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THE ADVANCING LINE OF GERMANS “War is declared by a few men in one nation; the cost is paid by the people

of all the world.'

Somebody's commerce follows some nation's flag, but the business and the emblem do not always agree.

Today, all Europe has gone to war to establish national supremacy in certain markets. I hardly dare hope that either this or the following statements will go unchal

lenged; still my study convinces me, at least, that they are true. That is, England has control of certain markets today; Germany wants them and has been a trifle too successful—for Great Britain's comfort—in taking them. England has been uneasy, even furious. Russia has a vast wealth of natural resources—lumber, coal, minerals, and rich soilwhich are awaiting development and need markets. The other countries, knowing they will be left behind if Russia ever starts, have tried to keep her from getting started; they have blocked her outlet to markets. That is, European nations, finding themselves without

many of those things which make CZAR OF RUSSIA

. for successful business competition. autocracy has been modified by the are trying to remove commercial

inequalities with the sword. They not the one to deny him; I get my are taking fifty million dollars a day out fun by talking shop. But, to talk shop of their business—already starved in in connection with war is not to compute many ways—to spend it on war, which the cost of the harness, the guns, the does not help but destroys their trade projectiles, and the fortifications. In- even as it destroys the factories and stead, it is to talk of the markets which farms which support that trade. From a war is supposed to open. It is to gossip cold business point of view, this proves about "commerce following the flag” and that war over markets is outright foolto speculate on what flag will go where ishness. In itself it makes impossible and whose commerce will follow it. the thing for which it is fought.

in connection the harnessrtifications, which farms wsiness po

· Another thing I would ask you to re- tries—like England—and countries havmember. No nation wars to keep its ing small development—like India or home markets; it fights only to broaden South America. The manufactured its business zone beyond its boundaries. article costs more than the raw material. That is, it fights to engage in export Therefore, if the undeveloped country trade. There are several fundamental should buy as much bulk as it sells, it laws of all export trade. One is that would soon be bankrupt. Exporting sales of manufactured articles are made countries make it a practice to adjust by countries which have learned to pro- their export prices to move as great bulk cluce to countries which

as possible. They name a have not learned to

lower price on that produce. Eng

percentage of land sells us

goods which woolen

they sell in goods




He was in the middle of the ring when the world's greatest open fight was started.

because we have not learned to make markets than they name on the largest them cheaply. On the same basis, any percentage they sell at home. As I see country can sell machines and manufac- it, the export market is more a spillway tured articles to South America because for over-production than it is a source it has not been developed to the point of of profit. producing them.

If, as this indicates, all export business The second fundamental law is that is done either on a ridiculously small marthe export trade proceeds upon an ex- gin or none at all, how long will it take change of manufactured articles for raw the warring European nations to pay, materials. For example, we can sell with the "profits” they make off conrough ores, lumber, and the like to Japan quered markets, the principal and interand buy manufactured articles. Europe est of a war debt which grows at the rate can sell machinery or manufactured ar- of fifty millions a day? ticles to South America and take in ex- On a business basis, does war pay? Is change cattle or natural farm products. it worth what it costs ? Especially does We sell raw cotton to England and buy it pay when it is a matter of the most the cotton goods.

common knowledge that a nation may, by If you will study the export markets force, keep a market wide open to its you will discover that the “export trade” subjects without being able to assure is mostly between highly developed coun- that anyone in that market will buy a




THE BRITISH SHIP DRAKE "War never was a bargain. On the contrary, it entails costs that can never be paid."

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LIGHTS OF BRITISH DREADNAUGHTS AT SPITHEAD BEFORE THE WAR BEGAN "Shells from dreadnaughts may open a market; they cannot force unconvinced consumers to buy."


By Gilson Gardner

The job and the man must be brought together. The private employment agencies have failed because they are run for private profit; the state agencies have failed because their jurisdiction is local. Congress is fighting out the problem of the unemployed and is planning revolutionary legislation which will allow the National Government to smooth the path of employer and worker, and to stamp out the fraud now practiced upon those least able to bear it.The Editors.

OHN SMITH was out of a job. That is the story in a nutshell of the
Smith was one of a number of private employment agency. It states
other men similarly situated. one-half of the problem which civiliza-
They all applied for jobs at an tion today faces in the eternal question

"employment agency" in the city of The Man and the Job. of Detroit, Michigan.

Hon. Wm. J. MacDonald of MichiOn the eighth day of June, 1914, the gan, member of the House of Repreoperator of this agency was sentenced sentatives, June third, introduced into to serve ninety days in the workhouse the House a bill (H. R. 17017), “To without the option of a fine by Judge provide for the establishment of a NaConnolly. From a Detroit daily of tional Employment Bureau under the that date, I quote the story:

direction and supervision of the Secre“The court blamed - for the tary of Labor.” Before the House death of one man and the suffering of Committee on Labor, Mr. MacDonald many more whom he sent into the himself a member of the committeewilds of Minnesota for jobs. This man stated the problem of the man who conducted an employment agency and wants work, is willing to work, but was arrested and convicted several can't get work. times for violation of the law. He “I doubt,” said MacDonald, "whether promised a Federal officer to close his there are any of us except those invesplace of business. The Federal officer tigators who are brought into direct was transferred to Chicago and

contact with the problem of the unemopened another agency. A gang of ployed, who realize what a tremendmen were sent to Minnesota by him. ously vicious system the present priHe told them jobs were waiting for vate employment agencies comprise. them. He accepted their fees and It is rather a strange commentary on shipped them to the woods. One man our industrial and social system that was killed by being struck by a train, the most unfortunate class, the weakest the others undergoing suffering before class we have, are made most cruelly they could get back. The arrest fol- the victims of fraud and actual robbery lowed on a charge of violating the em- when they are seeking to obtain employment agency laws. - pleaded ployment that will give them a bare for mercy but was refused.”


This sort of testimony can be gathered all over the country, wherever official investigation has established the facts. From the report of the Wisconsin Commissioner of Labor is taken the following brief paragraph which tells the same story of fraud, oppression, misrepresentation,


FRANK WALSH Chairman of the Coinmission on Industrial Relations who is interested in

the employment bills.

The Commissioner of Licenses of New York has under his charge the administration of the law concerning the licensing of employment agencies. In his annual report for 1913, appears the following paragraph: “Men are told that they are going to do grading work, and when they are shipped fifty or a hundred miles outside of New York they find that they have to work standing up to their knees in water. Some are told they have to work on roads, and find that they must go into tunnels. Good sleeping quarters are promised to some, who are then made to sleep on the floors of shanties without even straw to lie upon. Proper food and cheap board are described, which turn out to be unfit food furnished at extortionate prices by the purveyor. Men are led to believe that they can earn three dollars a day when frequently they can not earn one dollar a day and must pay the greater part of it for food and sleeping accommodations. If there is a strike on the works and the new hands are sometimes in danger, this fact is concealed. If they have no money they can not get away and must bear with the conditions, no matter how unfortunate they are.”





WHERE THE HUNGARIAN GOES FOR A JOB "The private agency has failed because it is run for private profit.”

The Government must take up the task.

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