a child can operate it. Opening a window that binds is very trying and the occupant may neglect to admit fresh air to a room if the windows are in such a condition that it requires a bar to open them and a prop to keep them open. Windows often bind on account of the settling of a house and remedies for this are discussed under the subject of “Foundations.” Windows often become loose, rattle, and leak because of shrinkage. After a new house has been in use for some time all of the windows should be carefully gone over and these defects remedied.
The windows should be weighted so that both sashes can be raised or lowered to any desired height. Sash lifts should be applied to the bottom rail of the lower sash to afford a hold for the fingers in raising the sash. In old houses in which weight boxes have not been prorided, side sash locks should be installed. These are attached to the side of the window and will hold the window open at any desired height. They are cheap, costing only 50 cents or a dollar a dozen.
BLINDS NOT NECESSARY.
Outside blinds, or shutters, are unnecessary for a miner's house. They are apt to get out of repair quickly. The frame may sag and get out of shape, the slats may drop out or get stuck. The fasteners may become broken or bent. Frequently the blind is then tied back with a string and is then seldom used for the purpose intended, or is permitted to become a plaything of the winds and slam back and forth, breaking glass and causing other damage.
Flies and mosquitoes are undesirable, not only because they are nuisances, but because they spread disease. In mining towns the fly evil is especially menacing because of the open privies and other insanitary conditions that frequently exist. These bad conditions should be uprooted at the source, but as an additional safeguard fly screens are urgently advocated. Unfortunately, many of the framed screens on the market are ineffective and expensive. Cloth netting, when tacked on the outside casing, makes an effective screen when in