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streets and into their homes. Cleanliness in person and clothes stimulates self-respect, and, better still, indicates consideration for the people and property with whom one comes in contact on the streets, in the stores, or on the trolley cars. The wash and change house encourages these commendable traits. Its use also shows a consideration for the folks at home. It lightens the burden of keeping the house clean and does away with the necessity of lighting fires to heat water. Strict privacy in bathing in a miner's home is difficult because of lack of facilities, and the wash and change house relieves the many inconveniences necessitated where good standards of modesty are maintained.
The shower bath refreshes the workman so that he returns home in a more agreeable frame of mind. Fatigue is caused by the accumulation of the by-products of muscular activities, and experiments have shown that the shower causes the more rapid elimination of these toxins. The wash and change house helps to conserve health. Coming out of a warm mine, with damp clothes and feet wet because of inadequate drainage, the miner is susceptible to colds and pneumonia. The shower helps to restore his heated and perspiring body to normal temperature.
The wash and change house can be heated, lighted, and furnished with hot and cold water economically by utilizing the exhaust steam from the power plant. The plumbing fixtures and drainage system can be installed en masse at much less expense than at the individual houses and the maintenance and repair costs will be greatly reduced.
As scientific investigations and practical observations have demonstrated that typhoid fever, hookworm, and many diarrheal troubles are disseminated by the careless disposition of fecal discharges, many of the loose practices formerly followed should no longer be tolerated. Reduced to the nauseating truth the question resolves itself into preventing the reentrance of bowel discharges into the system through such mediums as water, food, flies, dust, and common towels. How can this be best accomplished? In cities the method generally adopted is the immediate removal by means of water flushed through sewers to some distant point, where the sewage is emptied directly into some large body of moving water or treated in a disposal plant, the refinements of which depend upon circumstances. Two of the reasons why private communities often defer the building of a sewer system are: First, the convenience of a sewer system is never fully appreciated until it has once been enjoyed; and, second, a sewer is a buried investment and adds nothing to the appearance of the town, as surface improvements do. In the mining towns of the future the sewer system should be regarded preemi
nently as an agency of community health and should be installed if the cost is not prohibitive. As was true of the water supply, the possibility of an economical sewer system should be an important factor in determining the town site and town arrangement.
SUBSTITUTES FOR SEWERS.
In some new towns and in many old ones it may not, however, be feasible to install a sewer system, and a less expensive substitute must be selected. As the sewer system presupposes a public water supply, it is practically out of the question in many of the established mining towns. In selecting the substitute emphasis should be laid, first, on the feature that aims to get the body sloughings outside the zone of habitation as quickly as possible; second, on the prevention of nuisances between periods of removal.
A sanitary privy is very practicable for mining towns, more so, indeed, than for isolated houses, because it can be taken care of much easier as a system than as a unit. A water-tight receptacle (preferably of metal) under the hole will prevent soil pollution and consequent contamination of wells. If lime or dirt from a convenient box is used to cover each stool, the odors and the danger of transmission by flies will be minimized. The receptacles should be emptied at least once a week during the cold months and twice a week during the hot summer season. An extra wagon load of buckets should be provided, so that it will be necessary only to exchange the empty bucket for the full one at the privy, deferring the emptying of the bucket until the wagon arrives at the disposal site. The material should be thoroughly limed and buried in a place where it is not possible to cause a nuisance or pollute a water supply. In some cases it may be advisable to burn the waste matter in an incinerator
Leaching earth vaults are not satisfactory and have absolutely no justification in a mining town where community control reposes in a central avthority. These vaults possess all the nuisances of the cesspool, with the very dangerous element of disease germs added. In wet seasons the ground is saturated, and instead of the liquid seeping out the ground water leaks into the vaults. When the water table lowers, the pollution from the walls will be carried great distances.
The water-tight concrete vault is much better than the leaching type, but it is objectionable because the human wastes are stored
continuously close to the human habitation. A second objection is the high cost and the difficulty of making the vault water-tight.
MAKE THE PRIVY SAFE.
In a number of old-type mining towns the privies are so built that the bowel discharges simply drop upon the surface of the ground, whence they are scattered about by animals, rain, wind, or flies. In conjunction with this crude arrangement are often found shallow wells which furnish drinking water for the people (see Pl. V, B). This deplorable and dangerous combination of conditions should be corrected at once. As a matter of relative importance, however badly the house of the miner may need repairs, the first and most important duty is to make the privy safe. The most illiterate man will discover a way of patching up his house to protect himself and his family from the cold, but he is not apt to guard against such insidious foes as typhoid fever germs and hookworms.
Many municipalities are adopting what is known as a clean-up day, which is a development of the spring and fall house-cleaning days.
This practice has been in vogue in some mining communities for many years. Some companies have recently made the clean-up day more ceremonious. The legend on a placard used by one company whereby better cooperation was obtained is given below. This placard also served a useful educational purpose.
Saturday, April 5, has been set aside as Clean-up Day" for all the camps of the #
corporation, and it is hoped that every family will use some effort on that day to make our camps more healthful and sanitary than they have ever been.
Burn all trash, leaves, chips, bones, cast-off clothing, old shoes, etc. ; in fact, everything that will burn that is of no value. Tin cans, old tin buckets, and things of that kind, should be heated until they melt or will not hold water. Stagnant water in such things is a breeding place for both malaria and typhoid fever.
Scald out the rain barrel and cover it with a coffee sack or cotton cloth. This will keep out the wiggletails. Every “wiggle” will be a skeeter" bye and bye.
Cinders, old iron, crockery, and things that will not burn should be piled in some place convenient for a wagon. Arrangements have been made to have the company team haul this rubbish away.
Clean out well from under the floors and fix so that neither hogs, dogs, nor chickens can stay beneath them. Fleas and flies both spread disease. Sufficient lime to sprinkle under a house will be furnished by the company, free of charge, when properly applied for.
Flies are the cause of 75 per cent of the typhoid fever in this country. Wall up, or box up, around the privy vault, and throw on sufficient dirt to
make it fly tight. Scrub out the closets at least once a week with hot soap suds and pour a little lime and coal oil in the vaults occasionally. Screen your house early and well against the fly. Mosquito bar is cheap and answers well for one season. Mr. Fly takes his breakfast in the outhouse and his dinner with you, and is not at all particular to take off his hat or wipe his feet when he comes in.
We are anxious to make these camps the model sanitary camps for the State of Kentucky. We will do our part. Will you help?
(Signed by officers of corporation.)
REGULAR SCAVENGER SERVICE.
Clean-up days serve a purpose, but they should not by any means be considered a substitute for regular scavenger service. A system based upon the frequent removal of garbage, rubbish, ashes, and other wastes, is by far the most sanitary. A water-tight receptacle, protected from flies and animals, and small enough to be handled by one man is recommended. If such receptacles are placed near the alley so that the scavenger can load them quickly it may be possible to visit each house every two or three days. This material should be burned or buried in such a manner so that no nuisances will arise.
DETAILED PLANS. Plates VI, VII, and VIII will aid the operator in drawing up plans and specifications for cottages to be built by contract. Many of the suggestions contained in the bulletin are incorporated into these drawings. The special features of the cottage are: Substantial, well-ventilated foundation wall; double flooring lined with paper; large window area with weighted sashes; glass-panel front door and transom over back door; ventilators in closets and louvers in-gables; roomy kitchen facing both street and back yard; spacious front veranda facing northeast; usefully located electric lights.
Although these plans have been put to a practical test they should not be followed blindly, as local conditions might require numerous revisions to be made.
Covered back veranda
10 x 11"ceiling vent
Kitchen and living room
Uncovered front veranda
10' x 14 basement ventilator
PLAN AND ELEVATION OF MINER'S FRAME COTTAGE.