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chauffeur who has been running one make of machine may, if necessary, instantly be transferred to another. It must be possible to use gasoline, benzol,
alcohol, or benzine without change of carbureter. A trailer must be drawn behind. When,
therefore, the requirements have been satisfied, the maker finds himself producing an outfit weighing
about ten tons, capable of carrying an additional load of six and one-half tons. The rules require that a car so loaded must be able to negotiate fourteen per
cent grades, and make a REPAIRS IN THE FIELD
speed of ten miles an ents which have subs i uniform parts. Thus all chauffeurs understand all machines.
hour on level roads. Not
fully satisfied with this, of the truck, the permission of official however, the military officials demand that examination of the machinery at any in case of emergency such an equipment be time, a detailed report every three able to take over an additional trailer with months of the actual work done by the a four-thousand-pound load. Indirectly car, the loads it has carried, the roads then, Europe's preparedness for war has traveled, the repairs made, the kinds of brought about greater efficiency in the fuel used. There is also a reliability building of commercial motor trucks. tour twice annually. If the car fails to The French, who have faith, appameasure up to the requirements, the rently, in lighter machines, offered a subsidy at once ceases. Austria, France, subsidy for trucks carrying three tons. Russia, and England have similar sys- Under their system, at the time the purtems.
chase is made, the Government advances Of course manufacturers of motor the sum of five hundred and twenty cars have, as a rule, shown themselves dollars, allowing, for a period of four keenly interested in meeting govern- years, two hundred and forty dollars anmental requirements. It is essential that nually for the upkeep of the car. The all the parts be standardized, so that the French official estimate for the life of a
All European governments which have subsidized the truck demand that it be
THE AIRSHIP CARRIERS When a position has been taken, the air craft are sent out for scouting purposes, the dirigibles under cover of night, the
aeroplanes in daylight, dependent for safety on their speed.
car, it will be noticed, is placed at but the remainder in six half-yearly installfour years. The French evidently never ments. The official trials required a run intended to be trapped unprepared the of at least fifteen hundred miles over way they were in 1870 in their war very difficult roads. Practically any type against Prussia. After the outbreak of of body which permits of end loading that war it was brought home to them can be fitted to the chassis. that sheer graft and corruption had ren- All these subsidized cars, which can dered the equipment of the army hope- be called out by the War Office only in lessly inefficient. Therefore, previous to case of national emergency, are now in the outbreak of the present war, when- service. ever a manufacturer of motor trucks From the English the motor truck has entered one of his machines in a govern- not received the serious consideration ment contest he had to give notice in that it has received in Germany, where advance, and the officials visited his fac- frequent and rigid tests are made. Howtory and selected the various parts to go ever, by the fact that the English put the
into the particular car, stamping each practical life of the car two years under one with the government stamp, thus the German requirement, that is, three preventing any but a stock pattern ma- years instead of five, the partial dechine to be entered.
ficiency that may result from lack of The reason, of course, that the military tests may thus be made up. In England powers have not bought the cars out- less than a dozen makers are on the right, is because of the very large initial accepted official list of motor trucks. capital that would be required for the This is in part due to the fact that the purpose.
British manufacturers are very reluctant The British War Department has seen to change to a simplified standard form; fit to place the subsidy life period for for instance, one concern uses the metric any one vehicle at but three years. Pur system in measuring the threads of its chasers of machines on the list obtained bolts and nuts. Imagine the problem for five hundred fifty dollars in all; one the ordinary mechanician under such cirhundred fifty dollars of this was paid cumstances! Yet in spite of this, it is at the time of the purchase of the truck, estimated that the manufacturers of the
but three years obtained
The motor which pulls it is almost as big as the first locomo
FROM THE RAILROAD TO THE
CONSUMER The armies do not travel on the lines of the steam routes necessarily, so the task of the motor truck is carrying food from freight car to soldier-and it is the most
Among the decided advantages of a
motor truck in war, are not only those of speed and enormous carrying capacity, but that
gained by the doing away with
the forage required for mules or horses, and the securing of in
creased compactness for an army corps. A typical German army corps extends on the march a distance of over fifteen miles.
Following this comes the comprescribed types of cars could turn out missary with five thousand horses, as eighty cars per week, conforming to the many men, and twelve hundred wagons. specifications.
They march in column, fifteen to eighteen By way of contrast, it may be stated miles long. One-eighth as many trucks that in one official test in France, seventy as wagons, and one-half as many men, different makes of cars were entered. could do the work.
The British War Office divides the As showing what might be done in motor trucks into two classes—Class A, actual warfare, during French maneuvers to carry nine thousand pounds; Class B, just previous to the outbreak of the to carry five hundred. A speed of not present conflict, herds of cattle were less than twelve miles an hour must be placed behind the troops all the way from maintained and, even through hilly thirty to forty miles behind the actual country, a rate of ten miles an hour is firing line. To have fresh meat brought expected. A motor truck must be able to these soldiers by the old-fashioned to make a nonstop run of two hundred method was impossible, but motor trucks miles.
were able to bring it each morning.
CARRY MOVIES TO MOUN The altitude of Mt. Rainier, according TAIN TOP
to the latest government survey, is four
teen thousand four hundred and eight FIVE young men from the University feet. The achievement of these young
of Washington succeeded in carrying college students is notable since it was a motion-picture camera to the summit the first time a motion-picture camera of Mt. Rainier and photographing the had been taken to this spot and Seattle crater and Columbia Crest, the highest motion-picture men say it is the first time point of the peak.
one has been carried that high.
REMOVING SULPHUR FROM The engineer then conceived a simple DRINKING WATER
and inexpensive apparatus to aerate all
the water pumped out of the well. This THE domestic water supply of a small was installed in the company's reservoir
town close to Los Angeles is ob- and is designed to distribute the water tained from a deep well and is strongly over a wide area and to allow it to drip impregnated with sulphur. Owing to the through the air. Ever since the aerator almost jet black color of the water and was put in, the water has been palatable. its disagreeable odor and taste, the consumers registered numerous objections against the
OLD IRONS USED private corporation which de
SLUGS livered the water until at one
"WO interesting old flattime it looked as though their
irons, whose peculiarities well were worthless for com
emphasize the mercial purposes.
convenience of The accidental
our modern elecdiscovery of the
tric irons, were chief engineer,
found recently however, saved
during a tour the situation THE IRON WAS HEATED BY A Red Hot SLUG IN GRAND
abroad. without the ex
Having to rependiture of much money. He had move the solid slug from each flatbeen in the habit of storing a iron, place it in the glowing coals quantity of the water in a terra cotta until it was red-hot and then, to lift it olla to keep it cool on hot days. Notic- with the tongs and replace it in the shell, ing that the water from the olla did not must have added materially to the labor taste so strongly of sulphur as that which of the laundress. Yet this method was was taken directly from the well and evidently prevalent over a great length that, when the water remained over night of time and a wide territory, for one of in the olla, it lost its bluish hue and the these flatirons, sixty years old, was found sulphurous taste became barely detect- in an old curiosity shop in Germany; and ible, the engineer figured out the cause. the other, a veteran of one hundred and It was clearly evident that the porous fifty years, came from an Italian family, terra cotta olla merely allowed the sul- and is of bronze. phurous water to become aerated, thus facilitating the escape of the sulphur gas.