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Workmen's Compensation—"Arising Out of the Employment"..254, 490
Board of Education v. Industrial Commission, 301 Ill. 611, 134 N. E.
Burton v. Boren, 308 Ill. 440, 139 N. E. 868..
Hoepker v. Hoepker, 309 Ill. 407, 141 N. E. 159.
Lutyens v. Ahlrich, 308 III. 11..
9 . 43, 140 N. E.
Northern Trust Co. v. Sanford, 308 Ill. 381, 139 N. E. 603.. .206, 249
Potterfield et al. v. Attorney General of California, 44 Sup. Ct.
DIVERSITIES DE LA LEY
of Agent to Surrender His Letters of Agency Upon Notice.... 491
of the Laws-Elections-Validity of a Statute Requiring Em-
Himself?—Does An Agent Have a Distinct Persona as Agent... 342
a Discontinuous Servitude Can Be Acquired Only by Im-
of His Failure to Perform without His Fault Claim a Counter
Judicial Procedure in the Virgin Islands...
574 Lawness of Law Clubs and the Legality of Legal Clubs, The. 492 Legislative Policy
344 Libel on a Legislature.
338 Notice to Cities of Personal Injuries.
494 Pledge-Actio Pauliana-Does a Right of Pledge Continue to Exist
Where the Pledge Claim Is Satisfied But the Payment Is At-
497 Professor Robert W. Millar's Monograph on "The Formative Principles of Civil Procedure".
499 Reversionary Interest of the Donor of Estates in Fee Tail Under Section Six of the Illinois Chapter on Conveyances, The...
335 Slave in England, The.....
346 Suretyship, Power of Surety to Intervene and to Require Cession of a Pledge Securing the Debt..
345 When Not No Is Not Yes.....
424 Cases on International Law. By James Brown Scott..
280 Cases and Other Authorities on Equity. By WALTER WHEELER Cook.. 501 Eugenical Sterilization in the United States. By HARRY HAMILTON LAUGHLIN
69 Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in Judicial Reasoning and Other Legal Essays. By Wesley NEWCOMB HOHFELD.
281 Government in Illinois. By WALTER F. Dodd...
356 Handbook of Common Law Pleading. By BENJAMIN J. SHIPMAN.... 502 Handbook of Equity Jurisprudence. By James W. EATON.
425 Illustrated Cases on Equity Jurisprudence. By ARCHIBALD H. THROCKMORTON
425 Introduction a L'Étude du Droit Pénal International. Par H. DonNEDIEU DE VABRES.
61 La Lutte Judiciare du Capital et du Travail Organisés au Etats-Unis. Par ÉDOUARD LAMBERT.
428 Law and Its Sorrows, The. By JAMES HANNIBAL CLANCEY.
426 Law of the Press, The. By William G. HalE....
419 Le Droit International du Travail. Par ALBERT VABRE.
428 Le Droit Pénal International et sa mise en æuvre en temps de paix et en temps de guerre. Par MAURICE TRAVERS...
274 Legal Status of American Corporations in France, The. By CHARLES GERSON LOEB
129 Lehrbuch der Rechtsphilosophie. By Von Joseph KOHLER.
420 Rational Basis of Legal Institutions. By VARIOUS AUTHORS. Editorial Preface by JOHN H. WIGMORE and ALBERT KOCOUREK..
352 Record of Proceedings at the First Annual Meeting of the National Association of Legal Aid Organizations..
423 Rivista di Diritto Processuale Civile..
503 Rome and the World Today. By HERBERT S. Hadley..
270 Selection of Cases and Other Authorities on Labor Law, A. By Francis Bowers Sayre
355 Selection of Cases under the Interstate Commerce Act, A. By Felix FRANKFURTER
127 Treatise on the American Law of Administration, Including Wills, A. By J. G. WOERNER..
417 Treatise on the Anglo-American System of Evidence on Trials at Common Law, A. By John HENRY WIGMORE...
347 War and Treaty Legislation. By J. W. SCOBELL ARMSTRONG.
$1. INTRODUCTORY It is probably safe to say that the influence of the Roman law upon the procedure of the English common law courts had expended its force by the end of the 1200s. It was yet to operate in a similarly indirect but infinitely more powerful way upon the procedure of the court of chancery, but here its work was at all events finished by the close of the 1500s. In the one case, the indebtedness to the Romano-canonical law, circumscribed and formal at the best, has only recently been stressed ; in the other, it has been too marked and obvious ever to have escaped notice. Apart from these early relationships, the civil procedure of the English law has lived a life to itself. No doubt, the set off of mutual unconnected debts introduced, as a defense, by the statute of 2 Geo. II, c. 22, had its ultimate inspiration in the Roman 'compensatio,' but as equity had been previously applying the same principle, though limited to the case of connected demands, the defense in question can scarcely be deemed a conscious borrowing from an outside source. The declaratory judgment, recognized by the rules under the English Judicature
a. Professor of Law in Northwestern University.
1. See Pollock and Maitland “History of English Law” (2nd ed.) II 612; Holdsworth “History of the English Law" III 472.
2. “In the time of Elizabeth and her immediate successors, the common rules of practice of the court had become well settled, differing little in principle from those of the present day.”. Spence “Equitable Jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery" I 379. The written answer apparently dates from the reign of Henry VI, but not until later does it become sharply differentiated, in office, from the demurrer and plea. Kerly “History of Equity" 67.
3. Whitaker v. Rush Amb. 407; Chancellor Kent in Duncan v. Lyon 3 Johns. Ch. 351.
Acts, and more and more finding favor in American jurisdictions, stands on a somewhat different basis. That manifestly was taken over from the law.of Scotland where its origination, there can be little doubt, was due to Roman law influence. But, in the main, Anglo-American civil procedure has gone on its way, deriving nothing from without and evolving from within the elements needed for its amendment and progress. Educated practitioners have always known something in an academic way of the classic Roman procedure, but to the later forms developed on the Continent out of the coalescence of Roman and Germanic institutions they have paid small attention. Even the procedure of those courts in England which conformed closely to the Romano-canonical model was to the common law lawyer a thing apart, in which he took as little interest as in its Continental cognates. It sufficed for him that the methods of Doctors' Commons were not those of Westminster Hall. This narrowness of interest is happily much less pronounced at the present day, but there is still a tendency on the part of English and American lawyers to forget that there is such a thing as civil procedure in other systems of law or else to feel that the procedure of other systems is of necessity inferior to their own. But, in this lack of a procedural community, the fault is not entirely on our side. Continental scholars have not made our procedural institutions the subject of the attention that they deserve. They have, to be sure, been attracted by the institution of trial by jury and have investigated its history with an industry and learning which have redounded to our immense profit. To the system as a whole, however, they have given, in general, but scant and superficial consideration. This is due, in some part, we may well suppose, to the intricate and technical rules of common law pleading and practice whose understanding, in detail, would present almost insurmountable difficulties to the foreign student. But, in larger degree, it is due to the fact that the very much greater volume of Romano-canonical elements in all the Continental systems serves as a common bond to unite them in a sort of freemasonry from which our own system stands apart.
Yet this attitude toward the English system has not prevented Continental scholars, and more particularly the Germans, from bringing the study of comparative civil procedure to a high degree
4. For the history of this institution, see Borchard's learned article “The Declaratory Judgment" Yale Law Journal XXVIII 1-32, 105-150; as to Scotland, in particular, pp. 21-24.
5. Engelmann ("Der romanisch-kanonische Prozess" 199) speaks of the English procedure, especially before the Judicature Acts, as "peculiarly complicated" and of the work of the Swiss writer, Rüttiman, “Der englische Prozess,” published in 1851, as "very hard to understand.”