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way to Talaimanar on the Island of terference with navigation, with its leaves Manar and the construction of two pointing up at angle of sixty degrees. piers, and customs, postal, and railway The workmen were Moplahs-naquarters at each of the railway termini tives of the Malabar Coast, Western Infor the service of ferry steamers pro- dia—who had had little, if any, experivided between them. There is also a ence in bridge building, but what they large quarantine camp on Rames- lacked in knowledge they made up in waram Island for the detention of main strength and activity. The pneucoolies bound for Ceylon.

matic riveters rather stumped them at The rolling lift drawbridge is Amer- first, and much of the early work had ica's contribution to the enterprise. to be done over; but the Moplahs soon Engineers find this bridge particularly got the hang of it and then they did interesting because of its length of good work at the rate of two hundred span, two hundred and eighty-nine feet, and fifty rivets a day for each squad. giving a clear way for vessels two hun- The Moplahs, unlike the Tamils who dred feet wide. It was erected entirely live in the neighborhood of the route, by native Indian labor, and, to avoid in- are strict Mohammedans and therefore

temperate. The pay-day drunk, so familiar to American railroad contractors, was conspicuously absent. Other labor consisted of Eurasian and Tamil foremen, engine men, mechanics, rivet inspectors, painters, and boatmen. The laborers consisted of both women and men, for when it comes to hard work the Hindu believes in equal rights. Everybody worked ten hours a day, Sundays as well as week days, except when an occasional Mohammedan feast caused an interruption. During the Mohammedan fast of thirty days, the Moplahs knocked off at four o'clock. They had to do it, because they abstained rigidly from eating, drinking, smoking, or chewing from sunrise to sunset. Under these conditions eight hours' work was all they could stand. Hindu feast days didn't count, for the Moplahs paid no attention to them.

Anchorages for the drawbridge were constructed on artificial islands about sixty feet square. Here steel cylinders twelve feet in diameter were

driven deep into the clay of the THE OBJECT OF PILGRIMAGES


sea bottom and then filled with The Hindu temple on Rameswaram Island, South India, is served by concrete. Owing to the small

the railroad.

space on these artificial islands only a few the power of the elements. According pieces for the bridge could be brought to Hindu religious chronology there over at a time. In addition to the usual are various "inauspicious occasions” in erection marks for the guidance of the the course of the year, one of which engineers the materials for each half of begins at exactly four o'clock on De

painted a distinctive color-brown and during this inauspicious occasion yellow for one leaf, gray and green for would be sure to result in misfortune the other. Thus the stupidest

and disaster. By working workman could not fail

the track-laying gangs to distinguish them.

all night the contractThe contractors

ors were able to did go so far as

run the first to use steam

train across driven con

the bridge at crete mixers,

3:50 p. m., but that was

thus avoidthe limit.

ing someThe mixed

t h i n g concrete

dreadful was han

by the narclled in the

row margood old

gin of ten fashioned

minutes. wa y, being

The Indian dumped on the decks of

formally apSCOWS from

proved the which it was shovOPERATORS ON THE LIFT BRIDGE

bridge December eled into galvan

little house. ized iron dishes

lar passenger trafabout twelve inches in diameter and five fic was established to Dhanushkodi on inches deep which were carried by January 1, though the usual celebration boys and women up runways to be de- was not held until February 24. posited in the huge counterweights The temporary gap of twenty miles is which balance the ponderous leaves of now filled in by a fleet of three steamers the bridge to such a nicety that but of only six feet draft, which run first little effort is required to open or on one side of Adam's Bridge, then close it.

on the other, according to the direction All hoisting was done by hand in which the monsoon is blowing. This winches. In spite of these primitive monsoon difficulty necessitated two commethods, and in spite of high winds plete sets of piers and terminal faciliand a daily rainfall of two inches in ties at each end of the route. October the erection of the drawbridge If the new route to Ceylon proves was finished in six months. A terrific as attractive for tourists and as profitstorm at the end of November, 1913, able in other traffic as the directors did a lot of damage to the embankment hope, the gap will soon be bridged. across the Island of Rameswaram and Then the tourist can, if he wishes, ride to the artificial islands at the bridge from Madras away up on the east site. But by strenuous work the job was coast of India, through to Colombo, the finished in time to avoid something metropolis of Ceylon, without changing WHERE CORN IS KING MCLEAN County, Illinois, has W been mapped in corn. As that county is in the very center of the rich Illinois corn belt, the map is labeled “Where Corn is King”. In fact, it is almost entirely due to its corn crop that McLean County is one of the richest agricultural counties in the United States.


Hindus have been taught to handle the bridge from the


The map, which is accurately made on the scale of three-fourths of an inch to the mile, shows all the thirty townships and every village, city, and railroad. Different colors of corn were used for the different townships and, to avoid minor variation in the same township, only

corn from one ear was COMMEMORATING VALLEY FORGE

used. The label is of Every American knows of the bleeding feet of Washington's army during the terrible winter of 1777-8 at the darkest moment of our history.

pop corn of three col

ors, and the railroads ARCH TO WASHINGTON'S MEN are of blood butcher corn, a particularly VALLEY FORGE, Pennsylvania, dark red variety. rejoiced recently over the dedica

About half a bushel of corn and ten tion of the hundredthousand-dollar Arch of Triumph which has just been erected to the officers and private sol

MELEANG diers who served during the Revolution.

The memorial is a towering structure of granite rising to a height of sixty feet, with appropriate inscriptions to the officers and soldiers of the Continental Army who were quartered there from the middle of December, 1777, to the middle of June, 1778, a critical moment in the history of the nation, when the tide might have

ONE OF THE RICHEST COUNTIES turned either way.

McLean County, Illinois, stands high among the counties of the United States


Its crop is corn and this map is made of corn, too.




shopping district of Pittsburgin are sometimes visited by floods. One prominent merchant of the city fights them in a somewhat novel manner. Steel bulkheads have been made which fit the display windows perfectly by means of steel uprights. The latter, bent to an angle of about

three inches, are placed IN THE ORNATE ARGENTINE DINER

in the windows. They When the meal is over the player piano is started and the car becomes a riot of

are securely fastened to

the stone of the building, pounds of putty were used in con- and then leaded. Holes in the uprights structing the map. It was made by permit of speedy fastening of the bulkeight boys from the same country heads to the uprights at a height suffischool during their spare hours one cient to escape the passing water. winter. This map impressed on all the The food protection shown in the pupils the meaning of corn to the com- illustration can be put into place at the munity.

average rate of six minutes a window.

maxixe and tango.



ON the trains de luxe of the

Central Cordoba Railway
of Argentina, operating between
Buenos Ayres and Asuncion,
Paraguay, the player-piano ful-
fills an important mission in
helping to pass the hours of
travel for the passengers.
· When dinner is over, the
tables are quickly cleared and
folded against the sides of the
car, the carpet is rolled back,
and to the merry allegro of the
player-piano the passengers
dance the one-step, the Brazilian
maxixe, and the Argentine
tango, the while the train races
northward and westward along
the beautiful shores of the Rio
de la Plata.

1 Weight-559

de Ceed Way

PITTSBURGH FLOOD DOORS Sheet-steel bulkheads have been attached to windows of downtown

stores to keep out the water as Pittsburgh's two rivers rise.

[graphic][merged small]

CACTUS OF CURIOUS GROWTH Cattle during the period of drought tear cactus plants

apart with their hoofs to get the moisture within.

GIANT CACTUS PERHAPS a hundred forms of the

cactus are to be found in Mexico. The cactus has wonderful powers of resistance to drought, flourishing where other forms of vegetation wither up entirely. Cattle often tear the short barrel cactus apart with their hoofs to get the moisture within.



Lean County, Illinois, have increased by great numbers in the last two years. At the beginning of school in September, 1911, there were only ten standard country schools in the county. A year later the number had increased to fifty-one, and two years later to one hundred and thirty-one. This left only one hundred not stand


Standard Schools 1912-1913.


The dots show up-to-date schools

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