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CALIFORNIA DECISIONS ON MUNICIPAL Law. Lloyd E. Graybiel. Cal. L.

Rev. XI 73. LAW AS A LINK OF EMPIRE. Lord Shaw of Dunfermline. Can. Bar Rev.

I 19. LAW_OF QUEBEC AND OTHER PROVINCES. Mr. Justice Anglin. Can. Bar

Rev. I 33. SERVANT'S OWN PRIVATE ENDS. D. A. MacRae. Can. Bar Rev. I 67. PRACTICAL SIDE OF STATUTE MAKING. M. J. Gorman. Can. Bar Rev. I 81. THE PLACE OF ROMAN LAW IN LEGAL EDUCATION. Robert Warden Lee.

Can. L. Rev. I 132. THE RULE IN RYLANDS V. FLETCHER. Vincent C. MacDonald. Can. Bar

Rev. I 140. CHOSES IN ACTION: ASSIGNABILITY IN Parts. Bram Thompson. Can. L.

T. XLII 701. HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINE OF NSIDERATION. W. S Holdsworth. Can.

L. T. XLII 713. THE SHANTUNG QUESTION IN INTERNATIONAL LAW. Harold Scott Quigley.

Chin. Soc. & Pol. Sc. Rev. VI 71. THE PROVINCIAL CONSTITUTION OF CHEKIANG. Steward Yni and H. S. Quigley.

Chin. Soc. & Pol. Sc. Rev. VI 114. REVISION OF THE CHINESE TREATY TARIFF IN 1922. Clarence S. K. Chow.

Chin. Soc. & Pol. Sc. Rev. VII 1. APPLICATION OF THE FEDERAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT TO CHINA, S. Gale

Lowrie, Chin. Soc. & Pol. Sc. Rev. VII 56. SUPERVENING IMPOSSIBILITY OF

PERFORMING CONDITIONS IN INSURANCE POLICIES. Edwin W. Patterson. Col. L. Rev. XXII 613. LIMITATIONS IN THE VALIDITY OF VOTING Trusts. Marion Smith. Col. L.

Rev. XXII 627. CONFLICTING THEORIES OF GOOD WILL. C. J. Foreman. Col. L. Rev. XXII

638. THE MEANING OF LEGAL HISTORY. Willard Barbour. Col. L. Rev. XXII 693. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE RIGHTS IN THE FORESHORE. George Sanford Parsons.

Col. L. Rev. XXII 706. DOMICIL OF AN INFANT. Joseph H. Beale. Cornell L. Q. VIII 103. LAW SCHOOL CURRICULUM AS SEEN BY THE BENCH AND Bar. Cuthbert W.

Pound. Cornell L. Q. VIII 117. COERCIVE AND COMPETITIVE METHODS IN TRADE AND LABOR DISPUTES II.

Albert M. Kales. Cornell L. Q. VIII 117. POWER OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION ro PRESCRIBE MINIMUM

Rates. Henry Wolf Bickle. Harv. L. Rev. XXXVI 5. THE TRIAL OF PATENT ACCOUNTINGS IN OPEN COURT. George P. Dike.

Harv. L. Rev. XXXVI 33. SOME LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE VISIT OF PRESIDENT WILSON TO Paris. David

Hunter Miller. Harv. L. Rev. XXXVI 51. THE SOCIOLOGY OF Law. Eugen Ehrlich. Harv. L. Rev. XXXVI 129. THE LEX MURBRORUM. Hessel E. Yntema. Harv. L. Rev. XXXVI 146. THE CIVIL LAW AND THE COMMON Law. Peter J. Hamilton. Harv. L. Rev.

XXXVI 180. THE JURISDICTION OF A SOVEREIGN STATE. Joseph M. Beale. Harv. L. Rev.

XXXVI 241. THE APPLICABILITY OF COMMON LAW RULES OF EVIDENCE IN PROCEEDINGS

BEFORE WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION COMMISSIONS. Frank A. Ross. Harv.

L. Rev. XXXVI 263. INFAMOUS CRIMES AND THE MORLAND CASE. Reuben Oppenheimer. Harv.

L. Rev. XXXVI 299. SPECIAL VERDICTS. Frank H. Randall. Iowa L. Bull. VIII 1. A STUDY OF THE RAILROAD COMMISSION IN THE STATE OF Iowa. Harold N.

Newcomb. Ia. L. Bull. VIII 1.
CHARACTER QUALIFICATIONS AND DISBARMENT PROCEEDINGS. H. C. Horack.

Ia. L. Bull. VIII 65.
AN EIGHTEENTH CENTURY DEED. Percy Bordwell. Ia. L. Bull. VIII 73.
The DECLARATORY JUDGMENT. James H. Torrey. Ia. L. Bull. VIII 81.

RECENT STATISTICS RELATING TO CRIME IN CHICAGO. Edith Abbott. Jour.

Crim. L. & Crim. XIII 329.
THE TRANSPORTATION OF ENGLISH CONVICTS AFTER 1783. James Edward

Gillespie. Jour. Crim. L. & Crim. XIII 359.
A DIGEST OF Laws ESTABLISHING REFORMATORIES FOR WOMEN IN THE UNITED

STATES. Helen Worthington Rogers. Jour. Crim. L. & Crim. XIII 382.
THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS OF A Woman's REFORMATORY. Anna M.

Petersen. Jour. Crim. L. & Crim. XIII 438.
What We Do Not Know ABOUT CRIME. John Koren. Jour. Crim. L. &

Crim. XIII 446.
PROPERTY RIGHTS OF MARRIED WOMEN IN KENTUCKY. W. Lewis Roberts.

Ky. L. Jour. XI 1.
CONTROL OF INFERIOR BY SUPERIOR JURISDICTIONS BY PROPER Writs. George

R. Hunt. Ky. L. Jour. XI 10.
PRACTICAL OPERATION OF THE JURY LAW. S. D. Rouse. Ky. L. Jour. XI 33.
The DISPENSING POWER OF THE CROWN IN ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. E. F.

Churchill. L. Q. Rev. XXXVIII 420.
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XXXVIII 435.
THE INTRODUCTION OF REGISTRATION OF TITLES TO LAND IN SCOTLAND. G. H.

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GERALD AUNGIER AND HIS ANCESTERS. Phiroze B. M. Malabari. L. Q. Rev.

XXXVIII 491.
CHARLES VINERS AND THE ABRIDGEMENTS OF ENGLISH Law. W. S. Holds-

worth. L. Q. Rev. XXXIX 17.
PROCESS OF IMPRISONMENT AT COMMON LAW. John Charles Fox. L. Q.

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A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS: AN ESSAY ON THE HISTORY OF DISEASE IN WORK-

Men's COMPENSATION. Marcus Dods. L. Q. Rev. XXXIX 60.
The Right to TRADE AND THE RIGHT to SUE. W. E. Beckett. L. Q. Rev.

XXXIX 89.
THE WORD 'State. H. C. Dowdall. L. Q. Rev. XXXIX 98.
CRIMINAL APPEALS. Wilfred Bolster. Mass. L. Q. VII 16.
Using EVIDENCE OBTAINED BY ILLEGAL SEARCH AND SEIZURE. John H. Wig-

more. Mass. L. Q. VII 33.
THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES IN CON.

NECTION with MODERN ATTACKS ON THE JUDICIARY. Charles Warren.

Mass. L. Q. VIII 1.
LABOR AND THE LAW IN THE PUBLIC UTILITY FIELD. George Jarvis Thompson.

Mich. L. Rev. XXI 1.
CAUSE, LEGAL CAUSE AND PROXIMATE CAUSE. Albert Levitt. Mich. L. Rev.

XXI 34.
THE SUPREME COURT'S ADJUDICATION OF CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES. Thomas

Reed Powell. Mich. L. Rev. XXI 63.
PROCEDURE AND PRACTICE BEFORE THE TRADE COMMISSION. John Leland

Mechem. Mich. L. Rev. XXI 125.
The Law Book OF THE FUTURE. William W. Cook. Mich. L. Rev. XXI 365.
AN INQUIRY CONCERNING THE FUNCTIONS OF PROCEDURE IN LEGAL EDUCATION.

Edson R. Sunderland. Mich. L. Rev. XXI 372.
THE SEPARATION OF POWERS. John A. Fairlee. Mich. L. Rev. XXI 393.
MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED BY THE MINNESOTA CRIME COMMISSION. Calvin

L. Brown. Minn. L. Rev. VII 1.
THE FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION; ITS PRESENT SCOPE AND INCREASING IM-

PORTANCE. Tracy J. Peycke. Minn. L. Rev. VII 11.
THE PROHIBITION AMENDMENT AND INTERNATIONAL Law. Quincy Wright.

Minn. L. Rev. XXI 28.
STOCKHOLDERS' LIABILITY IN MINNESOTA. Henry W. Ballantine. Minn. L.

Rev. VII 79.
TREATIES MADE OR WHICH SHALL BE MADE UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE UNITED

States. Joseph Whitla Stinson. Minn. L. Rev. VII 113.
SPECIAL LEGISLATION IN MINNESOTA. William Anderson. Minn. L. Rev.

VII 133.

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ILLINOIS REJECTS A New CONSTITUTION. Walter F. Dodd. Minn. L. Rev.

VII 177. IMPROVING BAR ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS IN THE NORTH WEST. Lauriz Vold.

Minn. L. Rev. VII 208. JURISDICTION IN SUITS TO QUIET TITLE. George N. Foster. Neb. L. Bull. I 1. THE UNIFORM CONDITIONAL SALES Act. William G. Hale. Ore. L. Rev. II 1. THE WOMAN JUROR. R. Justin Miller. Ore. L. Rev. II 30. MATRIMONIAL PROPERTY RIGHTS UNDER MODERN SPANISH AND AMERICAN

Law. W. W. Smithers. U. of Pa. L. Rev. LXX 259. LABOR LAW ADMINISTRATION IN PENNSYLVANIA. Robert H. Wettach. U. of

Pa. L. Rev. LXX 277. THE CO-OPERATIVE DUTY OF THE STATES AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.

Harry M. Daugherty. U. of Pa. L. Rev. LXXI 1. FEDERAL POWER OVER INTERSTATE RAILROAD RATES. James M. Beck. U. of

Pa. L. Rev. LXXI 11. PLEADING. Wm. H. Lloyd. U. of Pa. L. Rev. LXXI 26. DID THE GOVERNMENT ACQUIRE TITLE TO GERMAN MERCHANT VESSELS DURING

THE LATE WAR! William J. Conlen. U. of Pa. L. Rev. LXXI 37. THE PROPOSED CRIMINAL CODE OF PENNSYLVANIA. William E. Mikell. U. of

Pa. L. Rev. LXXI 99. EARLY BILLS IN EQUITY. Margaret Center Klingelsmith. U. of Pa. L. Rev.

LXXI 115. AN EXCEPTION OF “MINES AND MINERALS" (ENGLISH Law). Walter Strachan.

U. of Pa. L. Rev. LXXI 127. LIABILITY ARISING FROM DANGEROUS PREMISES. John C. Towner. Tex. L.

Rev. I 1. EDWARD LIVINGSTON AND THE PENAL CODES. A. E. Wilkinson. Tex. L. Rev.

I 25. INJUNCTION AND LEGAL REMEDY IN Texas. C. T. McCormick. Tex. L. Rev.

I 43. TORTS IN ULTRA VIRES UNDERTAKINGS. I. P. Hildebrand. Tex. L. Rev. I 52. The MASSACHUSETTS TRUST. 1. P. Hildebrand. Tex. L. Rev. I 127. OWNERSHIP OF OIL AND GAS IN PLACE. D. Edward Green. Tex. L. Rev.

I 162. SUSPENDED SENTENCE AND ADULT PROBATION. C. S. Potts. Tex. L. Rev.

I 188. LEVER ACT AS A Civil REMEDY. Beirne Stedman. Va. L. Reg. VIII 641. THE PROHIBITION AMENDMENT AND INTERNATIONAL LAW. Quincy Wright.

Va. L. Reg. VIII 652. Right OF NATIONAL BANKS TO HAVE MORE THAN ONE OFFICE IN CITY OF

LOCATION. Lewis C. Williams.. Va. L. Rev. IX 1. THE "New BILL OF RIGHTS" AMENDMENT. George Stewart Brown. Va.

L. Rev. IX 14. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ADVOCACY AS A PROFESSION. E. W. Timberlake,

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IX 81. DOES THE WRITING OF WORDS OF REVOCATION ACROSS THE FACE OF A WILL

CONSTITUTE SUCH A CANCELLATION OR OBLITERATION AS WILL REVOKE THE

WILL? Geo. Gordon Battle. Va. L. Rev. IX 98. THE JUDICIAL POWERS THE LAWYER'S DUTY TO PROTECT. Thomas W. Shelton.

Va. L. Rev. IX 114. THE LAW OF DECLARATORY JUDGMENTS AND ITS PROGRESS. Thomas A. Gordon.

Va. L. Rev. IX 169. The ASSUMING VENDOR. Henry H. Glassie. Va. L. Rev. IX 196. THE FORTUNE-TELLER. Blewett Lee. Va. L. Rev. IX 249. EVOLUTION OF THE MEANING OF THE WORDS "GIFTS MADE IN CONTEMPLATION

OF DEATH” IN INHERITANCE Tax LEGISLATION. Russell L. Bradford.

Va. L. Rev. IX 267. CONSTITUTIONAL CONSERVATION. Charles Kerr. Va. L. Rev. IX 329. CASUAL COMMENTS UPON PARTICULAR AVERAGE AND CONSTRUCTIVE TOTAL

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THE STATE JUDICIARY AND Law ENFORCEMENT. W. B. Swaney. Va. L. Rev.

IX 363.
WATERED STOCK AND BLUE SKY LEGISLATION. H. L. Richards. Wis. L.

Rev. II 1.
PERPETUITIES UNDER THE WISCONSIN STATUTES. Nelson Trottman. Wis. L.

Rev. II 14.
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L. Rev. II 103.
ACCESS AND RECLAMATION. Henry H. Glassie. Yale L. J. XXXII 1.
EARLIEST CASES OF JUDICIAL REVIEW OF STATE LEGISLATION BY FEDERAL

COURTS. Charles Warren. Yale L. J. XXXII 15.
THE LAW AND THE PROFITS. Edgar Watkins. Yale L. J. XXXII 29.
A REVIEW OF THE FEDERAL VALUATION OF RAILROADS. T. P. Artand. Yale

L. J. XXXII 37.
The Right to STRIKE Moorfield Storey. Yale L. J. XXXII 99.
DEVELOPING ETHICS AND RESISTANT LAW. Donald - R. Richberg. Yale L.

J. XXXII 109.
The DOCTRINE OF PRIVITY OF ESTATE IN CONNECTION WITH REAL COVENANTS.

Charles E. Clark. Yale L. J. XXXII 123.
SOME REFORMS IN OUR SYSTEM OF MILITARY JUSTICE. S. T. Ansell. Yale

L. J. XXXII 146.
THE STATUTE OF FRAUDS AND THE CONFLICT OF Laws. Ernest G. Lorensen.

Yale L. J. XXXII 311.
THE LIMITS OF JUDICIAL DISCRETION. Nathan Isaacs. Yale L. J. XXXII 339.
A THEORY OF LEGAL EDUCATION. William Browne Hale. Yale L. J. XXXII

353.
PROPOSED REFORMS OF AMERICAN CRIMINAL Law. James Bronson Reynolds.

Yale L. R. XXXII 368.

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ILLINOIS LAW REVIEW

Volume XVIII

JUNE, 1923

Number 2

PROBLEMS WHICH HAVE ARISEN IN
RECENT LABOR DECISIONS

IN ILLINOIS

By John H. S. LEE

“The true grounds of decision (i. e., in cases of this sort) are considerations of policy and of social advantage, and it is vain to suppose that solutions can be attained merely by logic and the general propositions of law which nobody disputes.”2

The purpose of this article is to consider the methods of approach adopted and the tests applied by the Supreme Court of Illinois to determine the liability of persons for preventing the formation or causing the termination of business relations where no breach of contract is involved and where the means employed do not include fraud, force or a reasonable apprehension thereof, or intimidation, actual or constructive. Our purpose also is to analyze such methods of approach and tests, both on principle and in view of the conclusions reached thereby, to point out what seems to us to be an error existing therein, and to suggest what may be a more helpful and logical method of approach to the problems involved.

Judge Cardozo, in writing of "The Nature of the Judicial Process” and in referring to the "Adherence to Precedent," says:

“Finally there remains a percentage, not large indeed, and yet not so small as to be negligible, where a decision one way or the other will

1. Of the Chicago bar.
2. Vegelahn v. Guntner 167 Mass. 106.

3. We have excluded from consideration all cases such as Doremus v. Hennessy 176 III. 608, Wilson v. Hey 232 Ill. 389, Barnes v. Typographical Union 232 Ill. 406, O'Brien v. People 216 III. 354, in which force, threats, intimidation, etc., were used, where the law governing such situations is well settled.

4. "The Nature of the Judicial Process,” by Benjamin N. Cardozo, at p. 165. See also Holmes “The Common Law” page 35.

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