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tion is practiced until the plants cannot Egyptian cotton in Arizona is planted be cultivated by machine. After this time in rows with a two-horse planter. On and until the plants are matured, light new desert land, or land upon which irrigations every ten days to three weeks only grain has been grown, the rows are are applied. The total cost for all farm- spaced three and one-half feet apart. ing operations up to the time of picking, Cotton picking time extends from Octoincluding the cost of the standard seed, ber until far into the winter. is only sixteen dollars an acre. The The industry has already become estabginning cost for a seven-hundred-pound lished sufficiently to insure a permanency yield averages just about twelve dollars. of the crop in the Salt River Valley.
JITH ninety million dollars Iowa is the first State in the Union to
worth of automobiles take up such a work. That it is needed owned by the farmers of and appreciated is evidenced by the large ten States of the Middle number of farmers who attend these
West-Illinois, Iowa, institutes and by the eager way they Minnesota, Missouri, Wisconsin, Kan- devour the information given. sas, South Dakota, North Dakota, Ne- Up to the first of July, automobile braska, and Oklahoma-it stands to institutes had been held in twenty-seven reason that the repair and maintenance cities and towns, the total number of problem is a big one to the men who, people attending aggregating seven thouup to a few years ago, were merely tillers sand. Though the institutes were deof the land, without mechanical ability or signed primarily for farmers, they were knack.
open to the general public. The instrucTo enable the farmers of the State tion was given either in some central who own automobiles to keep them in garage, the local theater, town hall, or good repair, at a minimum of expense, public school grounds, wherever the the Iowa State College of Agriculture crowds and cars could best be accomhas inaugurated an automobile repair modated. Some of the institutes were course in its regular extension departs of three days' duration, some of five. In ment. An automobile expert is spending both cases, lectures and demonstrations his time holding Farmers' Institutes were given both in the afternoon and throughout the State, at which the in- evening and the intervening time spent struction is not how to grow bigger crops in answering personal questions and in but how to repair farmers' motor cars. personal talks and instruction.
"Farmers are just learning to be mechanics,"
PRINCIPLES OF CARBURETION says Prof. R. E. Davis, the Ames expert in charge of these automobile institutes. “They come to us eager for information and advice, particularly on carburetion and the care of tires. It is not uncommon to find a farmer getting thousand. Tables furnished by the Seconly from eight to nine miles from a retaries of State of the ten commongallon of gasoline, when he should be wealths show that in 1912, there were getting fourteen or fifteen. We must 254,216 cars owned ; in 1913, there were study his car and give him personal in- 368,839. struction, thus supplementing our gen Of this increase it is estimated that eral demonstration on the care of a ma- fully three-fourths is for cars bought by chine and all its parts.”
farmers. Inquiry among three hundred Up to two or three years ago the work dealers in the various States fixes the of the Extension Department of the average of cars sold by them to farmers various state agricultural colleges was at seventy-seven per cent. There remain primarily and almost exclusively along enough farmers in these ten States agricultural lines, but now that the whose annual incomes are four thousand farmer is using machinery so extensively dollars or over, to warrant the prediction and is buying automobiles in such quan- that inside of a few years there will be tities the engineering phase of the work four hundred thousand farm-owned autohas become fully as important.
mobiles in the Middle West. Small wonIn the last year the number of auto- der, then, that the state agricultural colmobiles in the ten States of the so-called leges find nothing more important than to grain belt, named above, has increased educate the automobile-owning farmer by almost one hundred and twenty-five in the care and maintenance of his car.
N mid-ocean no one is ever eager to It required the tragedy of the Titanic, launch a small boat unless compelled followed by a number of other terrible to do so by some dire emergency disasters at sea, to bring home to shipand in such cases it usually happens builders and shipowners the need of some
that the archaic davits do not work. thing more effective than inverted fishEven in a dead calm, if the ship is heeled hooks to serve as davits in time of need. over a little, the davits on the upper side A concern in Long Island City that had are useless and the boats on that side produced something comparatively modcannot be removed to the lower side; ern and had been trying for years to find a thus, in a ship presumably equipped for purchaser was able to dispose of several such emergencies, it frequently happens sets of davits on the strength of the that the passengers and crew go down to Titanic horror. Davy Jones' locker together.
Now comes the Britannic fully
equipped with davits that are really up to the minute. The Britannic, owned by the same company to which the ill-starred Titanic belonged, is the biggest British ship ever built, being more than nine hundred feet long and of fifty-three thousand tons displacement. She was to enter the transatlantic trade this fall, but the great European war may defeat this plan. Every safety device that the marine architect can think of has been provided to keep the Britannic afloat; but if, in spite of all this, she is still bent on going to the bottom, her passengers and crew will stand a better chance of getting ashore than any other group of people ever had under similar circumstances.
In the first place there will be boats enough for all hands. There will be forty-eight of these lifeboats, of which two very large ones will be equipped with motors so as to be able to tow
other boats if necessary. All are THE Imperator's LAUNCHING APPARATUS
to be standard wood lifeboats, It is worked from an upper deck by power.
instead of the collapsible type which has upper side and swung free of the vessel. been adopted by some lines.
Also, no matter how rough the sea, the What is very much more to the pur- boat will be launched far enough away pose, an equipment of davits has been to avoid smashing against the ship's side, provided that will insure the launching unless those on board are extremely careof all the boats, no matter what the less or awkward. weather or other conditions may be. The T his big reach of the davits permits a new style davits are arranged in pairs in grouping of the boats so that a few offithe usual manner, three sets on each side cers and men can attend to the launchof the ship. They
ing. Instead of obare spaced wide
structing the boat enough apart to
deck for the pasenable the boats to
sengers in their pass between them
promenades, the without the clumsy
boats are stacked expedient of slew
up three tiers deep ing. They are of
in groups of eight. lattice-girder con
The one set of struction of abun
davits can launch dant strength to
the entire lot and, handle the great
if for any reason it weight of a loaded
is not deemed delifeboat, with swan
sirable to launch a necked tops turned in towards each other. Thus the boats can swing free under any conditions. These davits are attached to the deck by pivots so that they may swing freely through a consid
REACHING IN FOR A LIFEBOAT erable arc—far enough One set of davits can be used for many boats. inboard to reach a boat in the middle of the ship, and far enough out to extend almost horizontally or nearly at right angles to the side of the ship. In this position they can lower a boat vertically into the sea forty-five feet away from the side of the vessel. Therefore, unless the ship should be so far over on her beam ends that no one could stand on her decks, boats could
FAR OUTBOARD be lowered from the
One of the great dangers in launching lifeboats is that they may be smashed
group from one side, the boats can be the storage batteries, which also work traversed across the deck to the opposite the davits, operate the wireless apparatus davits, which are capable of handling and whistle controls, and light the ship them all.
as long as she floats. Automatic stops are provided so that Should disaster ever overtake the a clumsy or excited man cannot damage Britannic the captain from his post on either the davits or the boats. The two the bridge can close passages between falls are wound on separate drums compartments by touching a few butmounted on the same shaft and tons, telephone to the Marconi operator, normally rotate together when a boat be informed by telephone and electric is being raised or lowered; but if the indicators of conditions in all parts of ship should be down by the head or by the vessel, and direct operations for the stern, as a sinking ship might be, the abandoning the ship. The passengers two drums can be disconnected and will not be left to grope in darkness, no worked independently, so that under any matter what may have happened to the circumstances the loaded boats can be machinery away down in the hold. lowered on an even keel.
While enormous expense has been inElectric lights are placed at the top of curred in providing really modern metheach davit which not only facilitate the ods of launching lifeboats and taking all operation of lowering the boats at night, hands off the Britannic, her owners, but also illuminate the surrounding decks doubtless, fervently hope that they never and companion ways. The lights are will get the worth of their money out of operated by the emergency generators or those davits.